SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment. Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 39-51, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ACEE-2021-021
License : (CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 05-May-2021 / Accepted: 07-September-2021 / Published Online: 08-October-2021
The paper is devoted to the study of cultural and natural sights of the Northwestern Black Sea region of Ukraine, revealing their historical significance, unique architectural and urban planning solutions, and favorable location. The study identified and analyzed manors that have survived in the suburban areas of large cities. In world practice, examples have been identified of preserving the cultural and natural heritage of suburban areas through the development of their recreational and tourist potential. On the basis of the investigated cultural and natural attractions of the Northwestern Black Sea region, weekend tourist routes have been developed. The main focus of scientific work is on the study and conservation of natural resources and unique historical palaces and estates on the example of the palace of the Kurisov family. This makes it possible to use effectively recreational areas to create an ecologically clean, comfortable environment for recreation of the population and the development of domestic tourism, as a result of the current global pandemic of the coronavirus infection COVID-19, which caused the closure of the borders of many foreign countries.
Since ancient times, many people have gone on travels with the aim of learning about the world and discovering new territories, as well as with trade, diplomatic, religious and other missions. Subsequently, education and treatment became the motives for travel; all this led to the emergence of “tourism” as a specific form of activity. It is believed that the term “tourism” was introduced, or rather “popularized” at the end of the 18th century by the French writer Henri Stendhal. Today international tourism has reached unprecedented heights and has many classifications: recreational, health, educational, extreme, business, etc., and is also one of the most popular pastimes of a person.
Tourism is of a great importance for the economy of every country: the rapid strengthening of the financial and economic position of the tourism industry has led to the fact that tourism has become a significant factor in regional development. Today tourism is seen as a catalyst for the regional economy, which leads to the development and preservation of the country’s ecological natural and cultural heritage .
Unfortunately, as a result of the current global pandemic of the coronavirus infection COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the borders of many countries are closed, which has led to significant problems and changes in the tourism sector. At a time when international tourism is suffering significant losses, today’s situation has led to the development and prosperity of local (domestic) tourism.
That is why this study is aimed at developing the recreational and tourist potential of the suburban areas of Ukraine by creating tourist routes based on cultural and natural attractions. The object and subject of research is the study of ancient manors of the Northwestern Black Sea region of Ukraine, which are in a ruined state. With the help of retrospective research methods, the current states of old manors, their historical stages of development and the peculiarities of their geographical location have been studied. Through comparative and planning analyzes examples of world practice of preserving the cultural and natural heritage of suburban areas through the development of their recreational and tourist potential has been identified. The cartographic method made it possible to develop tourist routes based on the cultural and natural attractions of the Northwestern Black Sea region, taking into account the distance between the objects under study in relation to large tourist centers. As a result, this methodology made it possible to develop conceptual foundations and practical recommendations for the recreational and tourist use of the suburban areas of the Northwestern Black Sea region of Ukraine on the basis of destroyed old manors.
Ukraine has a rich natural and cultural heritage - there are 7 items on the UNESCO World Heritage List (6 sites are included in the list according to cultural criteria and 1 according to natural ones). And 15 sites in the country are among candidates for inclusion in the World Heritage List, for example, the Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve in the Kherson region and the Historical Center of the port city of Odessa. Also, Ukraine has many architectural and urban planning attractions, natural and historical and archaeological reserves, landscape parks, many of which are located on the territory of the Northwestern Black Sea region .
The Northwestern Black Sea region is a special region of Europe geographically, climatically and culturally, which is why scientists from many countries are engaged in its study, covering various fields of science: social and humanitarian, natural and technical. Such scientists as E. Cherkez, Y. Verba, I. Lomakina, D. Tolmazin, etc. are engaged in the study of coastal territories and oceanography of the Black Sea. In their scientific works, they study issues related to the peculiarities of the geological structure of the coast, the spread of landslides, as well as the hydrography of the Northwest shelf of the Black Sea [3, 4]. Andrey Dobrolyubsky and Nadezhda Polshchikova are studying the historical and archaeological features of the Northern Black Sea region (architectural and construction traditions of the most ancient settlements of Eastern Europe) [5, 6]; Igor and Galina Sapozhnikovs (Stone Age of the Northwestern Black Sea region) ; Valeriya Kozlovskaya (Ancient Harbors of the Northwestern Black Sea Coast) , etc. In the field of architecture and urban planning, T. Panchenko, V. Karamushka, S. Storozhuk, D. Vitchenko are engaged in the study of the Northwestern Black Sea region [3, 9, 10, 11]. Their scientific works are devoted to the study of natural and cultural attractions of the Northwestern Black Sea region, spatial planning of landscape-recreational territories and coastal strips of the seas of Ukraine; recreational and tourist development of economic territories, old estates, etc.
Since ancient times, the North-Western Black Sea region has been a contact zone - a kind of “steppe corridor” of intercontinental migrations of primitive groups and tribes, and then Asian and European peoples. The modern Northwestern Black Sea region of Ukraine unites the Black Sea strip of Odessa, Nikolaev and Kherson regions [12, 13].
Odessa region is the largest in Ukraine, on the territory of which there are scattered many architectural and natural treasures, little known for their tourist attraction. The most popular and visited cities are: Odessa is one of the brightest cities in the Northern Black Sea region of Ukraine, the main feature of which is its historical and cultural heritage (the historical center is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List) and the resort area, which stretches for tens of kilometers along the Black Sea. Izmail is a city on the Danube, located in the southernmost part of Odessa region, at a distance of 80 km from the Black Sea. Over the past 10 years, it attracts a huge number of tourists, mainly residents of the near abroad. Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi is a city on the banks of the Dniester estuary, in the territory of which is the Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi fortress (until 1944 - Akkerman fortress) - a monument of history and urban planning of the XIII–XV centuries. The fortress is one of the best preserved fortresses in the territory of modern Ukraine; up to 200 thousand tourists visit it annually (Fig. 1). Vilkovo is a unique city on the water, which is the main exit to the Ukrainian Danube Delta. Near the city, a nature reserve “Danube Plavni” (Danube Biosphere Reserve) was created. Vilkovo is a recognized tourist center [14, 15, 16].
Nikolaev region is located in the basin of the Southern Bug River and is famous for its nature reserves. The largest and most picturesque cities are: Nikolaev is the center of shipbuilding on the Black Sea, as well as the management of the Black Sea fleets in the 19th and 20th centuries; Voznesensk is a city rich in natural and cultural attractions, the most unique place in Voznesensk (the village of Tikarty) is the picturesque Aktovsky Canyon or the “Devil’s Valley”, it is part of the Bugsky Guard national park; Ochakov is a city of Cossack and Suvorov glory, a naval base and a popular resort, located on the Black Sea coast, near the mouth of the Dnieper. The city is famous for its museums and nature reserves: Berezan Island (Buyan Island) - is part of the Olvia National Historical and Archaeological Reserve, Kinburn Spit Landscape Park (part of the Svyatoslav White Coast National Natural Park), on whose territory there are remains of the famous “Kinburn Fortress” - a mysterious building from the time of the Ottoman Empire. Pervomaisk is the city which is the richest in water resources and located at the confluence of the Southern Bug and Sinyukha rivers. On the eastern outskirts of the city in the valley of the Southern Bug there is a regional landscape park “Granitno-Stepnoe Pobuzhie” [17, 18, 19].
Kherson region is located in the steppe zone, on the lower reaches of the Dnieper River. The main feature of the geographical location is the access to the Azov-Black Sea basin and the Dnieper waterway, which opens up wide opportunities for the development of sea and river transport, tourism. The most famous city is the city of Kherson - the administrative, industrial and cultural center of the Kherson region. The location of Kherson on the high right bank of the Dnieper River, near its confluence with the Dnieper estuary of the Black Sea, makes it possible to be the largest river and sea port in Ukraine [17, 20, 21].
The Northwest Black Sea Coast has a rich history, unique nature and cultural heritage, and is also known for its tourist attractions. A feature of Odessa, Nikolaev and Kherson regions is the presence of many architectural and natural attractions, which are located both in large tourist centers (Odessa, Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi, Nikolaev, Kherson, etc.), and scattered throughout the region.
During the 19th century, the Northwestern Black Sea region was actively developing, and quickly turned into a commercial, industrial and scientific center of European importance, and cities were built according to the designs of the greatest European architects, palaces, estates, theaters, churches and cathedrals appeared. Some of the interesting and ancient buildings of the Northwestern Black Sea region are palaces and estates, which were erected both in the central parts of the city and outside its aisles (in suburban areas); and created unique architectural ensembles [5, 6, 7, 8].
The suburban area of a large city includes its suburb and its surroundings. The suburban area is an integral, vital component of this city, performing many of the most important socio-economic functions, without which its very existence is impossible. A kind of “cooperation” is established between the city and the suburban area, a separation by mutually complementary socio-economic functions that ensure the normal life and development of the city.
In terms of planning and economically the city is considered as a whole with its suburban area. Normal growth of the city, and expansion of the city-forming base are possible only under the condition of the interconnected development of their own city and its suburbs. Therefore, the suburban area must be considered as an equivalent and equal partner in its relations with the city.
The suburban zone performs a number of important functions: sanitary (cleaning of domestic and industrial waste and sewage); supply (drinking and technical water, agricultural products, construction materials, fuel); engineering and technical - infrastructure maintenance services of the city (placement of water intake and treatment facilities, distribution of substations and power lines, communication systems, warehouses, gas and oil storage facilities); industrial (placement of environmentally hazardous enterprises and the gradual removal of urban enterprises); demographic (the emergence of cities and villages of the sleeping type, which is caused by the “demographic explosion” of the big city). Of particular importance is the transport and distribution function of the suburban area, it exactly is here that the main commodity and sorting railway stations and depots, airports, transport interchanges, gas, oil and product pipelines, main water pipelines are located.
One of the most important functions of the suburban area is recreational. It is the suburbs that must meet the needs of the population for short and long rest and recovery. In the suburban area, forest-park arrays are formed, sites for mass short-term rest, and institutions of organized rest and recreation are located - sanatoriums, rest houses, tourist camps, campsites, etc. In the suburban area there are summer and garden plots and arrays .
That is why, since the beginning of the 19th century, the suburban territories of the Northwest Black Sea Region have developed as a recreational zone. So, in 1833, according to the direction of Count Vorontsov, part of the land from Kuyalnitsky (Andreevsky) estuary was purchased for the construction of the first hospital for taking mud, estuary and sand baths. Thus, the coastal part of the Hadzhibeysky and Kuyalnitsky estuaries became a resort area of Odessa. There was a restaurant, a school, a church and a square on the territories of the resort area and the hospital itself, where music was played during the holiday season from 19.00 to 23.00, there were numerous summer cottages around the hospital, and there was a wide boulevard between festivals and summer cottages. Communication between the resort and the city was ensured by the lines - for the less affluent population and trains that departed by rail during the bathing seasons, from the Odessa-Port station near Nikolaevsky Boulevard (now Primorsky Boulevard), close to the boulevard stairs (Potemkin Stairs) [9, 10, 22].
The fertile steppe and coastal lands of the Northwestern Black Sea region attracted numerous nobles, who began to erect majestic palaces and manors in the suburbs.
The manor is a separate settlement, a complex of residential, utility, park and other buildings, as well as a manor park, making up a single architectural whole. Manors appeared in the XV century and are associated with the estate system. The structure of the classical manor included a stone or wooden manor house with one or more wings, a stable, a greenhouse, a church, and buildings for servants. Of great importance was the park adjacent to the estate, where ponds were arranged, alleys were laid, arbors, grottoes, etc. were built. In large manors (which had the character of extensive palace and park ensembles), collections of works of fine and decorative arts were often concentrated. The manors of patrons of art sometimes became important centers of artistic life. Many manors are under state protection as monuments of architecture and landscape gardening art, and museums have been set up in historical and artistic manors. One such example is the Kuskovo Architectural and Park Ensemble (Russia), created in the 18th century, which incorporated all the achievements of manor construction. The lands on which the estate was built were located 7 versts from Moscow, between the Vladimir and Ryazan roads and belonged to an associate of Peter I - a prominent military leader, field marshal B. P. Sheremetev. Today, being a unique monument, the estate is one of the outstanding works of Russian architecture of the mid-18th century [23, 24].
In the suburban areas of the North-Western Black Sea region, several unique estates have survived: two Kuris family palaces, the Dubetsky-Pankeev estates, Pavel Marini, Prince Trubetskoy, etc. Table 1 shows the historical estates that have survived; the distance from them to a large regional center (Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson) and the time it takes to get to the estate from the regional center are indicated. This makes it possible to create weekend tourist routes with the help of individual transport and bus excursions.
In the Odessa region were preserved two palaces of the Kurisov family. In 1810, in the village of Kurisovo (former Petrovka village), for the lieutenant colonel Ivan Kuris, a palace was erected in the spirit of Gothic romanticism, which in 1892 was reconstructed under the direction of the architect N. K. Tolvinsky and acquired oriental features - modeled on the Moorish architecture of Arab Spain. After the October Revolution, the estate was looted, during the years of World War II, an English park was cut down, and the estate itself was destroyed by a fire in 1990. In 2014, the palace was bought out and is already being restored, it will be turned into a museum . In 1905, in the village of Isaevo, on the banks of the Tiligul River, a new Kuris palace was built in the style of provincial romanticism, which is much better preserved. Since 1924, various educational institutions have been operating in the building, and in 1991 the Kuris Palace was listed as an architectural monument .
The Dubetskiy-Pankeev manor was built in the village of Vasilyevka between 1844 and 1854 by Major General Vasily Petrovich Dubetskiy, designed by architect F. Boffo (data not confirmed) and was a small copy of the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, and a breakdown of the adjacent park Dallacqua engaged. In 1886, the estate was acquired by Konstantin Matveyevich Pankeev, his son (Sergey Pankeev) known throughout the world as a “wolfman” and beloved patient of Sigmund Freud; subsequently, the estate was called the Wolf's Lair. In 1917–1920, the building was occupied by the NKVD, later it was used as a club and housing for local residents, in the 1990s the remains of the estate were looted, the forest and park were cut down, in the early 2000s the building collapsed. In 2007, the estate was sold to create a recreation center [27, 28].
In the village of Stepanovka there is the estate of Nikolai Dmitrievich Kuznetsov (1850–1929). He was a famous Odessa artist, academician, professor of the Imperial Academy of Arts, founder of the Association of South Russian Artists. From a wealthy estate to the present day, only the main building has survived - a one-story house, made in the classical style. The estate hauses a branch of the Institute of Geophysics, with a separate room for a museum of the N.D. Kuznetsov family .
The estate of Pavel Marini was built in the 1820s on the border with Akkerman (Belgorod-Dniester), designed by an the architect Franz Frapolli, whose daughter was the wife of Pavel Yakovlevich Marini. Together with the estate, Pavel Marini founded a farm to Mologa (now the village of Mologa). The best architects and masters of Odessa were involved in the construction of a two-story house over the estuary and an English-style park. Currently, the estate is in ruined condition, in Soviet times the mansion above the estuary belonged to the winery, it housed a club, in the ruins you can see the murals that adorned the walls of the central hall, and the remains of the fountain, and people still live in farm buildings [15, 30].
In 1903, the district leader of the nobility, Leonid Ludwigovich Yukovsky, built a manor in his father's village on the banks of the Bolshoy Kuyalnik River. His residence was a building with elaborate architectural elements and Moorish-style windows. In 1926, a school was opened at the Yukovsky estate, which is still operating today. The old Yukovsky mansion is an architectural monument and a real oasis of high architecture in the valley of the Bolshoy Kuyalnik River [15, 16].
The Nikolaev region is known mainly for its natural attractions, but also in its remote corners, you can find small estates that functioned as summer residences, one of such estates is the house of the merchant Mikheil Mikhailovich Krivosheev in Nikolaev - this is a one-story fairytale building with narrow windows (local architectural monument).
In the city of Voznesensk, which is rich in natural and cultural attractions, is the residence of Nicholas I. The estate was built in 1837 in the depths of the Maryina Grove at the arrival of the emperor, now this building belongs to the state-owned enterprise Voznesensk Forestry [18, 19].
In the 18th century, a manor was built in the village of Trikraty, colonel of the second Bug regiment Peter Mikhailovich Skarzhinsky, which is an old two-story house with the family coat of arms of a noble Cossack family and a beautiful park. The son of Peter Mikhailovich - the famous forester and botanist Viktor Petrovich Skarzhinsky (1787–1861) creates a forest nursery on the territory of the estate and village. Victor Petrovich who creates ponds on his estate, arranging platinum in ravines and gullies, is engaged in the cultivation of orchards, arboretums, vineyards and mulberries; the labyrinth forest was considered its main pride, which, together with the entire clan economy, is the Tricratsky Forest state protected area .
The Tropin estate in the village of Happy (formerly Shchorsovo) is one of the oldest houses in Novobuzh. The estate was built in 1912 by the representative of the family of merchants and philanthropists Alexander Tropin on the banks of the Ingul River, through which a suspension bridge was built. In 1920, a state farm was created on the basis of the estate, and until the 70s the estate was in good condition, after the transfer of the state farm it was looted. In 2008, the Tropin estate became the property of the Priingulsky regional landscape park and is now being restored to create a visit center, a nature museum and a local history museum .
In the 19th century, a manor was built in the village of Domanevka (information of the owners and the architect is missing), which is a one-story building with residential attics decorated with arched windows. The building currently houses the Education Department of the Domanevsky District Administration [18, 19].
One of the largest architectural ensembles of the Kherson region is the estate of Prince Trubetskoy in the village of Cossack, widely known for its winery. Of all the numerous buildings scattered throughout the entire village, the largest is the palace and park ensemble. The palace was created in the style of the French Renaissance with Gothic elements. The palace is surrounded by a row of outbuildings, around which there is a beautiful park. The supporting walls and towers, gates, bridges, arcbutans supporting the wall above the cliff are a continuation of the coastal relief and give the impression of a common harmonious ensemble. To date, most of the buildings are in ruins, only the frame of the palace, which is privately owned by Prince Trubetskoy JSC, which plans to restore the entire estate, has been preserved .
From the second half of the 19th century a great attention is paid to the problems of preserving and restoring ensembles of historical estates as complex monuments in the historical landscape. Relief, natural vegetation, hydrological and climatic conditions played an important role in the planning decision of estates. As a result of a long historical synthesis, a kind of landscape was formed. Historical landscapes constitute the cultural, ecological and economic capital of a society. Since 1993, cultural landscapes have been included in the World Heritage List, making it possible to more reliably protect the “joint creation of man and nature”.
The modern destruction of cultural heritage leads to the loss of the society of its spiritual foundations. In our times, the preservation of monuments is recognized as possible only within the framework of actively functioning public structures, the introduction of historical heritage into the corresponding modern life system. New contexts of using the historical heritage associated with the tourism industry significantly increase its recreational and tourism potential .
One of the striking examples of the preservation of the cultural and natural heritage of suburban areas through the development of their recreational and tourist potential is the city of St. Petersburg (Fig. 2).
The architectural and park ensembles of its suburbs: Peterhof, Oranienbaum (Lomonosov), Strelna, Tsarskoe Selo (Pushkin), Pavlovsk, Gatchina are no less popular cultural attractions of St. Petersburg and are favorite weekend getaways for city residents, as well as the most popular destinations for foreign tourists. For example, the Peterhof Museum-Reserve received 6 million 274 thousand 721 visitors in 2019 and thus set a new attendance record compared to last year (about 5.4 million people). The peak day for Peterhof was August 10, on this day 51.5 thousand visitors watched the famous palaces and fountains. At the same time, Russians make up about 60 percent of the total number of visitors to the reserve (Fig. 3) .
For comparison, in 2019, 3.3 million tourists visited Odessa, which became a record compared to previous years (in 2018 - 3.2 million, in 2017 - 2.5 million), the peak time for the influx of tourists is the summer period - from May to September . While Odessa belongs to the type of “industrial port” cities with a developed resort and recreational function it has a good location on the shores of the Odessa Gulf of the Black Sea with the availability of public city beaches. And also Odessa and its suburban area is rich in its historical, cultural and natural heritage, which together is an important economic resource of the region and can contribute not only to the development of the spiritual component of life, but also one of the promising areas of social and economic policy in the region.
Currently, the issue of preserving and protecting the cultural heritage of Ukraine is topical. In 2021, the Big Restoration program was launched to restore famous historical monuments and cultural heritage sites, which is designed for several years. Great importance is attached to supporting innovative approaches and public organizations to recreate and reconstruct the country’s national cultural heritage.
One of the famous architectural ensembles of the Odessa region is the Kurisov manor, which became the first example of the architecture of Gothic romanticism on the territory of Ukraine. The palace was built of local stone - shell rock; after reconstruction, the third floor, a terrace and a mirrored staircase were added, modeled on the Moorish architecture of Arab Spain. The main attraction of the estate was the English park, which has not survived to this day; the palace is in ruins.
Representatives of the Department of Urban Planning of the Architectural School of the Odessa State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture made proposals for the creation of landscape and recreational formations on the basis of the Kurisov manor. Historical and cultural heritage and natural objects that have survived on the territory of the village of Kurisovo (formerly the village of Petrovka) are presented in the form of the following objects: historical and architectural heritage of the 19th century (the palace of the Kurisov family is in a ruined state); gardening art - the remains of a 19th century English park with a pond; natural objects: the Balai river and the adjacent natural steppe landscape; Petrovsky general zoological reserve (Petrivs’kyy Zahal’nozoolohichnyy Zakaznyk) (Fig. 4).
The main problem of this territory is the discrepancy between the current state of the historical urban planning environment and the needs of modern society in the context of the tourist and recreational use of the former Kurisov manor.
The main proposal of the Department of Urban Planning of OSACEA in scientific and design works “Reconstruction of the Kurisov manor with the recreating of the historical garden” (author E. Sharova, diploma supervisors T. Panchenko, V. Eksarev, 2013) and “Reconstruction of the park at the Kurisov manor, village Petrovka” (author N. Domuschi, diploma supervisors T. Panchenko, T. Rumilets, 2015) is a revitalization of the object aimed at increasing the architectural and artistic value and quality of the urban planning and architectural environment. The diploma projects include: reconstruction of the palace and the creation of a museum of the Kurisov family in it (Fig. 5); reconstruction of an English park with lost objects (ponds) (Fig. 6); creation of modern infrastructure (transport interchanges, parking lots, tourist facilities).
As a result of the reconstruction and modernization of the historical Kurisov manor, it is possible to create a weekend tourist route and year-round visits to the estate. On the territory of the park, it is possible to conduct various scientific and educational activities for students of art and biological higher educational institutions (7, Fig. 8).
As a result of studying the cultural and natural attractions of the North-Western Black Sea region of Ukraine (Odessa, Nikolaev and Kherson regions), it was revealed that, along with large cities (Odessa, Nikolaev, Kherson, etc.), suburban territories are of great importance. The Northwest Black Sea Coast has a rich history, unique nature and cultural heritage, and is also known for its tourist attraction.
The geographical location in the basins of large rivers (Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug) and access to the Azov-Black Sea basin and the Dnieper waterway provides a unique opportunity to create large water tourist routes.
A feature of the Odessa region is the presence of many architectural and natural attractions, which are located both in large tourist centers (Odessa, Izmail, Belgorod-Dniester, Vilkovo, etc.), and are scattered throughout the region. The most attractive objects are the preserved palaces and manors, their successful natural-geographical and town-planning location makes their territory favourable for recreational use - all the estates are located in the natural landscape (near water bodies) and on the main transport routes (road, rail, water), which makes it possible to create new interesting tourist routes throughout the Odessa region.
Nikolaev and Kherson regions do not have a huge number of architectural and urban attractions, despite the rich history and large cities (Nikolaev, Voznesensk, Ochakov, Pervomaisk, Kherson, etc.). The main feature of these regions is the presence of natural and historical-archaeological reserves, landscape parks that extend throughout the regions. Their unique natural and historical features (forests, canyons, ruins of fortresses) are complemented by preserved ancient estates located on their territories and are the subject to restoration.
This makes it possible to effectively use recreational areas to create an ecologically clean, comfortable environment for recreation of the population and the development of domestic tourism, as a result of the current global pandemic of the coronavirus infection COVID-19, which caused the closure of the borders of many foreign countries.