First report of a stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae on corn in Gansu Province, China

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Journal of Nematology

Society of Nematologists

Subject: Life Sciences

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ISSN: 0022-300X
eISSN: 2640-396X

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First report of a stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae on corn in Gansu Province, China

Zhi Peng Xu / Hui Xia Li * / Yong Gang Liu / Bao Cang Ren / Chun Hui Ni / Jin Hui Ma

Keywords : Corn, First report, Northwest China, Stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus zeae

Citation Information : Journal of Nematology. Volume 52, Pages 1-2, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/jofnem-2020-009

License : (CC-BY-4.0)

Received Date : 19-December-2019 / Published Online: 17-March-2020

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

During a survey of plant parasitic nematodes in 2019, at Gansu Province, China, the stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae was found parasitizing corn seedlings. Females, males and juveniles of T. zeae were observed on soil and roots samples of corn after processing and extraction. This population of stunt nematodes was identified based on morphological and by sequencing the ITS1 region of rDNA and D2/D3 fragments of the 28 S rRNA. The ITS1 and the D2/D3 sequences of this population, shared 99.00 to 99.05% and 99.43 to 99.73% of similarity with sequences corresponding to T. zeae in GenBank, respectively. This is the first report of T. zeae infecting corn in Gansu Province, northwest China.

Stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.) are important plant parasitic nematodes that feed on a wide range of economic hosts. A survey of plant parasitic nematodes was performed in corn fields in May 2019, finding corn seedlings with symptoms like yellow leaves, dwarf plants and death plants in the field (N 37°07′36″, E 102°54′08″) of Baiyin City, Gansu Province, China. The rhizosphere soil samples and roots of diseased plants were collected. Each soil sample was about 1 kg consisted of over 20 corers using a soil auger of 20 cm in length and 20 mm diameter. Nematodes were isolated using modified Baermann technique (Hooper, 1990). On average, 5 females and 13 juveniles were obtained from 100 g soil, and 18 males and 2 females were extracted from 50 g of roots. Females bodies were cylindrical, slightly ventrally arcuated after fixation by gentle heat. Cephalic region with annules, and significant curling at the connection with body contour. Stylet with anteriorly flattened knobs, and median esophageal bulbs well developed. The vulva was located in the center of the body, and reproductive system didelphic amphidelphic. Tail conoid, with obtuse smooth terminus and phasmids almost located in the middle of the tails. Males bodies were similar to females but with slightly slender and sharper tail, with paired and relatively strong spicules, and bursa peloderan. The population showed the following morphometrics: Females (n = 20) included L  =  493.97 ± 34.36 (458.45-556.38) μm, a = 25.98 ± 2.1 (22.24-28.72), b’ = 4.81 ± 0.35 (4.23-5.5), c = 15.76 ± 1.19 (13.46-17.59), c’ = 2.69 ± 0.29 (2.31-3.23), V = 57.59 ± 4.66 (50.00-66.11), V’ = 63.40 ± 3.91 (57.12-69.45), stylet length 16.02 ± 0.55 (15.36-17.29) μm, tail length 31.13 ± 2.16 (28.48-34.54) μm, M = 0.46 ± 0.03 (0.42-0.51), O = 0.16 ± 0.01 (0.14-0.17), MB = 0.57 ± 0.04 (0.52-0.63). Males (n = 20): L = 483.21 ± 29.78 (445.62-528.02) μm, a = 27.45 ± 2.1 (24.12-30.59), b’ = 4.80 ± 0.36 (4.24-5.34), c = 16.54 ± 0.98 (15.25-18.51), c’ = 2.29 ± 0.11 (2.07-2.51), stylet length 15.94 ± 0.47 (15.32-16.74) μm, tail length 29.42 ± 1.28 (27.37-31.53) μm, spicule length 18.20 ± 1.46 (15.65-21.00) μm, gubernaculum length 7.30 ± 0.68 (6.64-8.66) μm, M = 0.47 ± 0.02 (0.44-0.51), O = 0.16 ± 0.02 (0.13-0.18), MB = 0.61 ± 0.03 (0.54-0.67). The morphology of this population was in agreement with the original population of Tylenchorhynchus zeae identified in India (Sethi and Swarup, 1968). DNA was extracted from a random single nematodes (n = 10) using the Proteinase K method (Kumari and Subbotin, 2012), and the internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1) region of rDNA and D2/D3 fragments of the 28 S rRNA were amplified with universal primers rDNA2 and rDNA1.58 s (Szalanski et al., 1997), D2A and D3B (Castillo et al., 2003), respectively. PCR products were sequenced by Tsingke Biological Technology (Beijing, China). The ITS1 sequence (MN757910, 721 bp) and D2/D3 sequence (MN757911, 802 bp) were submitted to GenBank and compared with published sequences by means of BLAST search in the database. The ITS1 sequence had a remarkably similarity of 99.00 to 99.05% with the T. zeae from Taiwan Province (EF519711) in China, and from Spain (KJ461597, KJ461598, KJ461599, KJ461600). The D2/D3 sequences exhibited 99.43 to 99.73% similarity with that of T. zeae from Iran (KM068058) and Spain (KJ461563, KJ461564, KJ461565, KJ461566). According with our morphological and molecular studies, this population was identified as T. zeae. The nematode was discovered from Zea mays in India (Sethi and Swarup, 1968), from cabbage, cauliflower and Zea mays in Taiwan Province, southeast China (Chen et al., 2007), from grapevine and olive in Spain (Handoo et al., 2014). To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. zeae in Gansu Province, northwest China, which expands the geographical distribution of the species.

Acknowledgements

Funding were provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31760507) and Discipline Building Fund of Gansu Agricultural University (GAU-XKJS-2018-146).

References


  1. Castillo, P. , Vovlas, N. , Subbotin, S. A. and Troccoli, A. 2003. A new root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne baetica sp. n. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), parasitizing wild olive in Southern Spain. Phytopathology 93:1093–1102.
  2. Chen, D. Y. , Ni, H. F. and Tsay, T. T. 2007. Identification of a new recorded stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae) in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin 16:79–86.
  3. Handoo, Z. A. , Palomares-Rius, J. E. , Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C. , Liébanas, G. , Subbotin, S. A. and Castillo, P. 2014. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172:231–264.
  4. Hooper, D. J. 1990. Extraction and processing of plant and soil nematodes. In Luc, M. , Sikora, R. A. and Bridge, J. (Eds), Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 45–68.
  5. Kumari, S. and Subbotin, S. A. 2012. Molecular characterization and diagnostics of stubby root and virus vector nematodes of the family Trichodoridae (Nematoda: Triplonchida) using ribosomal RNA genes. Plant Pathology 61:1021–31.
  6. Sethi, C. L. and Swarup, G. 1968. Plant parasitic nematodes of north western India. I. The genus Tylenchorhynchus . Nematologica 14:77–88.
  7. Szalanski, A. L. , Sui, D. D. , Harris, T. S. and Powers, T. O. 1997. Identification of cyst nematodes of agronomic and regulatory concern with PCR-RFLP of ITS1. Journal of Nematology 29 :255–267.
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REFERENCES

  1. Castillo, P. , Vovlas, N. , Subbotin, S. A. and Troccoli, A. 2003. A new root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne baetica sp. n. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae), parasitizing wild olive in Southern Spain. Phytopathology 93:1093–1102.
  2. Chen, D. Y. , Ni, H. F. and Tsay, T. T. 2007. Identification of a new recorded stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae (Nematoda: Belonolaimidae) in Taiwan. Plant Pathology Bulletin 16:79–86.
  3. Handoo, Z. A. , Palomares-Rius, J. E. , Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, C. , Liébanas, G. , Subbotin, S. A. and Castillo, P. 2014. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 172:231–264.
  4. Hooper, D. J. 1990. Extraction and processing of plant and soil nematodes. In Luc, M. , Sikora, R. A. and Bridge, J. (Eds), Plant Parasitic Nematodes in Subtropical and Tropical Agriculture. CAB International, Wallingford, pp. 45–68.
  5. Kumari, S. and Subbotin, S. A. 2012. Molecular characterization and diagnostics of stubby root and virus vector nematodes of the family Trichodoridae (Nematoda: Triplonchida) using ribosomal RNA genes. Plant Pathology 61:1021–31.
  6. Sethi, C. L. and Swarup, G. 1968. Plant parasitic nematodes of north western India. I. The genus Tylenchorhynchus . Nematologica 14:77–88.
  7. Szalanski, A. L. , Sui, D. D. , Harris, T. S. and Powers, T. O. 1997. Identification of cyst nematodes of agronomic and regulatory concern with PCR-RFLP of ITS1. Journal of Nematology 29 :255–267.

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