SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment. Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 15-22, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ACEE-2018-002
License : (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 06-November-2017 / Accepted: 03-March-2018 / Published Online: 01-April-2019
Obecnie powstaje na świecie wiele osiedli, których założenia urbanistyczne i projektowe muszą wpisywać się w nurt zrównoważonego rozwoju i uwzględniać warunki energooszczędności budynków wielorodzinnych w ogólnym rozrachunku ekonomicznym i ujęciu środowiskowym. W Seestadt Aspern, nowej dzielnicy Wiednia jest tworzony jeden z największych projektów urbanistycznych w Europie pod nazwą Aspern Viennas Urban Lake. Częścią programu badawczego Aspern Smart City Research (ASCR) są projekty uwzgledniające innowacyjne technologie energetyczne a ich osiągnięcia testowane są w warunkach rzeczywistych. Dane są analizowane przez ASCR a celem jest optymalizacja zużycia energii w budynku, a tym samym obniżenie kosztów energii. Celem artykułu jest przekaz koncepcji energetycznej nowopowstającego osiedla o cechach zrównoważonego budownictwa jako drogowskazu do zastosowania wytycznych i standardów w możliwych rozwiązaniach polskich. Lepsza ogólna efektywność przyszłych systemów energetycznych może okazać się znacząca jeśli nastąpi wzrost wykorzystania odnawialnych źródeł energii. Metodyka badań Autorki oparta została o analizę danych literaturowych, wizję lokalną osiedla, własne wnioski uzyskane w ramach wycieczki informacyjnej z udziałem przewodnika z ośrodka badawczego ASCR.
The building of new housing estates in cities is conditioned by maintaining the principles of sustainable development. Creating environmentally effective synergy between such elements as: architectural substance, technical infrastructure and biologically active areas is to ensure the best possible quality of life and work for the users, as well as to support the development of a human being in the entire complexity of its existence. In housing estates which are model solutions, the knowledge of urban planners today has to be extended to the living environment ecology: the reduction of the negative impact of buildings on the environment, protection of natural resources, adaptation of the layout of buildings to the topography of the terrain, adjustment of technical infrastructure to the use of renewable energy sources in order to save energy and water. Considering that the most frequently mentioned features of sustainable design are energy efficiency and the use of alternative energy sources, it is hard not to underestimate projects that residential areas become a field of experimentation for large-scale solutions. The European Union and, in particular, the Western European countries, the Scandinavian countries give priority to energy saving and the use of alternative energy sources. Towards the Union’s sustainability policy, and undoubtedly this is energy generation, it is important to integrate the various areas of the Union and to align the levels of development, exchange experience and knowledge in order to achieve common objectives in three areas: social, environmental and economic.
In Vienna, considered one of the most dynamically developing cities, the new Seestadt Aspern district, built according to sustainable construction criteria, is one of the largest urban projects in recent years. What distinguishes this project and enterprise of the European significance is the far-sighted programme and a kind of energy research ground in the integrated system of the entire complex of a large territorial scale.
The district is built in the north-eastern part of Vienna, 10 km from the city centre, around an artificial lake, in the area of the former airport. The land development plan was adopted in 2007, with the development directions set for 20 years. By 2030, a living space of over 240 hectares will be created for approx. 20,000 inhabitants. All construction works are based on the 2010 environmental impact assessments. The new multifunctional residential district will provide jobs for the residents, as offices (planned employment of 15,000 people), commercial (5,000), scientific, research and educational facilities are planned for the quarter. In the centre there is an artificial lake occupying 5 ha, which is surrounded by an open space in the future, combined with the greenery of the nearby Danube-Auen National Park on the one side, and high quality infrastructure and urban planning on the other. 50 per cent of the space is reserved for public space in streets, squares, parks and recreational areas. Already at the beginning of the construction works, the area was connected with the city by the U2 subway line, and ultimately a railway station is to be built there, enabling access to Bratislava (30 min) and the airport (15 min). Aspern Seestadt is a place that has everything you need for a modern economic balance, between work and private life, meeting the needs of residents and building a new quality of life. Meeting the sustainability criteria in the Aspern Seestadt district contributes to Vienna’s recognition as a city with the highest standards of living in the world and innovative environmental infrastructure solutions, which are ranked at the top of all Smart City rankings in each category of activity.
In the south-western part of the estate, in 2016, the first residential district for about 6,000 people was established.
Conclusions: The housing estate meets general urban and architectural requirements for sustainable development and the principles of new urbanism. However, the main aspect of sustainable development of the District was the inclusion of energy requirements in the “Nachhaltiger Stadtteil Aspern NACHASPERN” Environmental Research and Energy Reports .
Particularly important in the implementation of the concept of sustainable development is research based on analysis, defining parameters of high energy efficiency with a guaranteed share of renewable energy. The entire project, including the energy management strategy, is being developed by the Aspern Smart City Research (ASCR) research team in accordance with the latest standards developed for energy-efficient buildings. Projects involving innovative energy technologies are part of the research programme. The ASCR is implementing one of the most innovative and sustainable energy efficiency demonstration projects in Europe. The starting point of the project is the development of an integrated energy concept based on the estimation of future energy demand, analysis of available resources and potential using renewable energy sources. Priority areas have been defined for heating and cooling energy systems. The resulting data contribute to the evaluation of the economic viability and to the analysis of the underlying energy benefits. The aim of the project is to improve people’s quality of life, while combining sense of economy and innovative technology.
Initially, the district was to be heated using geothermal energy, but due to its insufficient efficiency it was decided to connect the district to the central heating network. The power plant was planned to be located about three kilometers east of the city, but the discovery of rock layers and hot water sources did not yield the expected energy gains. At present, these studies do not preclude the use of this heat source in the future and are being continued. Smart energy management is about combining conventional district heating solutions with new energy production technologies.
Integration and optimisation of individual energy-related sectors in the entire system is an important aspect of the Smart City. The Aspern research project addresses the problem of integration of networks and building control systems, integration of renewable energy sources, electricity and heat resources on the basis of a general technical concept. Research focuses on improved interaction between local energy production and demand from the intelligent low-voltage network. The integration of these elements using information and communication technologies is the basis for new services: a building is able to actively participate and adapt to the current market situation, or act as a supporting element of network operations using its internal accumulated energy. Only by combining technical solutions in different areas, a building can control the superior market and network parameters and serve the purpose of data and information exchange.
The ASCR examines user behaviour on energy issues. The energy efficiency of buildings can be checked by continuous monitoring of energy consumption. Here, the research programme is based on data on energy consumption in public buildings and homes. All buildings are equipped with smart meters and other measuring instruments. Therefore, tenants have the opportunity to participate directly in this scheme. It is not single elements which are studied, but complex interactions using real data. Thanks to ASCR research, emphasis on the needs and habits of the user, tomorrow’s standards can be predicted as a result of smart energy management, smart networks and smart home solutions, such as a combination of conventional energy sources and new technological developments, e.g. the integration of electricity and renewable energy networks and energy storage technologies. The overall objective is to keep energy demand as low as possible.
For all building projects, there are minimum standards for ‘sustainable construction’ according to the criteria laid down by the Austrian Association for Sustainable Construction (Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Nachhaltiges Bauen -ÖGNB) . In the ASCR research project, the buildings are designed according to the low energy house category and will be equipped with solar collectors, photovoltaic panels and hybrid devices on the roof . All development projects had to take into account structural conditions for the operation of solar systems in buildings. Their roofs are therefore designed and prepared for these systems in case of necessity of modernization (Fig. 1).
The first building on the estate is the Aspern Technology Centre – IQ Centre managed by the Vienna Business Agency, which is also a business incubator. Since October 2013, ASCR, a research company, has been based here, which has set up the technical infrastructure for the research programme and, in its current state of investment, has started research with real data. As a representative building, it holds a quality certificate for buildings meeting the criteria of energy efficiency, ecology and comfort at the highest level. At the same time, it is the first commercial building of the Plus energy in Austria. As an active building powered by photovoltaic energy from roof and façade panels (Fig. 2), it produces 15% more energy than it consumes. The value of the ecological building is achieved thanks to the use of eco-concrete in the production of which CO2 emissions have been reduced, as well as high thermal insulation, building technology in the passive house standard, a ventilation system with the recovery of 90% energy, ventilation controlling CO2 emissions, LED lighting and heat energy extracted from geothermal energy.
Innovative energy technologies, which are the subject of ASCR research, are particularly relevant to three representative building complexes: an educational campus (currently a school and kindergarten), a residential building and a dormitory “Greenhouse” built as a passive house. These buildings are equipped with heat pumps, solar collectors, photovoltaic cells (Fig. 3) and hybrid solar systems, suitable for the storage of thermal and electrical energy, and ASCR’s research company is to test them in real time operation of these devices. “The concept of utilizing the solar radiation energy to improve the annual heat balance is reflected in the passive architectural solutions too. These lection of them is conditioned by the location, character of the local climate, physiographic features of the area, method of a given building’s utilization and by economic reasons” .
Complex Corporate Technology (CT) systems allow optimal control of the distribution, use, storage and transmission of energy. Intelligent building control systems are adapted to the expected energy demand, taking into account weather forecasts and other data to assess the cost differences between conventional and intelligent components of multiple renewable energy systems. The scope of aggregation must be created from several buildings, and in the future even up to several thousand buildings. At least two systems are required for this purpose. One is located in the building itself, and it is the Building Energy Management System (BEMS), which calculates the energy consumption of a building at regular intervals according to forecasts of energy consumption, the other works as an interface between individual buildings and concerns the exchange of electricity. All information generated by these systems is collected and processed, and researchers from the ASCR are able to analyse the impact of different sources, combinations and changes in network and building conditions with a view to optimising forecasting and improving energy efficiency on a continuous basis . Conclusions: In order to be able to contribute to balancing energy markets in the first place, smart grids are needed that not only provide knowledge about the state of the grid at a given moment in time, but also provide an opportunity to anticipate future energy burdens.
Today, three years after the completion of the first homes, Aspern Seestadt District is probably the first town ever built so that researchers can explore how the interaction of buildings, renewable energy sources, local electricity distribution networks and the entire power supply system can be optimised to maximise efficiency and reduce overall energy consumption. As “Aspern – Vienna Urban Lakeside”, the new technology can bring important information to other cities. Cities are responsible for 75 per cent of the world’s energy consumption and 85 per cent of all greenhouse gas emissions.
In Poland, cogeneration and hybrid systems are used to a small extent, in which renewable energy sources cooperate with innovative energy-efficient conventional systems within the housing complex. We must strive to ensure that integrated renewable energy production systems with high energy and environmental efficiency contribute more to the design of new developments. Would it be possible to ensure a greater share of renewable energy production systems in the form of roofing and facade surfaces covered with photovoltaic panels? The installation of a suitable surface area of solar panels or photovoltaic panels on multi-family buildings requires the architectural and urban planning of these buildings to be adapted to such an undertaking. The spatial characteristics of such a complex should correspond to the priorities of solar panels.
According to the data of the Report “The PV market in Poland 2016” prepared by the Renewable Energy Institute, it occures that “in recent years the market of photovoltaic systems in Poland has been growing constantly, despite the unclear legal situation of this sector. The total installed capacity of the photovoltaic (PV) systems connected to the grid is 119.2 MW. 87.7 MW of which are installations that received certificates of origin of energy (as at the end of the first quarter of 2016). Micro-installations already accounted for 31.5 MW, i.e. 26% of the total installed capacity (as at the end of 2015). In 2015 alone, 77.2 MW of PV installations increased, including approx. 8.8 MW from the Prosument programme of NFOŚiGW from the BOŚ Bank line. In addition, the IEO estimates that about 8.3 MW of installed capacity is the installation not connected to the grid (OFF-GRID). The value of the photovoltaic market in 2015 is estimated at approx. PLN 470 million (increase by 60% in comparison with 2014)” .
The report shows that the photovoltaics market in Poland is developing, however, in order to move forward in the direction of European standards, it is necessary to pass a favourable act on RES, giving the possibility of re-sale to power grids of surplus electricity produced and reducing the costs of PV installations so that they can be widely used.
In the initial phase of implementation of a far-reaching, far-sighted investment, the Aspern project, which has been assessed with the highest possible score as sustainable, becomes an element of promotion, examples of good practice. The idea of showing prototype solutions is well known and this example can serve as a set of possibilities for various social, technical and spatial solutions, characterised by a large energy research programme.