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Journal of Epileptology

Foundation of Epileptology

EDITOR IN CHIEF : Beata Majkowska-Zwolińska

Number of Issues : volume open

Subject: Medicine

eISSN: 2300-0147



License type: CC BY-NC-ND 4.0
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The Journal of Epileptology - published since 2013 - is an international, peer reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles of clinical and experimental epilesy. A primary version of the Journal issued in electrocnic form online is free to the reader, and paper copies published are available via subscribtion.

Welcome to Journal of Epileptology

Dear Readers and Authors,

In my capacity as Editor-in-Chief, I am pleased to announce that as of 2018 the Journal of Epileptology is available at 
In addition, the archiving of issues published from 2013 to 2017 will occur, and thus all issues published in the current form of the Journal will become available on-line. However, the issues published quarterly under the journal’s earlier name of Epileptologia during 1993 to 2012 will be successively attached and published on journal’s website; nevertheless continuation of volume numeration will occur.
Under this open access model, content of the Journal primarily online is free to the readers, and the printed form can be subscribed. The double blind peer review process, electronic and paper form as well as style of references will remain unchanged.
It is well recognized that reference linking is the most significant benefit of electronic publishing for academic readers. Therefore, the Editor asks authors to make the references complete, correct and properly structured according to the Instructions for Authors.
We hope that by having a high quality scientific peer review process, the Journal of Epileptology will widen its readership within the international community of readers and authors that have an interest in various aspects of epilepsy.
In short, we will offer an open free access, a fast publication process (time from submission to publication on-line does not exceed 2 months for a majority of accepted articles) and a friendly academic attitude. We invite all involved in the field of epilepsy (research or clinical practice) to visit our website regularly.

Jerzy Majkowski M.D., Ph.D.

Open Access Policy

This journal provides immediate open access to its content under the Creative Commons CC BY-NC 4.0 license on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Under the CC BY-NC 4.0 license users are free to share the work (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format), if the contribution is properly attributed and used for non-commercial purposes. The material published in the journal may not be altered or build upon.


The Foundation of Epileptology was established in 1993 by Professor Jerzy Majkowski who also founded the Department of Neurology and Epileptology at the Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education (CMKP) in 1988. The Foundation of Epileptology is the first non-governmental organisation in Poland to have as its priority the improvement of quality of life of epileptic patients by means of furthering doctors' diagnostic and therapeutic mastery and developing a positive approach to epilepsy among the general public. The Foundation, led by this idea, attracts physicians, psychologists, researchers and academics, social activists and other persons who wish to contribute to the development of epileptology and thereby bring medical assistance to people suffering from epilepsy. The Foundation of Epileptology was registered in the Foundation Register of the District Court for the Municipality of Warsaw on 16 March 1993 and thereby acquired legal status. The Founder appointed the Foundation Council and the Foundation Executive Committee.

The Foundation of Epileptology co-operates with the Polish Society of Epileptology, the Warsaw-based Society for Victims of Epilepsy and their Friends "Calm Head" (Spokojna Głowa) and other domestic and foreign organisations with similar goals. The Foundation of Epileptology is a member of the European Epilepsy Academy (EUREPA) and Professor Majkowski is co-organiser and member of the first Executive Committee and is now a member of the EUREPA Research Advisory Committee. The Executive Committee of the Polish Society of Epileptology shares its headquarters with the Epilepsy Foundation



Beata Majkowska-Zwolińska - Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Epilepsy, Foundation of Epileptology, Warsaw, Poland


† Jerzy Majkowski - Diagnostic and Therapeutic Center of Epilepsy, Foundation of Epileptology, Warsaw, Poland

Associate Editors

Walter Fröscher - Lake Constance Epilepsy Center/Epilepsiezentrum Bodensee, Centre of Psychiatry Südwürttemberg, Ravensburg-Weissenau, Germany
Sunao Kaneko - Dep. of Neuropsychiatry, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Japan
George Kostopoulos - University of Patras Medical School, Dep. of Physiology, Patras, Greece
Salvatore Striano - Epilepsy Center, dep. Of Neurological Science, Federico II University, Napoli, Italy
Jerzy P. Szaflarski - UAB Epilepsy Center,Dep. of Neurology, Birmingham, USA

Deputy Editor

Philip N. Patsalos - University College London, Dep. of Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy, London, UK

Editorial Board

Albert Aldenkamp - Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands
Attila Balogh - Regional and Capital Center of Epilepsy,St. Stephen Hospital, Budapest, Hungary
Gerhard Bauer - Dep. of Neurology, Medical University Innsbruck, Austria
Elena Belousova - Dep. of Psychoneurology and Epileptology,Research and Clinical Institute for Pediatrics,Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russia
Krzysztof A. Bujarski - Dep. of Neurology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Dartmouth, USA
Athanasios Covanis - Athens, Greece
Stanisław J. Czuczwar - Dep. of Pathophysiology,Medical University Lublin, Poland
Kamil Detyniecki - Dep. of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, USA
Ding Ding - Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology Institute of Neurology,Fudan University, Hua Shan Hospital, Shanghai, China
Salvatore Grosso - Dep. of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
Peter Halász - National Institute of Clinical Neuroscience, Budapest, Hungary
Joanna Jędrzejczak - Medical Centre for Postgraduate Education, Warsaw, Poland
Sergiusz Jóźwiak - Dep. of Child Neurology, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
Vladimir Kalinin - Dep. of Brain Organic Disorders and Epilepsy, Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, Russian Federation
Günter Krämer - Swiss Epilepsy Center, Zurich, Switzerland
Władysław Lasoń - Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Pharmacology, Krakow, Poland
Sinclair Liu - Canton Sanjiu Brain Hospital Epilepsy Center and Research Institute, Jinan University School of Medicine, Beijing, China
Marco Mula - Atkinson Morley Regional Neuroscience Centre, St George’s University Hospital London, London, UK
Motohiro Okada - Dep. of Neuropsychiatry, Division of Neuroscience, Graduate School of Medicine, Mie University, Tsu, Japan
Sung Pa Park - Dep. of Neurology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
José Pimentel - Epilepsy Unit, Dep. of Neurosciences, Hospital de Santa Maria (CHLN), Faculty of Medicine, Lisbon University, Lisbon, Portugal
Bruce K. Schefft - University of Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
Friedhelm C. Schmitt - Dep. of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany
Graeme J. Sills, BSc PhD - School of Life Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK
Matti Slillanpää - Deps. of Child Neurology and Public Health, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
Luigi W. Specchio - Epilepsy Center, Clinic of Nervous System Diseases, University of Foggia, Riuniti Hospital, Foggia, Italy
Hermann Stefan - Dep. of Neurology,University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
Yukitoshi Takahashi - Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan
Dorota Talarska - Dep. of Preventive Medicine, University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland
Marc S. Testa - Division of Neuropsychology, The Sandra andMalcolm Berman Brain & Spine Institute, Baltimore, USA
Carmen Uhlmann - Clinic for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy I, Ulm University, Centres for Psychiatry Suedwuettemberg, Ravensburg-Weissenau, Germany
Walter van Emde Boas - Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Pavel Vlasov - Dep. of Nervous Diseases, Moscow State Medical and Dental University, Moscow, Russia
Janusz Wendorff - Dep. of Neurology, Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital – Research Institute, Łódź, Poland
Heinz G. Wieser - Dep. of Neurology, University Hospital Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland
Kazuichi Yagi - National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka Institute of Epilepsy and Neurological Disorders, Shizuoka, Japan
Naz S. Yeni - Dep. of Neurology, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey


Journal of Epileptology is an international, peer-reviewed scientific journal that publish articles in all areas of experimental and clinical epilepsy. Journal of Epileptology is issued on line in electronic form at, a primary version, and in paper copies 2 times per year.

The Journal of Epileptology editors endorse the principles embodied in the Declaration of Helsinki and expect that all investigations involving humans will have been performed in accordance with these principles. For animal experimentation reported in the journal, it is expected that investigators will have observed the Interdisciplinary Principles and Guidelines for the Use of Animals in Research, Testing, and Education issued by the New York Academy of Sciences Ad hoc Committee on Animal Research. All human and animal studies must have been approved by the investigator’s institutional bioethic review board.

Review process

Manuscripts are evaluated on the basis that they present new insights to the investigated topic, are likely to contribute to a research progress or change in clinical practice or in thinking about epilepsy. It is understood that all authors listed on a manuscript have agreed to its submission. The signature of the corresponding author on the letter of submission signifies that these conditions have been fulfilled.
Received manuscripts are first examined by the Journal of Epileptology editors. Manuscripts with insufficient priority for publication are rejected promptly. Incomplete packages or manuscripts not prepared in the advised style will be sent back to authors. The authors are notified with the reference number upon manuscript registration at the Editorial Office. The registered manuscripts are sent to 3 or more independent experts for scientific evaluation accordingly to double-blind review process. Depending on the reviewers’ opinions and recommendations, manuscripts are returned to the author for corrections and then again back to the reviewers. The author is asked to submit a list of changes or a rebuttal against each point which has been raised by the reviewer. The revised manuscript is finally evaluated by the Editor-in-Chief who considers the reviewers’ comments and his own opinion before passing a decision to the author. The average time from submission to acceptance for on-line publication is up to 3 months.

Conflict of interests

Authors of research articles should disclose at the time of submission any financial arrangement they may have with a company whose product figures prominently in the submitted manuscript or with a company making a competing product. Conflict of interests should be clearly stated at the end of manuscript, just prior to the Reference list.
Journal policy requires that reviewers, associate editors and editors reveal in a letter to the Editor-in-Chief any relationships that they have that could be construed as causing a conflict of interest with regard to a manuscript under review. The letter should include a statement of any financial relationships with commercial companies involved with a product under study.


Materials taken from other sources must be accompanied by a written statement from both author and publisher giving permission to the Journal for reproduction. Obtain permission in writing from at least one author of papers still in press, unpublished data, and personal communications.

Patients confidentiality. Changing the details of patients in order to disguise them is a form of data alteration. However, authors of clinical papers are obliged to ensure patients privacy rights. Only clinically or scientifically important data are permitted for publishing. Therefore, if it is possible to identify a patient from a case report, illustration or paper, Journal of Epileptology Editors ask for a written consent of the patient or his/her guardian to publish their data, including photograms prior to publication.
The description of race, ethnicity or culture of a study subject should occur only when it is believed to be of strong influence on the medical condition in the study. When categorizing by race, ethnicity or culture, the names should be as illustrative as possible and reflect how these groups were assigned.

Open Access Agreement

Upon acceptance, authors are required to complete Open Access Agreement and send signed document to the editorial office.


Every effort is made by the Publisher, Editors, and Editorial Board to see that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinion or statement appear in the Journal of Epileptology. However, they wish to make it clear that the data and opinions appearing in the articles and advertisements herein are the responsibility of the contributor, sponsor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the Publisher and the Editorial Board accept no liability whatsoever for the consequences of any such inaccurate of misleading data, opinion or statement. Every effort is made to ensure that drug doses and other quantities are presented accurately. Nevertheless, readers are advised that methods and techniques involving drug usage and other treatments described in this Journal, should only be followed in conjunction with the drug or treatment manufacturer’s own published literature in the readers own country.

Publishing model and authors fees

The submission and peer-review of manuscripts are free of charge.


Editorial Board of Journal of Epileptology takes under consideration for publication original articles in experimental and clinical epileptology with the understanding that neither the manuscript nor any part of its essential substance, tables or figures have been published previously in print form or electronically and are not taken under consideration by any other publication or electronic medium. Copies of any closely related manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor along with the manuscript that is to be considered by the Journal. The Journal, rather, discourages the submission of more than one article dealing with related aspects of the same study.
Each submission packet should include the statement signed by the first author that the work has not been published previously or submitted elsewhere for review and a copyright transfer.


Accepted papers are published in the following journal sections:

  • Hypothesis a division designed for presentation new, yet empirically unproved medical hypothesis
  • Basic Research for laboratory investigations and animal studies
  • Clinical Research for human research papers • Epidemiology for population studies
  • Product Investigations for scientific evaluations or reports on medical and pharmaceutical products side effects, efficacy etc, already accepted for a routine daily practice
  • Case Reports
  • Diagnostics and Medical Technology enable presentation of research or review works in overlapping areas of medicine and technology such as (but not limited to): medical diagnostics, medical imaging systems, computer simulation of health and disease processes, new medical devices, etc.
  • Letters to Editor for comments on a recent Journal of Epileptology articles
  • Reviews and special reports — papers may be accepted on the basis that they provide a systematic, critical and up-to-date overview of literature pertaining to research or clinical topics. Meta-analyses are considered as reviews. A special attention will be paid to a teaching value of a review paper
  • Reports from international activities


Text should be one and half spaced with 12-point typeface. Margins: 2.5 cm (1 inch) at top, bottom, right, and left.
Illustrations are very helpful and for case reports are mandatory. In reviews it should be explained what information retrieval sources were used and what were the criteria in selecting the referred papers.

The Editorial Board reserves the privilege to adjust the format of the article. The manuscript should include:

Title page with the following information:

- full names of all authors
- name of the department and institution in which the work was done
- affiliations of the authors
- manuscript full title
- running title
- full name, address, telephone and/or fax number of the author responsible for manuscript preparation
- e-mail address to speed up contacts with authors
- source(s) of support in the form of grants (quote the number of the grant), equipment, drugs etc.

Summary page
Summary in structured form not exceeding 250 words should consist of five paragraphs labeled: Background, Aim, Material and Methods, Results, Conclusion. Each summary section should begin in a new line and briefly describe, respectively, the purpose of the study, how the investigation was performed, the most important results and the principal conclusion that authors draw from the results.

Key words. (3 to 6) or short phrases should be written at the bottom of the page including summary. The use of the items included in Index Medicus (Medical Subject Headings) is advised.

Text. The text of the article should be divided to eight paragraphs labeled: Background, Aim, Material and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, Acknowledgements, References. Background should contain scientific rationale of the study. Aim should clearly indicate the purpose of the study.

Material and methods should describe clearly the selection of observational or experimental subjects (patients or laboratory animals) including controls, such as age, female/male, inclusion and exclusion criteria (the circumstances for rejection from the study should be clearly defined), randomization and masking (blinding) method.
The protocol of data acquisition, procedures, investigated parameters, methods of measurements and apparatus should be described in sufficient detail to allow other scientists to reproduce the results. Name and references to the established methods should be given. References and brief description should be provided for methods that have been published but are not well known, whereas new or substantially modified methods should be described in detail. The reasons for using them should be provided along with the evaluation of their limitations. The drugs and other chemicals should be precisely identified including generic name, dose and route of administration. The statistical methods should be described in detail to enable verification of the reported results. Provide information on patients informed consent. Studies on patients and volunteers require informed consent documented in the text of the manuscript. Where there is any unavoidable risk of breach of privacy – e.g. in a clinical photograph or in case details – the patient’s written consent to publication must be obtained and copied to the journal. Information on approval of a Local Ethical Committee should also be provided.

Results should concisely and reasonably summarize the findings. Restrict tables and figures to the number needed to explain the argument of the paper and assess its support. Do not duplicate data in graphs and tables. Give numbers of observation and report exclusions or losses to observation such as dropouts from a clinical trial. Report treatment complications. The results should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data from the tables or graphs. Emphasize only important observations.

Discussion should deal only with new and/or important aspects of the study. Do not repeat in detail data or other material from the Background or the Results section. Include in the Discussion the implications of the findings and their limitations, including implications for future research. The discussion should confront the results of other investigations especially those quoted in the text.

Conclusions should be linked with the goals of the study. State new hypotheses when warranted. Include recommendations when appropriate. Unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the obtained data should be avoided.

Acknowledgements. List all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship, such as technical assistants, writing assistants or head of department who provided only general support. It is required that ghost writers defined as undisclosed persons (paid or unpaid) who has made an intellectual contribution in writing the submitted manuscript must be acknowledged. Financial and other material support should be disclosed and acknowledged.

References. Each paper cited in the text must be cited by author name (Yagi, 2015 or Fröscher and Rauber, 2014). When there are more than two authors, give the name of the first author, followed by et al. (Kalinin et al., 2014). It is also permissible to quote references thus: … paper by Kalinin et al. (2014). If more than one reference is cited, consecutive references should be divided with a semicolon (Lasoń, Leśkiewicz, 2013; Sugawara et al., 2013; Halász et al., 2014).
In the list of references, all references should be listed in alphabetical order. References selected for citing should be chosen for their importance, accessibility, and for the further reading opportunities they provide. List all authors when there are six or fewer; when there are seven or more, list the first six, followed by et al. For the titles and abbreviations use PubMed database

The following are sample references:

Standard journal article
Wieser H.G.: Genetic Epilepsies. Remarks on the proposed “Organization of the Epilepsies”. Journal of Epileptology, 2014, 22: 11–23.

Article electronic form
Schefft B.K., Dulay M.F., Fargo J. D., Szaflarski J.P., Yeh H.S., Privitera M. D.: The use of self-generation procedures facilitates verbal memory in individuals with seizure disorders. Epilepsy and Behavior, 2008, 13: 162– 168. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2008.01.012

Article, no author given
Seizures caused by camphor products. [No authors listed], Child. Health Alert., 2009, 27: 5.

Book, personal author(s)
Shorvon S.D.: Handbook of the treatment of epilepsy. Willey-Blackwell, Oxford 2010.

Chapter in a book
Zifkin B., Andermann F.: Epilepsy with reflex seizures. In: Wyllie E., Gidal B., Cascino G.D., Goodkin H.P. (eds.), Wyllie’s Treatment of epilepsy: Principles and practice. 5th ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2011, 305–316.

Figures - Supply all fiigure electronically. Submit your figures as JPEG, TIFF or PDF separately files. Use minimum 300 dpi resolution for photographic images and 600 dpi resolution for line art. MS Office files (Excel) are also accepted.

As for 2015, color art is free of charge for online publication. However, for print version it is preferable to submit figures in black and white or grey scale. Do not use color, unless necessary for better distinction. Color illustration should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel). When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. Provide legend on separate page. Figures should be numbered (Arabic numerals) consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text.

Tables - Provide each table with title explaining the component of the table. Submit your tables as .doc format (MS Word), not as scanned or image files. All tables should be numbered using Arabic numerals. Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order.

Units of Measurement - Measurements of length, height, weight, and volume should be reported in metric units (meter, kilogram, or liter) or their decimal multiples. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be given in millimeters of mercury.
All hematological and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported in the metric system in terms of the International System of Units (SI). Alternative or non-SI units should be added in parenthesis.

Abbreviations and Symbols - Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement.


Manuscripts must be accompanied by a covering letter signed by the first author. This must include: information on prior or duplicate publication or submission elsewhere of any part of the work as defined earlier in this document, indication of contribution of all co-authors to the study a statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this document have been met, and that each author believes the manuscript represents honest work, a statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interest (see above), a statement on the ethical issues regarding investigations involving humans and animals and approval of the local ethics committee, the name, e-mail addresses, postal address, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs. The letter should give any additional information that may be helpful to the editor, such as the type of article in the particular journal that the manuscript represents. The manuscript must be accompanied by copies of any permissions to reproduce published material, to use illustrations or report information about identifiable people, or to name people for their contributions.


All manuscripts should be submitted directly to:
Jerzy Majkowski
Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Epileptology
Foundation of Epileptology
Wiertnicza str. 122
02-952 Warszawa, Poland