Accuracy of orthognathic surgery using 3D computer-assisted surgical simulation


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Australasian Orthodontic Journal

Australian Society of Orthodontists

Subject: Dentistry, Orthodontics & Medicine


ISSN: 2207-7472
eISSN: 2207-7480





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VOLUME 34 , ISSUE 1 (May 2018) > List of articles

Accuracy of orthognathic surgery using 3D computer-assisted surgical simulation

Richard Lee / Mithran S. Goonewardene * / Ajmal Mian / Brent Allan / Danny Brock / Michelle Trevenen

Citation Information : Australasian Orthodontic Journal. Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 17-26, DOI:

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Published Online: 20-July-2021



Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of maxilla and mandibular repositioning during two-jaw orthognathic surgery using computerassisted surgical simulation (CASS).

Materials and methods: Fifteen patients who underwent two-jaw orthognathic surgery using CASS (VSP® Orthognathics by 3D Systems) were evaluated to assess the accuracy of the simulation. Translational and rotational discrepancies of the centroids of the maxilla and mandible and the translational discrepancy of the dental midline between the planned and actual outcomes were reported using the root mean square error (RMSE). The number of cases that exceeded limits set for clinical significance, the direction of the error in relation to the direction of planned movement and the differences between segmental and non-segmental procedures were evaluated as secondary outcomes.

Results: The largest translational RMSE was 1.53 mm along the y-axis in the maxilla and 1.34 mm along the y-axis in the mandible. The largest rotational RMSE was 1.9° about the x-axis in the maxilla and 1.16° about the x- and y-axes in the mandible. The largest RMSE for the dental midline was 1.6 mm along the y-axis in the maxilla and 1.34 mm along the y-axis in the mandible. A tendency for insufficient advancement of the maxilla was noted.

Conclusions: CASS is an efficient and accurate way to develop the surgical plan and transfer the plan to the patient intraoperatively. While CASS is accurate on a population level, there remains the potential for clinically significant errors to occur on an individual basis.

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