First Report of Criconema demani from Russia

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Journal of Nematology

Society of Nematologists

Subject: Life Sciences

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ISSN: 0022-300X
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First Report of Criconema demani from Russia

Sergei Tabolin / Irina Markina *

Keywords : Criconema demani , Criconematidae, Molecular characterization, Morphology, Nematode, Rubus idaeus , Russia, Taxonomy

Citation Information : Journal of Nematology. Volume 51, Pages 1-4, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2019-019

License : (CC-BY-4.0)

Published Online: 17-April-2019

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

A population of the criconematid species, identified as Criconema demani (Micoletzky, 1925), is reported from a natural habitat in northwestern Russia. Measurements and morpho-anatomy obtained with light microscopy and molecular characterization of this population are included in this paper.

Graphical ABSTRACT

The species Criconema demani was described from a soil sample collected near the roots of Carex sp. in a meadow on the shore of the lake Tystrup Sø in Denmark (Micoletzky, 1925). Due to an inadequate original description, Raski and Riffle (1967) restudied the lectotype. This species has also been reported to be present in Estonia (Krall, 1965), the UK (Boag and Orton Williams, 1976), the Netherlands (Bongers, 1988), Belgium (Bert et al., 2003), Spain (Escuer and Bello, 1994), the Czech Republic (Háněl, 1996), Romania (Popovici and Ciobanu, 2000), Germany (Michiels and Traunspurger, 2004), the USA (Wehunt, Golden and Robbins, 1989), Venezuela (Crozzoli and Lamberti, 2002), Mexico (Luna-Guerrero et al., 2011), and Korea (Choi and Geraert, 1994).

In present times, it has been found near the roots of wild red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) in the Pechory district of the Pskov Region, Russia. The geographical location of the sampling site is 57° 48′ 27.18′′ N; 27° 38′ 1.536′′ E. It is the first record of this species in Russia.

Materials and Methods

Nematodes were extracted from the soil samples using a modification of the decanting and sieving method (Flegg, 1967). For morphological studies, the nematodes were killed with hot water, fixed in 5 % formalin solution, and mounted in glycerin slides using the Seinhorst technique (Seinhorst, 1959).

For molecular studies, nematodes were fixed with 96% ethanol. Their total DNA was extracted using the K-Sorb kit (Syntol LLC, Russia) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. There were five replicates. Each replicate was a test tube with several nematode specimens. Two sets of primers were used for the amplification of the 18 S rRNA gene: the forward 18S39F (5′-AAA GAT TAA GCC ATG CAT G-3′) and the reverse 18S977R (5′-TTT ACG GTT AGA ACT AGG GCG G-3′), and the forward 18S900F (5′-AAG ACG GAC TAC AGC GAA AG-3′) and the reverse 18S1713R (5′-TCA CCT ACA GCT ACC TTG TTA CG-3′) (Olson et al., 2017). The forward D2A (5′-ACA AGT ACC GTG AGG GAA AGT TG-3′) and the reverse D3B (5′-TCG GAA GGA ACC AGC TAC TA-3′) (De Ley et al., 1999) primers were used for amplification of the D2–D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA gene. The partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene was amplified with the forward primer COI-F5 (5′-AAT WTW GGT GTT GGA ACT TCT TGA AC-3′) and the reverse primer COI-R9 (5′-CTT AAA ACA TAA TGR AAA TGW GCW ACW ACA TAA TAA GTA TC-3′) (Powers et al., 2014). Amplifications were performed in a 2720 Programmable Thermal Cycler (Applied Biosystems, USA). PCR products were enzymatically purified using Exonuclease I (Thermo Scientific, USA) and shrimp alkaline phosphatase (SibEnzyme, Russia). Sequencing of PCR products was carried out with the same primers using genetic analyzer ‘ABI 3130xl’ (Applied Biosystems, USA). Low quality segments of sequences at the 5′ and 3′ ends were removed. Then, the newly obtained sequences were submitted to the GenBank database under accession numbers MH828123 and MH828124 (18S rRNA gene), MH828126 (28S rRNA gene), and MK248472 (COI gene).

Results and Discussion

Morphometrical characterization. Body is slightly curved ventrally. Annuli retrorse, margins smooth, no lateral differentiation. First and second annuli are equal in diameter. First annulus is usually slightly directed anteriorly; second annulus is not retrorse. The edges of annuli are smooth. Stylet is moderately long and robust, whereas cone is about 4/5 of total stylet length; knobs are 7 to 8 µm in diameter, slightly indented anteriorly, sometimes sloping posteriorly. Vulval lips are large and protruding; anterior lip covers the posterior. Spermatheca is small, round, and empty in all specimens. Tail is conical and tapers evenly, its terminal annuli are separated. Tail tip is usually straight; on some specimens, it is curved slightly dorsally, while on the others it is curved slightly ventrally. Anastomoses are very rare (Fig. 1 and Table 1).

Table 1

Measurements and ratios of 15 females of Criconema demani from the Pskov region of Russia, and their comparison with those from the literature. All measurements are in µm.

10.21307_jofnem-2019-019-t001.jpg
Figure 1

Light micrographs of Criconema demani. (A) Entire female and (B) Tail region.

10.21307_jofnem-2019-019-f001.jpg

Molecular characterization. Despite the wide geographical distribution of the studied nematode species, as it is known from the literature, there are no molecular data for this species in the GenBank. There are two sequences of the species Criconema longulum (Gunhold, 1953) in the GenBank, and this species is most morphologically close to the species C. demani. One is a partial 18S rRNA gene sequence (KX344495), and the second is a partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequence (MF770910).

The sequences of the 18S rRNA gene, the D2–D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA gene, and the COI gene obtained from different individuals in this study were identical to each other. 18S rRNA gene sequences of the studied specimens were identical by 94.7% with C. longulum from the USA (KX344495). The sequence of COI gene obtained in this study was identical by 95.7% to the sequence of the species C. longulum and shares less identity with another criconematid species deposited in GenBank.

The sequences of the D2–D3 expansion segments of the 28S rRNA gene were most similar to the Criconema sp. sequences from California, USA, with 90% similarity (FN433874, FN433864, FN433863, and FN433862). Other sequences of this segment of criconematid nematodes deposited in GenBank had lower than 90% similarity.

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Program No 41 “Biodiversity of natural systems and biological resources of Russia”.

References


  1. Bello, A., Escuer, M. and Lara, M. P.. 1994. The family criconematidae in the Canary Islands. Nematologia Mediterranea 22 2: 225–232.
  2. Bert, W., Coomans, A., Claerbout, F., Geraert, E. and Borgonie, G.. 2003. Tylenchomorpha (Nematoda: Tylenchina) in Belgium, an updated list. Nematology 5 3: 435–440.
    [CROSSREF]
  3. Boag, B. and Orton Williams, K. J.. 1976. Annals of Applied Biology 84 3: 361–369.
    [CROSSREF]
  4. Bongers, T.. 1988. De Nematoden van Nederland. Utrecht, Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging.
    [CROSSREF]
  5. Brzeski, M. W.. 1998. Nematodes of Tylenchina in Poland and Temperate Europe. Warszawa: Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii Polska Akademia Nauk.
  6. Choi, Y. E. and Geraert, E.. 1994. Systematic study of Criconematoidea from Korea. 1. Description of Ogma koesanense sp.n. and four new species for Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 33 3: 184–193.
  7. Crozzoli, R. and Lamberti, F.. 2002. Species of Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914 and Ogma Southern, 1914 occurring in Venezuela, with description of Ogma araguaensis sp.n. (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Russian Journal of Nematology 10 2: 89–98.
  8. De Ley, P., Felix, M. - A., Frisse, L. M., Nadler, S. A., Sternberg, P. W. and Thomas, W. K.. 1999. Molecular and morphological characterisation of two reproductively isolated species with mirror-image anatomy (Nematoda: Cephalobidae). Nematology 1 6: 591–612.
    [CROSSREF]
  9. Escuer, M. and Bello, A.. 1994. Nematodos del suelo de la familia Criconematidae en Cataluña. Orsis 9: 59–75.
  10. Flegg, J. J. M.. 1967. Extraction of Xiphinema and Longidorus species from soil by a modification of Cobb’s decanting and sieving technique. Annals of Applied Biology 60 3: 429–437.
    [CROSSREF]
  11. Háněl, L.. 1996. Soil nematodes in five spruce forests of the Beskydy mountains, Czech Republic. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 19 1: 15–24.
  12. Krall, E.. 1965. Review of Criconematidae in Estonia. Loodusuurijate Seltsi Aastaraamat, Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Juures (Ezhegodnik Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Akademii Nauk Estonskoi SSR) 57: 132–145.
  13. Luna-Guerrero, A. Y., Montes-Belmont, R., Talavera-Rubia, M. F., Flores-Moctezuma, H. E. and Bravo-Luna, L.. 2011. Preliminary study of biotic and abiotic factors associated with peach tree death in Morelos, México. Nematropica 41 2: 254–262.
  14. Michiels, I. and Traunspurger, W.. 2004. A three year study of seasonal dynamics of a zoobenthos community in a eutrophic lake. Nematology 6 5: 655–669.
    [CROSSREF]
  15. Micoletzky, H.. 1925. Die freilebenden süsswasser- und moornematoden Dänemarks København: Andr. Fred. Hølst & Søn.
  16. Olson, M., Harris, T., Higgins, R., Mullin, P., Powers, K., Olson, S. and Powers, T. O.. 2017. Species delimitation and description of Mesocriconema nebraskense n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae), a morphologically cryptic, parthenogenetic species from North American Grasslands. Journal of Nematology 49: 42–66.
    [CROSSREF]
  17. Popovici, I. and Ciobanu, M.. 2000. New morphometric data and geographical distribution of criconematid species (Nematoda: Criconematidae) in Romania. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai. Biologia 45 1: 39–55.
  18. Powers, T. O., Mullin, P., Higgins, R., Harris, T. and Powers, K. S.. 2016. Description of Mesocriconema ericaceum n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and notes on other nematode species discovered in an ericaceous heath bald community in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Nematology 18 8: 879–903.
    [CROSSREF]
  19. Powers, T. O., Bernard, E. C., Harris, T., Higgins, R., Olson, M., Lodema, M., Mullin, P., Sutton, L. and Powers, K. S.. 2014. COI haplotype groups in Mesocriconema (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and their morphospecies associations. Zootaxa 3827 2: 101–146.
    [CROSSREF]
  20. Raski, D. J. and Riffle, J. W.. 1967. Two new species and further notes on Criconemoides Taylor, 1936 (Criconematidae: Nematoda). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 34 2: 212–219.
  21. Seinhorst, J. W.. 1959. A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica 4 1: 57–69.
    [CROSSREF]
  22. Wehunt, E. J., Golden, A. M. and Robbins, R. T.. 1989. Plant nematodes occurring in Arkansas. Supplement to Journal of Nematology. 21 4S: 677–681.
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FIGURES & TABLES

Figure 1

Light micrographs of Criconema demani. (A) Entire female and (B) Tail region.

Full Size   |   Slide (.pptx)

REFERENCES

  1. Bello, A., Escuer, M. and Lara, M. P.. 1994. The family criconematidae in the Canary Islands. Nematologia Mediterranea 22 2: 225–232.
  2. Bert, W., Coomans, A., Claerbout, F., Geraert, E. and Borgonie, G.. 2003. Tylenchomorpha (Nematoda: Tylenchina) in Belgium, an updated list. Nematology 5 3: 435–440.
    [CROSSREF]
  3. Boag, B. and Orton Williams, K. J.. 1976. Annals of Applied Biology 84 3: 361–369.
    [CROSSREF]
  4. Bongers, T.. 1988. De Nematoden van Nederland. Utrecht, Koninklijke Nederlandse Natuurhistorische Vereniging.
    [CROSSREF]
  5. Brzeski, M. W.. 1998. Nematodes of Tylenchina in Poland and Temperate Europe. Warszawa: Muzeum i Instytut Zoologii Polska Akademia Nauk.
  6. Choi, Y. E. and Geraert, E.. 1994. Systematic study of Criconematoidea from Korea. 1. Description of Ogma koesanense sp.n. and four new species for Korea. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology 33 3: 184–193.
  7. Crozzoli, R. and Lamberti, F.. 2002. Species of Criconema Hofmänner & Menzel, 1914 and Ogma Southern, 1914 occurring in Venezuela, with description of Ogma araguaensis sp.n. (Nematoda: Criconematidae). Russian Journal of Nematology 10 2: 89–98.
  8. De Ley, P., Felix, M. - A., Frisse, L. M., Nadler, S. A., Sternberg, P. W. and Thomas, W. K.. 1999. Molecular and morphological characterisation of two reproductively isolated species with mirror-image anatomy (Nematoda: Cephalobidae). Nematology 1 6: 591–612.
    [CROSSREF]
  9. Escuer, M. and Bello, A.. 1994. Nematodos del suelo de la familia Criconematidae en Cataluña. Orsis 9: 59–75.
  10. Flegg, J. J. M.. 1967. Extraction of Xiphinema and Longidorus species from soil by a modification of Cobb’s decanting and sieving technique. Annals of Applied Biology 60 3: 429–437.
    [CROSSREF]
  11. Háněl, L.. 1996. Soil nematodes in five spruce forests of the Beskydy mountains, Czech Republic. Fundamental and Applied Nematology 19 1: 15–24.
  12. Krall, E.. 1965. Review of Criconematidae in Estonia. Loodusuurijate Seltsi Aastaraamat, Eesti NSV Teaduste Akadeemia Juures (Ezhegodnik Obshchestva Estestvoispytatelei pri Akademii Nauk Estonskoi SSR) 57: 132–145.
  13. Luna-Guerrero, A. Y., Montes-Belmont, R., Talavera-Rubia, M. F., Flores-Moctezuma, H. E. and Bravo-Luna, L.. 2011. Preliminary study of biotic and abiotic factors associated with peach tree death in Morelos, México. Nematropica 41 2: 254–262.
  14. Michiels, I. and Traunspurger, W.. 2004. A three year study of seasonal dynamics of a zoobenthos community in a eutrophic lake. Nematology 6 5: 655–669.
    [CROSSREF]
  15. Micoletzky, H.. 1925. Die freilebenden süsswasser- und moornematoden Dänemarks København: Andr. Fred. Hølst & Søn.
  16. Olson, M., Harris, T., Higgins, R., Mullin, P., Powers, K., Olson, S. and Powers, T. O.. 2017. Species delimitation and description of Mesocriconema nebraskense n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae), a morphologically cryptic, parthenogenetic species from North American Grasslands. Journal of Nematology 49: 42–66.
    [CROSSREF]
  17. Popovici, I. and Ciobanu, M.. 2000. New morphometric data and geographical distribution of criconematid species (Nematoda: Criconematidae) in Romania. Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai. Biologia 45 1: 39–55.
  18. Powers, T. O., Mullin, P., Higgins, R., Harris, T. and Powers, K. S.. 2016. Description of Mesocriconema ericaceum n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and notes on other nematode species discovered in an ericaceous heath bald community in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. Nematology 18 8: 879–903.
    [CROSSREF]
  19. Powers, T. O., Bernard, E. C., Harris, T., Higgins, R., Olson, M., Lodema, M., Mullin, P., Sutton, L. and Powers, K. S.. 2014. COI haplotype groups in Mesocriconema (Nematoda: Criconematidae) and their morphospecies associations. Zootaxa 3827 2: 101–146.
    [CROSSREF]
  20. Raski, D. J. and Riffle, J. W.. 1967. Two new species and further notes on Criconemoides Taylor, 1936 (Criconematidae: Nematoda). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington 34 2: 212–219.
  21. Seinhorst, J. W.. 1959. A rapid method for the transfer of nematodes from fixative to anhydrous glycerin. Nematologica 4 1: 57–69.
    [CROSSREF]
  22. Wehunt, E. J., Golden, A. M. and Robbins, R. T.. 1989. Plant nematodes occurring in Arkansas. Supplement to Journal of Nematology. 21 4S: 677–681.

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