SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
VOLUME 7 , ISSUE 5 (December 2014) > List of articles
Special issue ICST 2014
Citation Information : International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems. Volume 7, Issue 5, Pages 1-7, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/ijssis-2019-137
License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
Published Online: 15-February-2020
A portable low-cost microcontroller based testing system was designed and constructed to detect phthalates in aqueous media. Phthalates, especially di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is the most ubiquitous endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) posing highest reproductive toxicity threat to all living species on earth. Frequency response analyser (FRA) approach was used to develop the rapid response, non-invasive electrochemical impedimetric system for detection. A smart thin film gold interdigital electrodes capacitive sensor with enhanced penetration depth was used with the proposed system for detection of the said EDC. The performance of the developed system was evaluated by comparing the results to the commercially available electrochemical Impedimetric frequency response analyzer equipment. Complex nonlinear least square (CNLS) curve fitting algorithm was used to deduce the equivalent circuit for the developed system. The DEHP detection results by the developed system were validated using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) diode array detection confirming that the proposed system was able to detect the concentration of phthalates in aqueous medium.
 J. A. Colacino, A. S. Soliman, A. M. Calafat et al., “Exposure to phthalates among premenstrual girls from rural and urban Gharbiah, Egypt: A pilot exposure assessment study,” Environmental Health, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 40, 2011.
 J. D. Meeker, A. M. Calafat, and R. Hauser, “Urinary metabolites of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are associated with decreased steroid hormone levels in adult men,” Journal of andrology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 287, 2009.
 L. Lopez-Carrillo, R. U. Hernandez-Ramirez, A. M. Calafat et al., “Exposure to Phthalates and Breast Cancer Risk in Northern Mexico,” Environmental health perspectives, vol. 118, no. 4, pp. 539-544, Apr, 2010.
 S. H. Swan, “Environmental phthalate exposure in relation to reproductive outcomes and other health endpoints in humans,” Environmental Research, vol. 108, no. 2, pp. 177-184, 2008.
 P. Montuori, E. Jover, M. Morgantini et al., “Assessing human exposure to phthalic acid and phthalate esters from mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate and glass bottles,” Food Additives and Contaminants, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 511518, 2008.
 R. Green, R. Hauser, A. M. Calafat et al., “Use of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate–containing medical products and urinary levels of mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in neonatal intensive care unit infants,” Environmental health perspectives, vol. 113, no. 9, pp. 1222, 2005.
 M. R. Lee, F. Y. Lai, J. Dou et al., “Determination of Trace Leaching Phthalate Esters in Water and Urine from Plastic Containers by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry,” Analytical Letters, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 676-686, 2011.
 R. Sendón, A. Sanches‐Silva, J. Bustos et al., “ Detection of migration of phthalates from agglomerated cork stoppers using HPLC‐MS/MS, ” Journal of Separation Science, vol. 35, no. 10-11, pp. 1319-1326, 2012.
 Z. Guo, D. Wei, M. Wang et al., “Determination of six phthalic acid esters in orange juice packaged by PVC bottle using SPE and HPLC-UV: Application to the migration study,” Journal of chromatographic science, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 760-765, 2010.
 Who, WHO | Guidelines for drinking-water quality, fourth edition, World Health Organization, 2011.
 H. M. Koch, and A. M. Calafat, “Human body burdens of chemicals used in plastic manufacture,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 364, no. 1526, pp. 20632078, 2009.
 A. V. Mamishev, K. Sundara-Rajan, Y. Fumin et al., “Interdigital sensors and transducers,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 92, no. 5, pp. 808-845, 2004.
 C. Berggren, B. Bjarnason, and G. Johansson, “Capacitive biosensors,” Electroanalysis, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 173-180, 2001.
 S. M. Radke, and E. C. Alocilja, “A microfabricated biosensor for detecting foodborne bioterrorism agents,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 744-750, 2005.
 W. Limbut, M. Hedström, P. Thavarungkul et al., “Capacitive biosensor for detection of endotoxin,” Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, vol. 389, no. 2, pp. 517-525, 2007.
 A. I. Zia, A. Mohd Syaifudin, S. Mukhopadhyay et al., "Sensor and instrumentation for progesterone detection." pp. 1220-1225.
 S. C. M. AI Zia, P.L.Yu, I. H. Al Bahadly, "Ovarian Hormone Estrone Glucuronide (E1G) Quantification- Impedimetric Electrochemical Spectroscopy Approach." pp. 22 - 27.
 S. Mukhopadhyay, C. Gooneratne, G. S. Gupta et al., “Characterization and comparative evaluation of novel planar electromagnetic sensors,” Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 36583660, 2005.
 S. C. Mukhopadhyay, C. P. Gooneratne, G. S. Gupta et al., “A low-cost sensing system for quality monitoring of dairy products,” Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1331-1338, 2006.
 S. C. Mukhopadhyay, and C. P. Gooneratne, “A novel planar-type biosensor for noninvasive meat inspection,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 1340-1346, 2007.
 S. Mukhopadhyay, S. D. Choudhury, T. Allsop et al., “Assessment of pelt quality in leather making using a novel non-invasive sensing approach,” Journal of biochemical and biophysical methods, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 809-815, 2008.
 S. C. Mukhopadhyay, “Planar Electromagnetic Sensors: Characterization, Applications and Experimental Results (Planare elektromagnetische Sensoren: Charakterisierung, Anwendungen und experimentelle Ergebnisse),” Tm-Technisches Messen, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 290-297, 2007.
 P. Fürjes, A. Kovács, C. Dücso et al., “Porous silicon-based humidity sensor with interdigital electrodes and internal heaters,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 140-144, 2003.
 M. Kitsara, D. Goustouridis, S. Chatzandroulis et al., “Single chip interdigitated electrode capacitive chemical sensor arrays,” Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 186-192, 2007.
 A. Mohd Syaifudin, S. Mukhopadhyay, and P. Yu, “Modelling and fabrication of optimum structure of novel interdigital sensors for food inspection,” International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 64-81, 2012.
 A. Mohd Syaifudin, S. C. Mukhopadhyay, P.-L. Yu et al., “Measurements and performance evaluation of novel interdigital sensors for different chemicals related to food poisoning,” Sensors Journal, IEEE, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 2957-2965, 2011.
 S. YOSHIDA, T. GYOJI, and K. TODA, “Positionsensitive photodetector using interdigital electrodes on Pb2CrO5 thin films,” International Journal of Electronics Theoretical and Experimental, vol. 68, no. 4, pp. 525-531, 1990.
 A. I. Zia, M. S. A. Rahman, S. C. Mukhopadhyay et al., “Technique for Rapid Detection of Phthalates in Water and Beverages,” Journal of Food Engineering, 2013.
 A. Syaifudin, A. I. Zia, S. Mukhopadhyay et al., "Improved detection limits of bacterial endotoxins using new type of planar interdigital sensors." pp. 14.
 A. I. Zia, A. M. Syaifudin, S. Mukhopadhyay et al., "Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy based MEMS sensors for phthalates detection in water and juices." p. 012026.