Congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisors. A case report illustrating the use of a Mesialslider and a customised lingual appliance


Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Australasian Orthodontic Journal

Australian Society of Orthodontists

Subject: Dentistry, Orthodontics & Medicine


ISSN: 2207-7472
eISSN: 2207-7480





Volume / Issue / page

Volume 38 (2022)
Volume 37 (2021)
Volume 36 (2020)
Volume 35 (2019)
Volume 34 (2018)
Volume 33 (2017)
Volume 32 (2016)
Volume 31 (2015)
Related articles

VOLUME 34 , ISSUE 1 (May 2018) > List of articles

Congenitally absent maxillary lateral incisors. A case report illustrating the use of a Mesialslider and a customised lingual appliance

Stephan Pies * / Benedict Wilmes * / Sivabalan Vasudavan *

Citation Information : Australasian Orthodontic Journal. Volume 34, Issue 1, Pages 103-116, DOI:

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Published Online: 20-July-2021



Background: A young adolescent female, aged 17 years and one month, presented seeking orthodontic treatment to address the congenital absence of her maxillary lateral incisors.

Aims: The therapeutic aims were to provide an adequate aesthetic and functional occlusion, coupled with sound adjunctive periodontal tissue relationships and a favourable long-term prognosis.

Methods: The malocclusion was managed by customised lingual orthodontic appliances and the adjunctive use of direct skeletal anchorage derived from two palatal mini-implants.

Results: The treatment objectives of good aesthetics, a functional occlusion, normal function, a healthy periodontium and a balanced profile were readily achieved. The retention records demonstrate the stability of the correction. The treatment duration was approximately 41 months, which encompassed the use of full fixed customised lingual appliances over a period of 24 months.

Content not available PDF Share



1. Robertsson S, Mohlin B. The congenitally missing upper lateral incisor. A retrospective study of orthodontic space closure versus restorative treatment. Eur J Orthod 2000;22:697-710.

2. Zachrisson BU, Mjör IA.. Remodeling of teeth by grinding. Am J Orthod 1975;68:545-53.

3. Thordarson A, Zachrisson BU, Mjör IA. Remodeling of canines to the shape of lateral incisors by grinding: a long-term clinical and radiographic evaluation. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1991;100:123-32.

4. Costa A, Raffainl M, Melsen B. Miniscrews as orthodontic anchorage: a preliminary report. Int J Adult Orthodon Orthognath Surg 1998;13:201-9.

5. Freudenthaler JW, Haas R, Bantleon HP. Bicortical titanium screws for critical orthodontic anchorage in the mandible: a preliminary report on clinical applications. Clin Oral Implants Res 2001;12:358- 63.

6. Kanomi R. Mini-implant for orthodontic anchorage. J Clin Orthod 1997;31:763-7.

7. Melsen B, Costa A. Immediate loading of implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Clin Orthod Res 2000;3:23-8.

8. Wilmes B. Fields of application of mini-implants. In: Ludwig B, Baumgaertel S, Bowman SJ, eds. Innovative anchorage concepts. Mini-implants in orthodontics. Berlin, New York: Quintessenz, 2008.

9. Berens A, Wiechmann D, Dempf R. Mini- and micro-screws for temporary skeletal anchorage in orthodontic therapy. J Orofac Orthop 2006;67:450-8.

10. Cheng SJ, Tseng IY, Lee JJ, Kok SH. A prospective study of the risk factors associated with failure of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2004;19:100-6.

11. Fritz U, Ehmer A, Diedrich P. Clinical suitability of titanium microscrews for orthodontic anchorage-preliminary experiences. J Orofac Orthop 2004;65:410-8.

12. Miyawaki S, Koyama I, Inoue M, Mishima K, Sugahara T, TakanoYamamoto T. Factors associated with the stability of titanium screws placed in the posterior region for orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2003;124:373-8.

13. Karagkiolidou A, Ludwig B, Pazera P, Gkantidis N, Pandis N, Katsaros C. Survival of palatal miniscrews used for orthodontic appliance anchorage: a retrospective cohort study. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2013;143:767-72.

14. Ludwig B, Glasl B, Bowman SJ, Wilmes B, Kinzinger GS, Lisson JA. Anatomical guidelines for miniscrew insertion: palatal sites. J Clin Orthod 2011;45:433-41.

15. Lim HJ, Choi YJ, Evans CA, Hwang HS. Predictors of initial stability of orthodontic miniscrew implants. Eur J Orthod 2011;33:528-32.

16. Kim YH, Yang SM, Kim S, Lee JY, Kim KE, Gianelly AA et al. Midpalatal miniscrews for orthodontic anchorage: factors affecting clinical success. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2010;137:66-72.

17. Wilmes B, Drescher D. Application and effectiveness of the Beneslider: a device to move molars distally. World J Orthod 2010;11:331-40.

18. Nienkemper M, Wilmes B, Pauls A, Yamaguchi S, Ludwig B, Drescher D. Treatment efficiency of mini-implant-borne distalization depending on age and second-molar eruption. J Orofac Orthop 2014;75:118-32.

19. Wilmes B, Nienkemper M, Nanda R, Lübberink G, Drescher D. Palatally anchored maxillary molar mesialization using the mesialslider. J Clin Orthod 2013;47:172-9.

20. Wilmes B, Nienkemper M, Ludwig B, Nanda R, Drescher D. Uppermolar intrusion using anterior palatal anchorage and the Mousetrap appliance. J Clin Orthod 2013;47:314-20; quiz 328.

21. Wilmes B, Drescher D. Vertical periodontal ligament distraction--a new method for aligning ankylosed and displaced canines. J Orofac Orthop 2009;70:213-23.

22. Wilmes B, Nanda R, Nienkemper M, Ludwig B, Drescher D. Correction of upper-arch asymmetries using the Mesial-Distalslider. J Clin Orthod 2013;47:648-55.

23. Wilmes B, Nienkemper M, Ludwig B, Kau CH, Drescher D. Early Class III treatment with a hybrid hyrax-mentoplate combination. J Clin Orthod 2011;45:15-21.

24. Wilmes B, Olthoff G, Drescher D. Comparison of skeletal and conventional anchorage methods in conjunction with pre-operative decompensation of a skeletal class III malocclusion. J Orofac Orthop 2009;70:297-305.

25. Pjetursson BE, Brägger U, Lang NP, Zwahlen M. Comparison of survival and complication rates of tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) and implant-supported FDPs and single crowns (SCs). Clinical Oral Implants Research 2007;18:97-113.

26. Josefsson E, Brattström V, Tegsjö U, Valerius-Olsson H. Treatment of lower second premolar agenesis by autotransplantation: four-year evaluation of eighty patients. Acta Odontol Scand 1999;57:111-5.

27. Wilmes B, Drescher D. A miniscrew system with interchangeable abutments. J Clin Orthod 2008;42:574-80.

28. Wilmes B, Drescher D, Nienkemper M. A miniplate system for improved stability of skeletal anchorage. J Clin Orthod 2009;43:494- 501.

29. Wilmes B, Katyal V, Willmann J, Stocker B, Drescher D. Miniimplant-anchored Mesialslider for simultaneous mesialisation and intrusion of upper molars in an anterior open bite case: a three-year follow-up. Aust Orthod J 2015;31:87-97.

30. Holberg C, Winterhalder P, Holberg N, Wichelhaus A, RudzkiJanson I. Indirect miniscrew anchorage: biomechanical loading of the dental anchorage during mandibular molar protraction-an FEM analysis. J Orofac Orthop 2014;75:16-24.

31. Uribe F, Janakiraman N, Fattal AN, Schincaglia GP, Nanda R. Corticotomy-assisted molar protraction with the aid of temporary anchorage device. Angle Orthod 2013;83:1083-92.

32. Baik UB, Chun YS, Jung MH, Sugawara J. Protraction of mandibular second and third molars into missing first molar spaces for a patient with an anterior open bite and anterior spacing. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2012;141:783-95.

33. Jacobs C, Jacobs-Müller C, Luley C, Erbe C, Wehrbein H. Orthodontic space closure after first molar extraction without skeletal anchorage. J Orofac Orthop. 2011;72:51-60.

34. Nagaraj K, Upadhyay M, Yadav S. Titanium screw anchorage for protraction of mandibular second molars into first molar extraction sites. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008;134:583-91.

35. Kyung SH, Choi JH, Park YC. Miniscrew anchorage used to protract lower second molars into first molar extraction sites. J Clin Orthod 2003;37:575-9.

36. Roberts WE, Marshall KJ, Mozsary PG. Rigid endosseous implant utilized as anchorage to protract molars and close an atrophic extraction site. Angle Orthod 1990;60:135-52.

37. Goellner P. Protraction of an upper second and third molar to replace a missing first molar. In: Cope JB, ed. OrthoTADs: The Clinical Guide and Atlas. 1st edn. Dallas: Under Dog Media, LP, 2007;419-22.

38. Hom BM, Turley PK. The effects of space closure of the mandibular first molar area in adults. Am J Orthod 1984;85:457-69.

39. Jung MH, Kim TW. Biomechanical considerations in treatment with miniscrew anchorage. Part 1: the sagittal plane. J Clin Orthod 2008;42:79-83.

40. Lindskog-Stokland B, Wennström JL, Nyman S, Thilander B. Orthodontic tooth movement into edentulous areas with reduced bone height. An experimental study in the dog. Eur J Orthod 1993;15:89-96.

41. Lindskog-Stokland B, Hansen K, Ekestubbe A, Wennström JL. Orthodontic tooth movement into edentulous ridge areas—a case series. Eur J Orthod 2013;35:277-85.

42. Li W, Chen F, Zhang F, Ding W, Ye Q, Shi J et al. Volumetric measurement of root resorption following molar mini-screw implant intrusion using cone beam computed tomography. PLoS One 2013;8:e60962.

43. Burstone CJ. The segmented arch approach to space closure. Am J Orthod 1982;82:361-78.