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  • Immunohematology

 

Article | 16-October-2019

Low-ionic-strength saline solution–antiglobulin test (LISS-AGT)

The use of low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) solution as an enhancement for antibody screening and crossmatching was first described by Löw and Messeter in 1974. This method allowed for a reduced incubation time while maintaining adequate specificity and sensitivity of the antiglobulin test (AGT). Since then, the LISS-AGT tube method has been widely used in antibody detection and identification, as well as compatibility testing. As initially described, the method used red blood cells

LeeAnn Walker

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 57–60

Article | 03-November-2020

Comparison of affinity column technology and LISS tube tests

, the antibodies become attached to the RBC surface. When the microcolumns are centrifuged, the RBCs pass through a viscous barrier into an active matrix containing proteins G and A. Positive tests adhere at the top of the gel and negative tests pass through, settling to the bottom. This study was undertaken to compare affinity column technology with low-ionic saline solution (LISS) tube tests in a reference laboratory setting. Over a 1-year period, 314 samples were tested in parallel by affinity

Kayla D. Champagne, Peggy Spruell, Jane Chen, Leslie Voll, Gloria Schlanser, Marilyn Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 149–151

Article | 17-November-2020

LISS-dependent autoantibody with apparent anti-U specificity

Nonspecific binding of gamma globulin and complement, resulting in falsely positive indirect antiglobulin tests, has occurred with use of low-ionic strength saline solution (LISS) reagents. These LISS-dependent antibodies have not been described in association with any particular disease state, nor do they have any apparent clinical significance. We present a LISS-dependent antibody with apparent autoanti-U specificity.

J.T. Chiofolo, M.E. Reid, D. Charles-Pierre

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 18–21

Article | 09-November-2020

The gel test: sensitivity and specificity for unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The recently FDA-licensed anti-IgG gel test for pretransfusion antibody detection requires crossover validation before implementation. Six hundred coded samples sent for routine pretransfusion tests were used to compare GEL (ID-MTS, Ortho Diagnostic Systems Inc., Raritan, NJ) with Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline (LISS). There were 456 GEL–LISS–, 97 GEL+LISS+, 45 GEL–LISS+, and 2 GEL+LISS– tests. The 144 positive tests involved 157 antibodies; 67

W. John Judd, E. Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 132–135

Report | 29-October-2019

Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline–albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization

Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch (IAT-XM) using enhancement media such as low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) usually requires 15 minutes of incubation. These methods are necessary when testing samples from blood recipients who have a higher risk of alloimmunization. In emergency situations, IAT-XM can be time-consuming and can influence presurgery routine, resulting in more red blood cell (RBC) units being tested and stored to avoid the transfusion of 

Carla Luana Dinardo, Sílvia Leão Bonifácio, Alfredo Mendrone Júnior

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

Article | 26-October-2020

A comparison of a new affinity column system with a conventional tube LISS-antiglobulin test for antibody detection

A recently introduced system for antibody detection (ReACT™) consists of affinity columns (AFC) that contain protein A and protein Gcoated agarose. We compared the ReACT™ system to a conventional tube low-ionic-strength saline antiglobulin test (LISS-AGT). We selected 100 LISS-AGT positive samples with clinically important and benign antibodies of varying strengths and 130 LISS-AGT negative samples to evaluate by the AFC method. AFC tests were positive with all 84 clinically

R. Sue Shirey, Joan S. Boyd, Christine Barrasso, Karen E. King, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 75–77

Article | 03-November-2020

The gel test: use in the identification of unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The IgG GEL test was compared with the LISS tube test (Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline) for antibody identification. The suitability of red blood cells (RBCs) pretreated with ficin, dithiothreitol (DTT), or chloroquine diphosphate (CDP) also was assessed for use in the GEL test. In addition, time-in-motion studies were performed comparing GEL (12 panels per batch) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) tube tests (3 panels per batch). In 57 antibody identification studies, there

W. John Judd, E.Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf, Colleen Masters

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Article | 14-October-2020

Loss of enzyme-sensitive antigens due to the presence of leukocytes, neomycin sulfate, and LISS

Previous studies have shown that RBCs with residual WBCs stored in LISS and neomycin sulfate develop characteristics associated with enzyme-treated RBCs. During a mass screening program to antigen type donor RBCs, we observed that the Fya antigens on a RBC sample from an in-house panel became non-detectable with anti-Fya after incubation overnight in Diluent 2 from Micro Typing Systems, Inc. (MTS, Pompano Beach, FL). In response to this observation, we initiated an investigation to determine

Randall W. Velliquette, Paula Howard, Harry Malyska, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 109–111

Article | 17-November-2020

Analysis ofthe routine use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an enhancement medium

This study compared the performance of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and low-ionic saline solutions (LISS) as enhancement media for routine use in a large transfusion service. A PEG additive solution (PEG plus LISS) was compared to a LISS additive (LISS plus polymers) and to an albumin-indirect antiglobulin test (A-IAT). Fifty serum samples containing clinically significant alloantibodies and fifty samples without alloantibodies were tested. Following an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR

Vicki J. Barrett, James R. Stubbs, Karen Stuardi, Angela Hollis, Leslie Clear

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 11–13

Article | 14-October-2020

Selecting an acceptable and safe antibody detection test can present a dilemma

The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant

Martha Rae Combs, Steven J. Bredehoeft

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 86–89

Research Article | 01-December-2017

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SVM KERNELS ON MULTISPECTRAL LISS III DATA FOR OBJECT CLASSIFICATION

S.V.S. Prasad, T. Satya Savithri, Iyyanki V. Murali Krishna

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 829–844

Research Article | 01-December-2017

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF SVM KERNELS ON MULTISPECTRAL LISS III DATA FOR OBJECT CLASSIFICATION

S.V.S. Prasad, T. Satya Savithri, Iyyanki V. Murali Krishna

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 863–878

Article | 27-April-2020

On a much higher than reported incidence of anti-c in R1R1 patients with anti-E

A previous study involving tube IATs, untreated RBCs, and a lowionic-strength additive reagent revealed that approximately onethird of R1R1 patients with anti-E have a concomitant anti-c. However,the current study finds a much higher incidence of anti-c in such patients, using gel technology in conjunction with ficinpretreated RBCs. Results of antibody identification studies and transfusion records of 82 R1R1 patients with anti-E were reviewed. Serologic test methods included a LISS wash

W. John Judd, Louann R. Dake, Robertson D. Davenport

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 94–96

Article | 14-October-2020

One thousand seventy antibodies detected only by a 2-stage papain test: wanted and unwanted positive reactions

Despite the wide use of the antibody detection test for unexpected antibodies, controversy still remains regarding the use of enzymetreated red blood cells. Over a 6-year period, 72,573 samples from 49,863 patients submitted for pretransfusion compatibility testing were examined for unexpected antibodies. The antibody detection tests included a low-ionic-strength solution (LISS) indirect antiglobulin test and a two-stage papain (2SP) test. One thousand and seventy of the 2267 (47%) antibodies

Carmen Martin-Vega, Dolores Castella, Joan Cid, Marta Panadés

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 122–124

Case report | 29-December-2020

Evaluation of a complement-dependent anti-Jka by various sensitization and detection methodologies: a case report

A 79-year-old woman with a diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal bleeding was found to have a complement-dependent anti-Jka in her serum. The anti-Jka was evaluated by the antiglobulin technique with polyspecific, anti-C3, and anti-IgG antihuman globulin (AHG). A variety of sensitization and detection methods were used, including the prewarmed saline technique, enzyme treatment of test cells, a low-ionic additive solution (LISS), 22 percent albumin, Polybrene, and an increased serum/cell ratio

E. Nicole DeLong

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 3, 59–63

Letter | 14-October-2020

Letter to the Editors: A hemolytic transfusion reaction due to anti-K undetected by a LISS antibody screen

Mark T. Friedman, Alan P. Carioti

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 90–91

Article | 14-October-2020

Tube and column agglutination technology for autocontrol testing

agglutination tests. The tube method was carried out using low-ionic-strength solution (LISS). The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was performed using the tube method, and further investigated with elution studies if warranted. Seventy-nine patient’s samples (7.74%) had a positive autocontrol: the gel test, 72 (91.13%); ReACT, 21 (26.58%); and the tube method, 27 (34.18%). Of the 79 positive autocontrols, 44 samples had a negative DAT. Of the samples with positive DAT results, only one possessed a

J.E. Courtney, J.L. Vincent, A.J. Indrikovs

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 50–52

Report | 14-March-2020

Comparison of gel test and conventional tube test for antibody detection and titration in D-negative pregnant women: study from a tertiary-care hospital in North India

for antibody detection and titration. The tube test detected 84 (12.8%) positive samples as compared with 93 (14.2%) by gel test, indicating the latter to be more sensitive (p < 0.01). The gel test picked up weakly reactive anti-D that the tube test missed. We did not use any enhancing media such as LISS in titration studies performed by either method in an effort to establish a correlation. However, much higher titers (one- to fivefold) were obtained by the gel test with no clear correlation

Manish K. Thakur, Neelam Marwaha, Praveen Kumar, Subhash C. Saha, Beenu Thakral, Ratti Ram Sharma, Karan Saluja, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Ashish Jain

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 4, 174–177

Article | 30-November-2020

Misidentification of anti-Vel due to inappropriate use of prewarming and adsorption techniques

the reactivity at the IAT. The patient was transfused with two units of washed RBCs and died 6 to 8 hours later. Retrospective testing in our laboratory detected anti-Vel in both pretransfusion and posttransfusion samples. The pretransfusion serum was hemolytic when tested in LISS or with papain-treated RBCs. Weak reactivity (1+) was observed at the IAT. EDTA-treated serum (to prevent C‘-mediated hemolysis) was strongly reactive (3+s) with Vel+ RBCs but compatible with 10 examples of Vel

Jill Storry, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 3, 83–86

Article | 15-April-2020

In search of the Holy Grail: comparison of antibody screening methods

Tony S. Casina

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 196–202

Review | 09-October-2019

How to recognize and resolve reagentdependent reactivity: a review

Gavin C. Patch, Charles F. Hutchinson, Nancy A. Lang, Ghada Khalife

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 96–99

Case report | 01-December-2019

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria: a case report

Scott C. Wise, Sheila H. Tinsley, Lloyd O. Cook

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 118–123

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