SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 1,267-1,282, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2017-589
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Received Date : 21-March-2013 / Accepted: 17-May-2013 / Published Online: 05-June-2013
In this paper, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based embedded system has been proposed for non-invasive detection of hemoglobin in blood using photoplethysmography. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive and low-cost optical technique that can be used to detect blood volume changes in the micro-vascular bed of tissue. Our investigations revealed that volume of water present in blood considerably affects the reading of the concentration of blood hemoglobin. In our current work, the proposed device is developed with monitoring of PPG waves at three wavelengths so as to compensate for the error due to absorption of near infrared radiation (NIR) by water in the blood. The device also has been developed to be robust enough to tolerate distortions in the waveform due to motion of the subject. In order to sense the motion of the subject a 3-axis accelerometer has been used and correction is suitably applied to the sensed waveform. As a result, it is possible to measure the concentration of hemoglobin in blood while the subject is on the move.
 H. Kanashima, T. Yamane, T. Takubo, T. Kamitani, and M.Hino, “Evaluation of noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring for hematological disorders,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, Vol. 19, pp. 1-5, 2005.
 K.Saigo, S. Imoto, M.Hashimoto, H. Mito, J. Moriya, T. Chinzei et al, “Noninvasive monitoring of hemoglobin: the effects of WBC counts on measurement,” American Journal Clinical Pathology, Vol. 121, pp. 51-55, 2004.
 R.G. Nadeau, W. Groner, “The role of a new noninvasive imaging technology in the diagnosis of anemia,” Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 131, pp. 1610S-1614S, 2001.
 J.W. Winkelman, “Noninvasive blood bell measurements by imaging of the microcirculation,” American Journal of Clinical Pathology, Vol. 113, pp. 479-483, 2000.
 M.J.Rice, J.R.H. Sweat, J.M. Rioux, W.T. Williams, W. Routt, “ Non-invasive measurement of blood components using retinal imaging,” United States Patent 2002:6477394.
 D.J. Deyo, R.O. Esenaliev, O. Hartrumpf, M. Motamedi, D.S. Prough, “Continuous noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of hemoglobin concentration,” Anesthesiology
Analgesia Vol. 92, pp. S139, 2001.
 R.O.Esenaliev, Y.Y. Petrov, O. Hartrumpf, D.J. Deyo, D.S. Prough, “Continuous, noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration by an optoacoustic technique,” Applied Optics, Vol. 43, pp. 3401-3407, 2004.
 I.Y. Petrova, R.O. Esenaliev, Y.Y. Petrov, H.P.E. Brecht, C.H. Svensen, J. Olsson, et al, “Optoacoustic monitoring of blood hemoglobin concentration: a pilot clinical study,” Optics Letters, Vol. 30, pp. 1677–1679, 2005.
 T.K. Aldrich, M. Moosikasuwan, S.D. Shah, K.S. Deshpande, “Length-normalized pulse photoplethysmography: a noninvasive method to measure blood hemoglobin,” Annals in Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 30, pp. 1291-1298, 2002.
 K.J. Jeon, S.J. Kim, K.K. Park, J.W. Kim, G. Yoon, “Noninvasive total hemoglobin measurement,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, Vol. 7, pp. 45-50, 2002.
 X.M. Wu, S. Yeh, T.W. Jeng, O.S. Khalil, “Noninvasive determination of hemoglobin and hematocrit using a temperature-controlled localized reflectance tissue photometer,” Analytical Biochemistry, Vol. 287, pp. 284-293, 2000.
 O.S.Khalil, S. Yeh, M.G. Lowery, X. Wu, C.F. Hanna, S. Kantor et al, “Temperature modulation of the visible and near infrared absorption and scattering coefficients of human skin,” Journal of Biomedical Optics, Vol. 8, pp. 191-205, 2003.
 John Allen.”Photoplethysmography and its application in clinicalphysiological measurement”,Physiol. Meas. 28 (2007) R1–R39
 U. Timm, E. Lewis, D. McGrath, J. Kraitl and H. Ewald,”LED Based Sensor System for Non-Invasive measurement of the Hemoglobin Concentration in Human Blood” ICBME 2008, Proceedings 23, pp. 825–828, 2009
 Hanhyonyeong, “Motion artifact reduction with active noise cancellation and accelerometer for Photoplethysmography”, M.S. Thesis, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 2010.