Serologic aspects of treating immune thrombocytopenic purpura using intravenous Rh immune globulin

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Immunohematology

American National Red Cross

Subject: Medical Laboratory Technology

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ISSN: 0894-203X
eISSN: 1930-3955

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VOLUME 17 , ISSUE 4 (December 2001) > List of articles

Serologic aspects of treating immune thrombocytopenic purpura using intravenous Rh immune globulin

Can M. Savasman / S. Gerald Sandler

Keywords : immune thrombocytopenic purpura, ITP, RhIG, Rh immune globulin, reticuloendothelial blockade, Fc receptors

Citation Information : Immunohematology. Volume 17, Issue 4, Pages 106-110, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/immunohematology-2019-562

License : (Transfer of Copyright)

Published Online: 14-October-2020

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ABSTRACT

In patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), IgG autoantibody-coated platelets are phagocytized by mononuclear macrophages, primarily in the spleen. Intravenous Rh immune globulin (IV RhIG) has been used since 1983 to treat D+, nonsplenectomized patients with ITP. The beneficial therapeutic effect of IV RhIG is attributed to competitive inhibition of phagocytosis of IgG-coated platelets by IgG anti-D-coated D+ red blood cells (reticuloendothelial or Fc receptor blockade). Following infusions of IV RhIG in D+ ITP patients, the direct and indirect antiglobulin tests become transiently positive, reflecting passively transferred anti-D and other alloantibodies that were present in the infused IV RhIG. These consistent and predictable serologic findings contrast with the inconsistent and weak anti-D reactivity observed when D– women are treated with relatively small doses of intramuscular RhIG for Rh immunoprophylaxis. The pathophysiology of ITP and the effect of infusing IV RhIG in patients with ITP are illustrated in this review, using computer-generated figures.

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