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Citation Information : Immunohematology. Volume 27, Issue 1, Pages 6-11, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/immunohematology-2019-168
License : (Transfer of Copyright)
Published Online: 01-December-2019
Rh discrepancies are a problem during routine testing because of partial D or weak D phenotypes. Panels of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) are being developed to identify D variants such as partial D and weak D when there are anomalous D typing results; however, molecular characterization offers a more specific classification of weak and partial D. The weak D and partial D phenotypes are caused by many different RHD alleles encoding aberrant D proteins, resulting in distinct serologic phenotypes and the possibility of anti-D immunization. We evaluated currently used serologic methods and reagents to detect and identify D variants and correlated the results with molecular analyses. A total of 306 blood samples from Brazilian blood donors and patients with discrepant results in routine D typing were analyzed. In total, 166 (54.2%) weak D, 136 (44.4%) partial D, 3 (1%) DEL, and 1 (0.3%) DHAR variants were identified. Among weak D samples, 76 weak D type 1 (45.8%), 75 weak D type 2 (45.2%), 13 weak D type 3 (7.8%), and 2 weak D type 5 (1.2%) alleles were found. Among the partial D samples, 49 type 4.0 weak partial D (36%), 9 DAR (6.6%), 24 DFR (17.6%), 6 DBT (4.4%), 1 DHMi (0.73%), 26 DVI (19%), 14 DVa (10.3%), 5 DIVb (3.7%), and 2 DVII (1.5%) were observed. Two samples identified as DEL by adsorption-elution were characterized by molecular analyses as RHD(IVS5–38DEL4) and one sample was characterized as RHD(K409K). One sample was characterized as DHAR, a CE variant positive with some monoclonal anti-D. Our results showed that the use of different methods and anti-D reagents in the serologic routine analysis revealed D variants that can be further investigated. Molecular methods can help to differentiate between partial D and weak D and to characterize the weak D types, providing additional information of value in the determination of D phenotypes. This distinction is important for optimized management of D– RBC units and for the prevention of anti-D–related hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.