SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment. Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 73-80, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/acee-2017-036
License : (BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Published Online: 28-August-2018
One of the products of concrete sulphate corrosion, besides gypsum and ettringite, is thaumasite. The thaumasite is a very dangerous, non binding crystalline phase, which is forming at the expense of C-S-H phase. There was a conviction that the conditions required for the formation of thaumasite in concrete are: source of calcium silicate, sulfate ions, carbonate ions and a very wet, cold (below 15°C) environment. The corrosion of concrete caused by the external source of sulphate ions during which thaumasite is formed was called thaumasite sulphate attack (shortly TSA).While the TSA is recognized, the thaumasite non-sulphate attack (T n S A ) must be highlighted, because is also possible. The purpose of this work is to show that thaumasite, or solid solutions of Ett-Th (ettringite with thaumasite) are able to form in hardened cement paste without external source of sulphate ions, at ambient temperature and pressure (25±2°C (298.15 K) and 102±1 kPa). The experiment appeared on thaumasite formation in corroded specimen made of CEM I (Portland cement) and of CEM III (slag cement) after 4 days of immersion in saturated water solution of NH4Cl.
 Bensted J. (2007). Thaumasite - part 2: origins, ramifications and discussions related to the thaumasite expert group report. Cement-Lime-Concrete, XII/LXXIV(5), 245-260.
 Crammond N. J. (2003). The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in the UK. Cement and Concrete Composites, 25(8), 809-818.
 Małolepszy J. & Mróz R. (2006, March-April). Conditions of thaumasite formation. Cement-Lime- Concrete, XI/LXXIII, 93-101.
 Révay M. & Gável V. (2003). Thaumasite sulphate attack at the concrete structures of the Ferenc Puskás stadium in Budapest. Cement and Concrete Composites, 25(8), 1151-1155.
 Thaumasite Expert Group (2000). One-Year Review, Prepared by Professor L A Clark and BRE in consultation with The Thaumasite Expert Group.
 Czerewko M. A., Cripps J. C., Reid J. M. & Duffell C. G. (2003). Sulfur species in geological materials - sources and quantification. Cement and Concrete Composites, 25(7), 657-671.
 Maingyu H., Fumei L. & Mingshu T. (2006). The thaumasite form of sulfate attack in concrete of Yongan Dam. Cement and Concrete Research, 36(10), 2006-2008.
 Stark D. C. (2003). Occurrence of thaumasite in deteriorated concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 25(8), 1119-1121.
 Wimpenny D. & Slater D. (2003). Evidence from the highways agency thaumasite investigation in Gloucestershire to support or contradict postulated mechanisms of thaumasite formation (TF) and thaumasite sulfate attack (TSA). Cement and Concrete Composites, 25(8), 879-888.
 Edge R. A. & Taylor H. F. W. (1969). Crystal structure of thaumasite, a mineral containing groups. Nature 224(25), 363-364, doi:10.1038/224363a0
 Nielsen P., Nicolai S., Darimont A. & Kestemont X. (2014). Influence of cement and aggregate type on thaumasite formation in concrete. Cement and Concrete Composites, 53, 115-126.
 Słomka-Słupik B. (2009). The changes of phases composition of the paste from cement CEM III/A under the influence of NH4Cl water solution. Cement-Lime- Concrete, XIII/LXXV(2), 61-66.
 Biczók I. (1972). Concrete corrosion. Concrete protection, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
 Słomka-Słupik B. & Zybura A. (2010). Microstructure of decalcified cement paste. Cement- Lime-Concrete, 15(6), 333-339.
 Słomka-Słupik B. & Zybura A. (2015). Corrosion of hardened cement paste in concrete used for building coke wastewater treatment plant tanks. Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 24(3), 1309-1316.
 Schmidt T., Lothenbach B., Romer M., Scrivener K., Rentsch D. & Figi R. (2008). A thermodynamic and experimental study of the conditions of thaumasite formation. Cement and Concrete Research, 38, 337-349.
 Carde C. & François R. (1997). Effect of the leaching of calcium hydroxide from cement paste on mechanical and physical properties. Cement and Concrete Research, 27(4), 539-550.
 Nonat A. (2010). C-S-H pahase and concrete properties. Cement-Lime-Concrete, 15(6), 315-326.
 Kurdowski W. (2008, July-August). C-S-H phase - state of the problem. Part 1. Cement-Lime-Concrete, III/LXXV, 216-222.
 Sarkar S., Mahadevan S., Meeussen J.C.L., van der Sloot H. & Kosson D.S. (2010). Numerical simulation of cementitious materials degradation under external sulfate attack. Cement and Concrete Composites, 32(3), 241-252.