XG: the forgotten blood group system

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Immunohematology

American National Red Cross

Subject: Medical Laboratory Technology

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ISSN: 0894-203X
eISSN: 1930-3955

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VOLUME 27 , ISSUE 2 (June 2011) > List of articles

XG: the forgotten blood group system

Nanette C. Johnson

Keywords :  Xga, X-linked, CD99, XG, MIC2, PBDX, 12E7, Lyonization, qualitative polymorphism, pseudoautosomal

Citation Information : Immunohematology. Volume 27, Issue 2, Pages 68-71, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/immunohematology-2019-177

License : (Transfer of Copyright)

Published Online: 01-December-2019

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

The XG blood group system is best known for its contributions to the fields of genetics and chromosome mapping. This system comprises two antigens, Xga and CD99, that are not antithetical but that demonstrate a unique phenotypic relationship. XG is located on the tip of the short arm of the X chromosome with exons 1 to 3 present in the pseudoautosomal region of the X (and Y) chromosome(s) and exons 4 to 10 located only on the X chromosome. Xga demonstrates a clear X-linked pattern of inheritance. MIC2, the gene encoding the CD99 antigen, is found in the pseudoautosomal region of both the X and Y chromosomes. Anti-Xga is comparatively rare, and only two examples of antiCD99 have ever been identified. Alloanti-Xga is considered clinically insignificant; only one example of autoanti-Xga has been reported, but it resulted in severe hemolytic anemia. Insufficient data exist to determine the clinical significance of anti-CD99. Linkage of XG to several X-borne genes encoding inherited disorders has been demonstrated. CD99 is an adhesion molecule, and high levels are associated with some types of cancer.

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