Study of Patterns and Markers of Human Immune Deficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1) Progression and Unemployment Rate among Patients from Alexandria, Egypt


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Polish Journal of Microbiology

Polish Society of Microbiologists

Subject: Microbiology


ISSN: 1733-1331
eISSN: 2544-4646





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VOLUME 66 , ISSUE 4 (December 2017) > List of articles

Study of Patterns and Markers of Human Immune Deficiency Virus -1 (HIV-1) Progression and Unemployment Rate among Patients from Alexandria, Egypt

Faika M. Ghoneim / May M. Raouf * / Noha S. Elshaer / Sarah M. Abdelhamid / Reem A. Noor Eldeen

Keywords : Delta-32 CCR5 sequencing, HIV progression patterns, HIV-RNA viral load, HIV virus, unemployment rate among HIV cases

Citation Information : Polish Journal of Microbiology. Volume 66, Issue 4, Pages 519-527, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 17-February-2017 / Accepted: 17-May-2017 / Published Online: 04-December-2017



Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of employment for HIV-cases. A cross sectional design was adopted. HIV infected cases attending Alexandria Fever Hospital (AFH) for one year. Interview questionnaire and four CD+4 counts were done for all patients, HIV VL and delta-32 CCR5 polymorphism were done for selected cases. Sexual transmis­sion and drug abuse are the most important risk factors. Infectious comorbidity increases the rate of HIV progression. CD4+ count at the end of the study; CD+4 (4), count was significantly higher than all other CD4+ readings among the whole cohort and among the treated group. Also, VL at the end of the study; VL(2), was significantly higher than VL(1) among the untreated group. Unemployment rate was 40%. Male gender and obtaining vocational training were significant predictors of employment. It can be concluded that having a family member living with HIV and drug abusers are high risk groups for HIV acquisition. Factors responsible for progression of HIV should be further investigated. Antiretroviral therapy is very effective in checking HIV replication rate, delaying the progression of HIV, reconstitut­ing the immune response and should be available for all cases detected.


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