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Review | 11-March-2020

The ISBT 700 series of low-incidence and 901 series of high-incidence blood group antigens

The International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on Terminology for Red Cell Surface Antigens developed a terminology that brought order to the chaos of antigen names. They classified antigens into three categories: systems, collections, and series. This review summarizes the early decisions of the Working Party with an emphasis on the 700 series of low-incidence antigens and 901 series of high-incidence antigens.

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 4, 131–135

Review | 16-October-2019

Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the International Society of Blood Transfusion collections, 700 series of low-incidence antigens, and 901 series of high-incidence antigens

This article reviews information regarding the clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the blood group collections, the 700 series of low-incidence antigens, and the 901 series of high-incidence antigens. Antibodies to many of the antigens in these groups are rarely encountered, meaning that available information is limited. For a few, the clinical significance— the potential to cause reduced survival of transfused antigen-positive red blood cells, a hemolytic transfusion

Christine Lomas-Francis

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 39–45

Article | 14-October-2020

Loss of enzyme-sensitive antigens due to the presence of leukocytes, neomycin sulfate, and LISS

Previous studies have shown that RBCs with residual WBCs stored in LISS and neomycin sulfate develop characteristics associated with enzyme-treated RBCs. During a mass screening program to antigen type donor RBCs, we observed that the Fya antigens on a RBC sample from an in-house panel became non-detectable with anti-Fya after incubation overnight in Diluent 2 from Micro Typing Systems, Inc. (MTS, Pompano Beach, FL). In response to this observation, we initiated an investigation to determine

Randall W. Velliquette, Paula Howard, Harry Malyska, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 109–111

Article | 20-April-2020

Rh antigens and phenotype frequencies of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar, Nigeria

This report forms part of the study on the Rh phenotypes within the various ethnic nationalities in the south-south region of Nigeria. The aim is to demonstrate the Rh polymorphisms among the people of African descent. The frequencies of Rh blood group antigens and phenotypes of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar municipality, Nigeria, were determined using standard serologic techniques. Of the 720 Calabar individuals tested, the frequencies of the Rh antigens within the

Z. Awortu Jeremiah, Chris Odumody

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 21–24

Article | 14-October-2020

Low-incidence MNS antigens associated with single amino acid changes and their susceptibility to enzyme treatment

MNS antigens are carried on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or their variants. Antigens at the N-terminus of GPA are sensitive to cleavage by ficin, papain, and trypsin but are resistant to α-chymotrypsin. Antigens at the N-terminus of GPB are sensitive to cleavage by ficin, papain, and α-chymotrypsin but are resistant to trypsin treatment. These characteristics have been used to aid in the identification of blood group alloantibodies. Recent molecular analyses have

Marion E. Reid, Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 76–81

Report | 12-March-2020

Occurrence of antibodies to low-incidence antigens among a cohort of multiply transfused patients with sickle cell disease

Data from an immunohematology reference laboratory were compiled retrospectively to determine the occurrence of the formation of alloantibodies to low-incidence antigens associated with the African American population (AA-LIAs) among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The AA-LIAs under study were V, VS, Jsa, and Goa. The records from 137 recurrently transfused patients with SCD were selected on the basis of transfusion activity from the 2009 calendar year. We found that 13 patients (9.49

Pamela Jackson

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 4, 143–145

Article | 26-October-2020

EDTA/glycine-acid versus chloroquine diphosphate treatment for stripping Bg antigens from red blood cells

EDTA/glycine-acid (EGA) has been reported to remove IgG-bound antibodies from red blood cells (RBCs) and to denature Kell system and Era antigens. EGA-treated RBCs were tested in parallel with chloroquine diphosphate (CDP)-treated RBCs to evaluate whether EGA would remove Bg antigens from RBCs as efficiently as CDP. Fifty-seven serum/plasma samples containing known Bg antibodies were tested with untreated Bg+ RBCs, EGA-treated Bg+ RBCs, and CDP-treated Bg+ RBCs by an indirect antiglobulin test

Kayla D. Champagne, Peggy Spruell, Jane Chen, Leslie Voll, Gloria Schlanser

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 66–68

Article | 26-October-2020

Terminology for red cell antigens - 1999 update

Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 95–99

Review | 16-October-2019

Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Raph, John Milton Hagen, I, Globoside, Gill, Rh-associated glycoprotein, FORS, JR, LAN, Vel, CD59, and Augustine blood group systems

This article reviews information on the clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Raph, John Milton Hagen, I, Globoside, Gill, Rh-associated glycoprotein, FORS, JR, LAN, Vel, CD59, and Augustine blood group systems. Antibodies to many of the antigens in these groups are rarely encountered because of the high prevalence of the associated antigens in most populations. For many of these antibodies, the clinical significance—that is, the potential to cause reduced survival of

Mostafa Moghaddam, Amir Ali Naghi

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 85–90

Review | 16-October-2019

Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, LandsteinerWeiner, Chido/Rodgers, H, Kx, Cromer, Gerbich, Knops, Indian, and Ok blood group systems

This article reviews information regarding the clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Chido/Rodgers, H, Kx, Cromer, Gerbich, Knops, Indian, and Ok blood group systems. Like most blood group systems, antibodies to many of the antigens in these groups are rarely encountered because of the high prevalence of the associated antigens in most populations. For many, the clinical significance—that is, the potential to cause reduced

Sofia Lejon Crottet

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 103–108

Review | 09-November-2020

Review: conditions causing weak expression of Kell system antigens

Ragnhild Øyen, Gregory R. Halverson, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 3, 75–79

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Knops blood group system

York Antigen York (Yka) was assigned when the Knops (KN) blood group system (system 22) was established.1 The number given for the Yk(a–) phenotype was KN:–5, and the allele was designated as KN*01.-05. Although the molecular mechanism for the more well-known high-prevalence antigens (e.g., Kna, McCa, and Sl1) were identified fairly rapidly, that for Yka was elusive. In 2011, Veldhuisen et al.2 identified a mutation at c.4223C>T that resulted in the change of threonine to methionine at amino

J.M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 06-December-2020

Effect of enzymes on and chemical modifications of high-frequency red cell antigens

Enzyme or chemical modification of intact red cells results in the destruction of some blood group antigens. The pattern of reactions of an antibody with red cells treated with various proteinases, with sialidase, and with the disulfide bond-reducing agent 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide (AET) can aid in antibody identification. This information can prove particularly beneficial with antibodies to antigens of very high frequency, where antigen-negative cells may be difficult to obtain

Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 53–57

Article | 14-December-2020

Phosphatidylinositol-linked red blood cell membrane proteins and blood group antigens

the lack of expression of GPI-anchored proteins that is responsible for manifestations of the acquired hematologic disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Recently, several investigators have also demonstrated that a number of erythrocyte blood group antigens reside on this class of proteins. These antigens include those of the Cromer blood group, JMH, Holley/Gregory, Cartwright, and Dombrock. The biochemical basis for the Cromer, JMH, and Holley/Gregory antigens have so far been partly

Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 65–72

Article | 10-November-2020

Evidence that the low-incidence red cell antigens R1a and Lsa are identical

Testing of Ls(a+) and R1(a+) red cells with numerous antisera containing antibodies to low-incidence antigens indicated that these antigens are identical. This conclusion was confirmed by adsorption and elution tests, and supported by immunoblotting of Ls(a+) and R1(a+) cells with antibodies to giycophorin C and glycophorin D.

Leif Kornstad, Carole Green, Pertti Sistonen, Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Review | 14-October-2020

Review: Biochemistry of carbohydrate blood group antigens

This review presents the basics of the structural chemistry of blood group glycoconjugates,with special reference to red cell serology. Its aim is to create an appreciation of the inherent subtleties of the carbohydrate blood group antigens, which are currently poorly understood within the field of blood transfusion. It is hoped that a better understanding of the intricacies of the carbohydrate blood group systems will lead to further contributions to the body of knowledge within this growing

Lissa G. Gilliver, Stephen M. Henry

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 33–42

Report | 01-December-2019

Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors

Blood group antigens can be distributed differently within different nationalities. Therefore, information about the prevalence of blood group antigens in the Lao population will be useful for providing better blood transfusion services in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of blood group antigens in Lao blood donors. Blood samples from 464 Lao national volunteer blood donors were typed for antigens in various blood group

Chirapha Keokhamphoui, Yupa Urwijitaroon, Douangchanh Kongphaly, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 132–136

Review | 26-October-2019

Kidd blood group system: a review

The Kidd blood group system has been recognized as clinically important in red blood cell (RBC) serology since its identification in 1951. Forty years later, the JK glycoprotein was determined to be a product of SCL14A1 and was identical to the urea transport protein UT-B produced by HUT11A. The functional role of the protein as a urea transporter in RBCs and kidney has been well documented. The polymorphism responsible for the antithetical antigens Jka and Jkb was identified in 1994 as c.838G

Janis R. Hamilton

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 29–35

Article | 14-October-2020

Rh antigen and phenotype frequencies and probable genotypes for the four main ethnic groups in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Rh is the most complex and polymorphic of the RBC group systems and is of major importance in transfusion medicine. Data are not available on the frequency of Rh antigens D, C, E, c, and e in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Two mL of venous blood was collected into an EDTA tube from each of 400 persons of mixed ethnic groups recruited for the study. The study population comprised 167 Ijaws (41.8%), 141 Ikwerres (35.2%), 50 Ekpeyes (12.5%), and 42 Ogonis (10.5%). The RBCs were phenotyped for D, C, E, c

Zac Awortu Jeremiah, F.I. Buseri

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 86–88

Report | 16-October-2019

Rh and Kell blood group antigen prevalence in a multi-ethnic cohort in Nigeria: implications for local transfusion service

Antigens belonging to the Rh and Kell blood group systems are of major clinical significance because of their immunogenicity and the potential of their consequent antibodies to cause in vivo destruction of exogenous red blood cells (RBCs). Despite the widespread use of transfusion, there are sparse data on the prevalence of Rh and Kell system antigens and their ethnic variability in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the five major Rh (D, C, c, E, e) and

Ademola Samson Adewoyin, Grace Ming Lee, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo, Omolade Augustina Awodu

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 61–65

Article | 17-November-2020

Loss of the Knops blood group system antigens from stored blood

Complement receptor type one (CR1) is a polymorphic glycoprotein, present on red blood cells (RBCs), that carries the Knops blood group system antigens. Since Knops system antigens can vary in strength, we investigated whether CR1 deteriorated upon storage, thus affecting Knops blood group system antigen reactivity. Units of whole blood were collected in CPDA-1 and evaluated at day 0 and day 35 for antigen strength, using routine serologic techniques. CR1 was quantitated by an enzyme-linked

Joann M. Moulds, L. Lee Brown, Elizabeth Brukheimer

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 46–50

Article | 17-February-2021

K antigens on neonatal red blood cells blocked by anti-K with titer of 32

Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is one of the serious causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It occurs because of a difference in red blood cell (RBC) antigens between the mother and fetus. The mother is alloimmunized during pregnancy or after blood transfusion. The mother’s antibodies, when of the IgG class, enter the placental circulation, bind to fetal antigens on the RBC surface, and cause hemolysis and/or anemia as a consequence of erythropoiesis suppression. The

J. Novoselac, M. Raos, G. Tomac, M. Lukić, B. Golubić Ćepulić

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 54–57

Report | 26-October-2019

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Article | 22-November-2020

Glycine-EDTA treatment to prepare Ko red blood cells: preservation of high-frequency antigens

Reactivity of high-incidence antigens after glycine-EDTA treatment of red blood cells (RBCs) to prepare artificial Ko RBCs was investigated. The treatment had little or no effect on Yta, JMH, Yka, Kna, and McCa. Hy antigen-positive-treated RBCs reacted less well with anti-Hy when compared to nontreated cells. Glycine-EDTA treatment to prepare Ko RBCs offers an advantage over AET treatment because it preserves some high-frequency antigens that AET treatment does not.

Jana Julleis, Cindy Sapp, Ram Kakaiya

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 2, 64–65

Article | 16-November-2020

Effect of pronase on highincidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes

Pronase is a useful and relatively nonspecific protease that cleaves many red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins that carry blood group antigens. Unexpected findings in tests using pronase-treated RBCs during the investigation of a patient’s blood sample led us to test which high-incidence blood group antigens were sensitive and which were resistant to pronase treatment, and to determine the prevalence of antipronase in the serum of blood donors. Our results show that antigens in the

Marion E. Reid, Carole A. Green, Jack Hoffer, Ragnhild Øyen

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 139–142

Article | 26-October-2019

An overview of the use of SNaPshot for predicting blood group antigens

The use of SNaPshot (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) for predicting blood group antigens has emerged as an alternative to hemagglutination testing and also to the current low- and highthroughput blood group genotyping methods. Several groups have developed multiplex–polymerase chain reaction SNaPshot assays to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in blood group genes with the purpose of identifying clinically relevant antigens and rare alleles. The selection of SNPs is

Flavia R.M. Latini, Lilian M. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 53–57

Article | 09-November-2020

Frequency of neutrophil-specific antigens among Koreans using the granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test (GIFT)

NA1, NA2, NB1, NB2, NC1, and NE1 are a group of antigens specifically expressed on neutrophils. Antibodies against neutrophil-specific antigens are involved in alloimmune neonatal neutropenia (ANN), autoimmune neutropenia (AIN), and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). We investigated the frequencies of NA1, NA2, NB1, and Mart antigens in 105 healthy Korean blood donors (65 males, 40 females) by the granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test (GIFT) employing flow cytometry. Antigen

Kyou S. Han, Tae H. Um

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 15–16

Case report | 16-October-2019

A delayed and acute hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by anti-c in a patient with variant RH alleles

The Rh system is the most complex of the human blood groups. Of the 55 antigens that have been characterized, the system’s principal antigens D, C, E, c, and e are responsible for the majority of clinically significant Rh antibodies. In the last few years, advancements in molecular testing have provided a wealth of information on the genetic diversity of the Rh locus. This case report describes a patient with variant RHD*DAR alleles inherited in conjunction with two compound heterozygote

Tiffany K. Walters, Thomas Lightfoot

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 109–112

Review | 15-April-2020

Review: molecular basis of MNS blood group variants

The MNS blood group antigens are expressed in the RBC membrane on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or combinations of both. GPA expresses the M or N antigen,whereas GPB expresses the S or s antigen and the N antigen (′N′). Both glycophorin genes (GYPA and GYPB) are located on the long arm of chromosome 4 and share 95 percent sequence identity. This high degree of sequence identity, together with the rare involvement of a third homologous gene (GYPE), provides an increased

P. Palacajornsuk

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 171–182

Report | 25-March-2020

Value of DNA-based  assays for donor screening and  regulatory issues

Hemagglutination, the gold standard method to detect the presence or absence of blood group antigens on RBCs, has served the transfusion community well for decades.  It is simple, and, when done correctly, it has a specificity and sensitivity that is appropriate for most testing in the vast majority of patients requiring blood transfusion.  The limitations of hemagglutination for screening donor blood include that both testing and data entry are labor-intensive, that the required

Donna Strauss, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 175–179

Article | 20-December-2020

Cromer-related blood group antigens and the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked protein, decay-accelerating factor DAF (CD55)

Cromer-related blood group antigens are located on the complement regulatory glycoprotein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF is not detectable on red cells from individuals with a Cromernull phenotype (termed Inab), which is probably an inherited condition. DAF is also absent from a subpopulation of red cells (PNH III) from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired hematological defect. PNH III red cells, like Inab cells, lack all the Cromer-related antigens

Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 27–29

Article | 26-October-2019

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay for blood group genotyping, copy number quantification, and analysis of  RH variants

The blood group multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a comprehensive assay, developed for genotyping the majority of clinically relevant blood group antigens in both patients and donors. The MLPA is an easy method to apply and only requires a thermal cycler and capillary electrophoresis equipment. Because the molecular basis of blood group antigens can be a single nucleotide polymorphism, an insertion/deletion polymorphism, or genetic recombination, a single assay such as

Barbera Veldhuisen, C. Ellen van der Schoot, Masja de Haas

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 58–61

Article | 06-December-2020

Alloimmunization by blood group antigens from bone allografts

The purpose of this report is to heighten awareness of the risk of blood group antigen sensitization following bone allografting. Two Rh-negative females of childbearing age developed multiple antibodies to Rh antigens following transplantation of bone from Rh-positive donors. A previous pregnancy and/or blood transfusions were ruled out as factors influencing the antibody production. It is postulated that red cells or red cell stroma in the allografts stimulated the antibody production

C. Elizabeth Musclow, Glen Dietz, Robert S. Bell, Madeleine Beaudry-Clouatre

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 102–104

Report | 11-March-2020

The Indian blood group system

The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: Ina (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen Inb (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane

Qun Xu

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 89–93

Article | 14-October-2020

Screening for RBC antibodies - what should we expect from antibody detection RBCs

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration mandates that red blood cells (RBCs) for antibody detection possess the following antigens: C, D, E, c, e, M, N, S, s, P1, Lea , Leb , K, k, Fya, Fyb, Jka, and Jkb. Although not required, it is generally agreed that homozygosity for C, D, E, c, e, Fya, and Jka is also preferable.There is no requirement for low-frequency antigens to be present.However, manufacturers of antibody detection RBCs receive requests for these RBCs to possess Cw

George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 71–77

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of LOR-15C9 monoclonal anti-D to differentiate erythrocytes with the partial DVI antigen from those with other partial D antigens or weak D antigens

Historically, red blood cells (RBCs) with partial D antigens have been defined serologically by their pattern of reactivity with polyclonal and monoclonal anti-D. Although numerous variants have been described in tests with well-characterized monoclonal anti-D, definition remains difficult to ascertain serologically. RBCs of known partial D type were tested with LOR-15C9 (a monoclonal anti-D) and commercial anti-D by the tube indirect antiglobulin test (IAT), by micro typing system IgG gel

Marion E. Reid, Gregory R. Halverson, Francis Roubinet, P.A. Apoil, Antoine Blancher

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 89–93

Case report | 09-November-2020

Antibodies to low-incidence antigens and elimination of the antihuman globulin phase of the crossmatch - case report: anti-Wra

An antibody to a low-incidence antigen was identified in the serum of a nontransfused male patient. The antibody was subsequently identified as anti-Wra and was only detectable at the antihuman globulin (AHG) phase of the crossmatch. Instances of severe hemolytic transfusion reactions have been reported following the transfusion of red blood cells containing low-incidence antigens in patients with antibodies directed toward these antigens (e.g., antiWra, -Cob, -Jsa, etc.). Elimination of the

Scott C. Wise, Patricia J. Larison, Lloyd O. Cook

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 20–22

Review | 20-March-2020


The Lutheran blood group system consists of 19 antigens: four pairs of antithetical antigens—Lua/Lub, Lu6/Lu9, Lu8/Lu14, and Aua/Aub—and 11 antigens of very high frequency. These antigens are located on four of the five immunoglobulin-like domains of both isoforms of the Lutheran glycoprotein. The LU gene is on chromosome 19 and comprises 15 exons. The two glycoprotein isoforms differ in the length of their cytoplasmic tails as a result of alternative splicing of intron 13. Lunull

Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 152–159

Report | 11-March-2020

Should we be screening for anti-Jsa?

We analyzed our historic patient database at North Shore University Hospital and determined both the overall frequency of anti-Jsa and the frequency at which it was detected in combination with other alloantibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. Screening cells used currently are negative for Jsa. Our data suggest that anti-Jsa would not be detected in 30 to 40 percent of patients in which it is the sole antibody present. Since 1996 the antibody was only detected when other antibodies were

Nancy M. Nikolis, Fouad Boctor, William Andrew Heaton, James Martone

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 104–106

Article | 14-December-2020

Decreased ABH blood group antigen expression associated with preleukemic conditions and acute leukemia: loss of detectable B, then A antigens in a group AB patient progressing from a myelodysplastic syndrome to leukemia

Decreased or absent expression of blood group antigens is well known to occur in acute leukemia. In some carcinomas, the malignant solid tumor cells have also been shown to lose normal blood group antigen expression. In both carcinoma and hematologic malignancies, these findings have been associated with a more aggressive behavior of the neoplasm. A 34-year-old, group AB, Rh positive woman was diagnosed with a preleukemic condition, myelodysplastic syndrome, in December 1988. In April 1989 B

Kaaron Benson

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 4, 89–93

Article | 03-November-2020

GIL: a red cell antigen of very high frequency

A new high-frequency red cell antigen has been identified and named GIL. GIL differs from all high-frequency antigens included in the International Society of Blood Transfusion classification. There is very little family information and GIL has not been shown to be an inherited character. Five women with anti-GIL have been found. All had been pregnant at least twice. Red blood cells of two of the babies gave positive direct antiglobulin tests, but there were no clinical signs of hemolytic

Geoff Daniels, E. Nicole DeLong, Virginia Hare, Susan T. Johnson, Pierre-Yves LePennec, Delores Mallory, M. Jane Marshall, Cindy Oliver, Peggy Spruell

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 49–52

Case report | 14-October-2020

Red blood cell antigen changes in malignancy: case report and review

Red blood cell (RBC) antigens represent inherited traits and as such, their expression should be constant throughout the life of an individual. We describe a patient in whom the expression of the Rh D and C antigens was lost due to the development of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). For this patient, this represented more than a blood bank curiosity but was of critical importance in determining further treatment of the leukemia. The mechanisms behind changes in RBC antigens due to malignancy

Jeffrey L. Winters, Dianna S. Howard

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 1–9

Report | 16-October-2019

Validity and reliability of serologic immunophenotyping of multiple blood group systems by ORTHO Sera with fully automated procedure

The increase of immunization against blood group antigens has reinforced the need for automated extensive blood typing. The aim of this study was to assess both the validity and reliability of red blood cell (RBC) automated agglutination technology in testing for antigens of Kidd (Jk), Duffy (Fy), and MNS (Ss) blood systems. ORTHO Sera (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ) anti-Jka, anti-Jkb, Anti-Fya, anti-Fyb, anti-S, and anti-s reagents were each tested on RBC samples previously typed

Ugo Salvadori, Roberto Melotti, Daniela L'Altrella, Massimo Daves, Ahmad Al-Khaffaf, Laura Milizia, Rossana Putzulu, Renata Filippi, Aurelio Carolo, Giuseppe Lippi, Ivo Gentilini

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 140–147

Review | 12-March-2020

Granulocyte serology: current concepts and clinical signifcance

Applying serologic procedures to the detection of RBC and lymphocyte antigens has facilitated the identification of granulocyte antigens with established clinical significance, which are now classified in the human neutrophil antigen system. Granulocyte alloantibodies and autoantibodies have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions including alloimmune neutropenia, autoimmune neutropenia, febrile and severe pulmonary transfusion reactions, drug-induced neutropenia, refractoriness to

Mary E. Clay, Randy M. Schuller, Gary J. Bachowski

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 11–21

Article | 01-April-2020

Human platelet alloantigen systems in three Chinese ethnic populations

Knowledge of the prevalence of human platelet antigens (HPA) in different populations is important for effective diagnosis and management of immune-mediated platelet disorders. The purpose of this study was to determine HPA gene frequencies in the majority Han ethnic population of China and in ethnic She and Tajik minority populations. Using PCR sequence specific primers,HPA1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -6, we determined genotypes for ethnic Han,She, and Tajik blood donors. HPA gene frequencies for

Lixing Yan, Faming Zhu, J He, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 6–10

Report | 01-December-2019

A novel JK null allele associated with typing discrepancies among African Americans

. Results of donor genotyping were compared with previously recorded results of serologic tests, and discrepant results were investigated. Although the two previously identified polymorphisms were not detected in the discrepant samples, a novel allele (191G>A) was identified and was assigned the ISBT number JK*02N.09. This study illustrates a limitation of using single-nucleotide polymorphisms for prediction of blood group antigens.

Katrina L. Billingsley, Jeff B. Posadas, Joann M. Moulds, Lakshmi K. Gaur

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 145–148

Original Paper | 09-October-2019

Modeling alloantibody formation to highincidence red blood cell antigens in immune responders using genotypic data  

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is unpredictable and poorly understood. Patients who are negative for highincidence antigens (HIAs) are at risk for developing the corresponding antibodies. Molecular methods can easily predict the lack of an antigen and thus, the risk of an individual to become immunized. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for HIA alloimmunization in patients at risk based on genotyping results. Genotyping using a molecular method (HEA BeadChip&trade

Patricia A.R. Brunker, Keerthana Ravindran, R. Sue Shirey

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 9–14

Review | 20-March-2020

Recognition and management of antibodies to human platelet antigens in platelet transfusion–refractory patients

formation, antibodies to human platelet antigens (HPAs), an even less common immune factor, may rise proportionately. Carefully matched apheresis platelets can substantially improve platelet count increments in the setting of HLA and HPA alloantibody-mediated transfusion refractoriness. An evidence-based HPA testing strategy is described along with the incidence and specificity of HPA antibodies in platelet transfusion refractoriness. Optimal strategies to manage patients with HPA or combined HPA and

Ralph R. Vassallo

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 119–124

Article | 10-November-2020

Glycophorin A-deficient red cells may have a weak expression of C4-bound Ch and Rg antigens

The blood group antigens Ch and Rg are polymorphisms of C4d. Antigen-positive red blood cells (RBCs) treated with proteases type as Ch-, Rg-. Although RBCs treated with sialidase may type Ch+ Rg+, they cannot be coated with C4 by the 10 percent sucrose method. Since studies of complement binding have shown that glycophorin A (GPA) is an important component for the uptake of C4 by RBCs, we tested all available GPA-deficient RBCs for their Ch and Rg status. Using eluates of human anti-Ch and anti

Patricia Tippett, Jill Storry, Phyllis Walker, Yasuto Okubo, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 4–7

Article | 18-October-2020

Further characterization of transfusion-related acute lung injury: demographics, clinical and laboratory features, and morbidity

. The male-to-female ratio was approximately 1:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years. The most frequent presenting symptom or signs were acute respiratory distress, hypotension, and hypertension. Antibodies to human leukocyte antigens or granulocytes were identified in 61 percent of cases, with 50 percent associated with antibodies in a donor whose blood had been transfused to a patient developing TRALI. Clinical recovery occurred in 87 percent of patients, but TRALI contributed to deaths in 13

Mark A. Popovsky, N. Rebecca Haley

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 4, 157–159

Article | 01-April-2020

H-deficient Bombay and paraBombay red blood cells are most strongly agglutinated by the galactophilic lectins of Aplysia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that detect I and P1 antigens

The galactophilic lectins Aplysia gonad lectin (AGL) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa lectin (PA-IL),which detect human I and P1 RBC antigens, were examined for hemagglutination of H+ (group O and B) and H-deficient (Bombay and para-Bombay phenotype) RBCs. The results were compared with those obtained using two other galactophilic lectins, Maclura pomifera lectin (MPL) and Arachis hypogaea (peanut) agglutinin (PNA), which share T-antigen affinity, and two fucose-binding H-specific lectins, Ulex

Nechama Gilboa-Garber, Dvora Sudakevitz, Cyril Levene, Naomi Rahimi-Levene, Vered Yahalom

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 15–22

original-paper | 28-June-2019

Analysis of the Amino Acid Sequence Variation of the 67–72p Protein and the Structural Pili Proteins of Corynebacterium diphtheriae for their Suitability as Potential Vaccine Antigens

involved in adhesion, colonization, and induction of the cell apoptosis in the early stage of infection, which should be used in a preliminary research for the finding of new vaccine antigens. Experimental Materials and Methods Bacterial strains. In total, 10 C. diphtheriae non-toxigenic isolates were used in this study (Table I). Strains were isolated in Poland in 2010–2017 from patients with bacteremia, wound infection, septic arthritis, endocarditis, and serous cyst contents. The strain NCTC


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 68 , ISSUE 2, 233–246

Article | 16-February-2021


The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognizes 36 blood group systems, which contain a total of 322 antigens.1 Table 1 shows the current blood group systems and the number of antigens within each system. The information presented during the Workshop on the Clinical Significance of Red Blood Cell Alloantibodies was collated data from the main review resources available, including Human Blood Groups by Daniels,2 The Blood Group Antigen Factsbook by Reid et al.,3 and

N.M. Thornton, S.P. Grimsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

Review | 06-December-2020

Low-Frequency Antigens (LFAs)

Anatole Lubenko

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 56–58

Report | 25-March-2020

From DNA to blood groups

of a gene, its processing from DNA through RNA to an amino acid sequence, and how changes in nucleotides give rise to blood group antigens.

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 166–169

Article | 18-October-2020

Frequency of HLA-DQB*06 in Caucasian, African American, and Mexican American patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test

A reduced frequency of HLA-DQ6 in patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was previously reported but race was undisclosed. Therefore, we investigated a total of 275 patients (80 Caucasian, 113 African American, and 82 Mexican American) and 518 normal controls (205 Caucasian, 208 African American, and 105 Mexican American). These were typed for class II HLA antigens using molecular techniques. A DAT was performed on each patient’s red cells drawn into EDTA using both mouse

Joann M. Moulds, Laura A. Diekman, T. Denise Wells, John D. Reveille

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 74–77

Article | 06-December-2020

Expression of B and H antigens on red cells from a group Bweak individual studied by serologic and scanning electron microscopic techniques

immunolabeled with colloidal gold particles, and examined in a scanning electron microscope. B antigens were found on more than 95 percent of normal B cells, but on only 2-3 percent of red cells from the proposita. However, when the same cells were sensitized with anti-A,B that reacted strongly with B oligosaccharides other than type 2 chains, half of the labeled red cells from the proposita were labeled more strongly than any normal B cells. Our results explain why red cells from the proposita adsorb

Hans Erik Heier, Leif Kornstad, Ellen Namork, Peder Østgard, Randi Sandin

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 94–99

Article | 10-November-2020

Do monocyte ADCC assays accurately predict the severity of hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by antibodies to high-frequency antigens?

Monocyte ADCC assays are helpful indicators of the severity of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) due to anti-D. It would be particularly useful if the assays also accurately predicted the ability of antibodies to high-frequency antigens (HFA) to cause HDN. To investigate this possibility, 14 antenatal sera containing antibodies to HFA were tested and the results correlated with the severity of HDN. Antibody titers were determined using an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Eight sera 

Stephen F. Garner, Alan Devenish

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 20–26

Research Article | 21-May-2019


immunotherapeutic researches. These nano-sized elements exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune response, thanks to the ability to deliver naturally or artificially incorporated antigens within their structure. First vaccine based on outer membrane vesicles was developed almost 30 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. This review presents some basic information on biogenesis and functions of OMVs. It also provides examples of pathogens, whose OMVs (in natural or modified form

Joanna Jadwiga Klim, Renata Godlewska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology, Volume 56 , ISSUE 1, 43–55

Review | 17-November-2020

Review: antibodies and antigens in immune neutropenias

Geoff Lucas

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 4, 105–111

Review | 27-December-2020

A review: low-frequency red cell antigens

Anatole Lubenko, Marcela Conteras

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 1, 7–14

Book Review | 31-December-2020

BOOK REVIEW: Red Cell Antigens and Antibodies

Mary H. McGinniss

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 1, 10–11

Article | 31-December-2020

Some New Rb Antigens: Rh43 to Rh47

Peter D. Issitt, Nancy S. Gutgsell

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Report | 09-October-2019

Distribution of blood groups in the Iranian general population

We report the first study of antigen and phenotype prevalence within various blood group systems in the Iranian general population. In this retrospective study, samples from 3475 individuals referred to the Immunohematology Reference Laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, Iran, for paternity testing from 1998 to 2008 were additionally tested for red blood cell (RBC) antigens in the Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, Lutheran, P1PK, and Xg blood group systems. The antigen

Ehsan Shahverdi, Mostafa Moghaddam, Ali Talebian, Hassan Abolghasemi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 135–139

Article | 14-October-2020

Detection of granulocyte antibodies by flow cytometry without the use of pure granulocyte isolates

blood cells (RBCs) were lysed and remaining leukocytes tested against sera at 4oC. Binding of human alloantibodies to the screening cells was determined by flow cytometric analysis using phycoerythrin-conjugated antibody to human immunoglobulin. Forward and side scatter were used to analyze granulocytes separately from other leukocytes. The assay was validated by testing granulocytes with reference alloantibodies directed to NA1, NA2, 5b, and Mart antigens. Samples from 32 patients were tested, and

Karen M. Kiekhaefer, Karen M. Cipolone, Jo L. Procter, Kazuhiko Matsuo, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 70–75

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the MNS blood group system

Update on the MNS Blood Group System The MNS blood group system is highly complex, with 49 antigens currently recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion.1 All antigens are carried by glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or multiple glycophorin (GP) variants resulting from unequal crossover or gene conversion events between GYPA and GYPB genes.2 GYPE, the other glycophorin gene family member, does not encode detectable antigens on the red blood cell (RBC) surface but has

L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 61–62

Article | 31-December-2019


pojedyncze geny będące częścią takiego połączenia. W związku z dużymi nadziejami jakie pokłada się w zastosowaniu antygenów rekombinantowych i chimerycznych laboratoria na całym świecie prowadzą badania naukowe dotyczące oceny przydatności tych białek w rozpoznaniu różnych faz boreliozy (Tab. III). Obecnie na rynku dostępne są testy ELISA III generacji (zestawy diagnostyczne Borrelia IgM oraz Borrelia IgG firmy Biomedica, Borrelia burgdorferi IgG Recombinant Antigens firmy GenWay Biotech) oraz testy

Weronika Grąźlewska, Lucyna Holec-Gąsior

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology, Volume 58 , ISSUE 4, 399–413

case-report | 25-June-2021

Anti-A1Leb: a mind boggler

The Lewis blood group system (Le) is unique because it is the only system in which the antigens are not synthesized by red blood cells (RBCs); rather, the antigens are passively adsorbed onto the RBC membrane.1 Le antigens are soluble carbohydrate moieties formed by tissue cells and secreted by body secretions like saliva, where they appear as glycoproteins; in plasma, however, they appear as glycolipids. The Le phenotype depends on ABH secretor status of an individual, although FUT2 and FUT3

A. Gupta, K. Chaudhary, S. Asati, B. Kakkar

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 69–71

Article | 06-December-2020

Red cell antigen stability in K3EDTA

Commercial blood grouping reagents are not approved for testing EDTA anticoagulated blood specimens that are more than 48 hours old. Many studies on the stability of blood group antigens in other anticoagulants have been reported, but none are available for EDTA. This study was undertaken to assess whether current commercially available blood grouping reagents give acceptable reactions with red cell antigens when the cells are stored for extended periods in EDTA. We defined acceptable reaction

Connie M. Westhoff, Belva D. Sipherd, Larry D. Toalson

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 109–111

Report | 01-December-2019

Implications of the Kidd blood group system in renal transplantation

The association of the Kidd blood group system with hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn is well known. The Kidd antigens, which are localized to the HUT/UT-B urea transport protein, are found on red blood cells and the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the medulla of the kidney. Recently it has been suggested that these antigens might play a role as minor histocompatibility antigens in renal transplantation. In the current case, the appearance of an anti

Angela Rourk, Jerry E. Squires

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 91–94

Review | 20-March-2020

MNS blood group system: a review

The MNS blood group system is second only to the Rh blood group system in its complexity. Many alloantibodies to antigens in the MNS system are not generally clinically significant although antibodies to low-prevalence and high-prevalence MNS antigens have caused hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The MNS antigens are carried on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or hybrids thereof, which arise from single-nucleotide substitution, unequal crossing over, or gene conversion

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

Review | 14-October-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system reside on decay accelerating factor (DAF), a protein belonging to the regulators of complement activation family. The blood group system consists of eight high-incidence antigens and three low-incidence antigens. The molecular basis for the antigens is known and, with the exception of IFC, each antigen is the product of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the DAF gene and has been localized to one of the four short consensus repeat regions on the

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 95–103

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the Cartwright (Yt) blood group system

novel polymorphisms.1 Scharberg et al.2 demonstrated the use of genotyped RBCs in antibody identification in a study of nearly 17,000 blood samples from close to 8500 patients tested in their reference lab. In this 3-year study, 21 antibodies from 10 blood group systems were identified in 126 patients by using the genotype information of these reagent RBCs. Antibodies to Cartwright antigens were among the most frequent, accounting for antibodies identified in 31 patients (25%). This study suggests

M.R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 154–155

Article | 15-February-2021

ZZAP treatment of red blood cells

also allow for antigen typing of RBCs using indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) methods if the antigen is not destroyed by the reagent. Because ZZAP denatures many antigens determined in a common RBC phenotype (K, M, N, S, s, Fya, Fyb), this application has limited value. As a pretreatment before adsorption, ZZAP-treated RBCs may remove autoantibody more quickly and completely than untreated RBCs. Lastly, ZZAP treatment can be helpful in complex antibody investigations. It can be used to create RBCs

S.I. Marckwardt

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 9–10

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of the MAIEA assay to demonstrate that Fy3 is on the same glycoprotein as Fy6, Fya, and Fyb

The monoclonal-antibody immobilization of erythrocyte antigens (MAIEA) assay is a technique that detects trimolecular complexes formed by a human antibody and a mouse monoclonal antibody with specific red cell epitopes. This enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay test gives a positive reaction when two different epitopes on the same membrane protein are separately recognized by human and mouse antibodies. In this study, the MAIEA test was used to determine if the Duffy system antigen Fy3 is on the

Jaw-Lin Tzeng, Roger Dodd, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Lutheran blood group system

New Antigens of the Lutheran System and Molecular Basis of LU7 Since publication of the original review in 2009,1 the molecular basis for LU7 has been resolved,2 and six new high-prevalence antigens have been added to the Lutheran (LU) blood group system (Table 1). The antigen-negative phenotype of each of these new antigens, except LU22, results from homozygosity for one or two nucleotide changes in the Lutheran gene. LU22 is more complex, however. LU22 expression requires the presence of both

G. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 23–24

Article | 14-October-2020

DNA analysis for donor screening of Dombrock blood group antigens

Jill R. Storry, Connie M. Westhoff, Dalisay Charles-Pierre, Maria Rios, Kim Hue-Roye, Sunitha Vege, Sandra Nance, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 73–76

Review | 10-November-2020

Review: phenotyping for Lewis and secretor histo-blood group antigens

Steven M. Henry

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 51–61

Review | 30-November-2020

Review: blood group antigens as receptors for bacteria and parasites

Christine Lomas-Francis

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 3, 75–82

Article | 14-December-2020

Paternity evaluation in the presence of splits and crossreactive antigens

Robert W. Gutendorf, Kamala Balakrishnan, David L. Taylor, Kelly Cox

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 2, 43–45

Article | 14-December-2020

Primary immune response to blood group antigens in burned children

Nancy E. Bacon, Ethel D. Patten, Janet L. Vincent

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 1, 8–11

Review | 01-December-2019

The Diego blood group system: a review

The Diego blood group system (DI) currently encompasses 22 antigens. Three of the antigens are of high prevalence and the other 19 are of low prevalence. The antigens of the Diego blood group system are carried on the erythroid band 3 protein anion exchanger 1 (AE1), the product of a single gene, SLC4A1 (solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 1). AE1 is a member of a family of three anion exchangers or transporters expressed in a variety of tissues. This protein is involved in carbon

Dolores Figueroa

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 73–81

Review | 12-March-2020

The Gerbich blood group system: a review

Antigens in the Gerbich blood group system are expressed on glycophorin C (GPC) and glycophorin D (GPD), which are both encoded by a single gene, GYPC. The GYPC gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2, and Gerbich antigens are inherited as autosomal dominant traits. There are 11 antigens in the Gerbich blood group system, six of high prevalence (Ge2, Ge3, Ge4, GEPL [Ge10*], GEAT [Ge11*], GETI [Ge12*]) and five of low prevalence (Wb [Ge5], Lsa [Ge6], Ana [Ge7], Dha [Ge8], GEIS [Ge9

Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 60–65

Review | 14-March-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system reside on decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a protein belonging to the regulators of complement activation family. The blood group system consists of 12 high-prevalence and three lowprevalence antigens. The molecular basis for the antigens is known, and with the exception of IFC, each antigen is the product of a single nucleotide change in the DAF gene and has been localized to one of the four complement control protein (CCP) domains on the DAF

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 109–117

Article | 17-February-2021

Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-E and anti-Jka

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization to antigens other than D, such as C, c, E, e, and antigens in the Kell, MNS, and Duffy blood group systems, has emerged as an important cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).1 Antibody screening for these antibodies is not routinely practiced for all antenatal patients in developing countries, mainly because of financial constraints. We report a case of HDFN in a female baby due to maternal alloimmunization against Rh and Kidd blood

S. Mandal, S. Malhotra, G. Negi, A. Tiwari, S. Mitra, S. Basu, P. Singh

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Review | 12-March-2020

The Dombrock blood group system: a review

The Dombrock blood group system (Do) consists of two antithetical antigens (Doa and Dob) and five antigens of high prevalence (Gya, Hy, Joa, DOYA, and DOMR). Do antigens are carried on the Dombrock glycoprotein, which is attached to the RBC membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage. The gene (DO, ART4) encoding the Do glycoprotein, located on the short arm of chromosome 12, has been cloned and sequenced, allowing the molecular basis of the various Do phenotypes to be determined. Doa

Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 71–78

Review | 21-April-2020

Review: Cromer and DAF: role in health and disease

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system are located on the protein decay-accelerating factor (DAF). This system consists of ten high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens; the molecular basis for all of these antigens is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the DAF gene. DAF is a 70,000-Da plasma membrane protein that is widely distributed on all blood cells and on endothelial and epithelial tissues. The physiological role of DAF is to inhibit the complement cascade at the level of

Douglas M. Lublin

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 39–47

Article | 26-October-2020

The structure and function of Rh antigens from monkeys to worms

David J. Anstee

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 1, 2–4

Article | 29-December-2020

Inactivation of Holley (Hy) and Gregory (Gy) antigens by dithiothreitol (DTT)

Robert J. Eckrich

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 1, 12–13

Review | 02-May-2020

Review: the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems

After the discovery (over 50 years ago) that the IAT could be applied to the detection of antibodies to blood group antigens, there was a rapid increase in the identification of alloantibodies that caused transfusion reactions or HDN. After Rh, antibodies in the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems were the next in clinically significant antibodies to be revealed. Much of what has been learned about these blood groups since the journal Immunohematology issued its first edition has to do

Constance M. Westhoff, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 37–49

Review | 29-October-2019

JMH blood group system: a review

The JMH blood group system consists of six high-prevalence antigens. These antigens are located on the Sema7A protein. The molecular basis of the JMH1– phenotype is not known; however, single nucleotide changes in the SEMA7A gene on chromosome 15 account for the other JMH antigens. JMH1, commonly known as JMH, is most notable because transient depression of the antigen occurs and anti-JMH may develop. These antibodies are most commonly observed and are not significant in transfusion

Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 18–23

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Scianna blood group system

New ERMAP Variants, Haplotypes, and Population Distributions The International Society of Blood Transfusion recognizes seven antigens in the Scianna system,1 each of which results from genetic variations that have rather low minor allele frequencies in all studied populations.2,3 In recent years, several groups have mined public genetic databases and cataloged the variation in known blood group genes. Using the 1000 Genomes data, the Erythrogene project found 357 nonsynonymous mutations in

P.A.R. Brunker, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 48–50

Article | 14-October-2020

Jk and Mi.III phenotype frequencies in North Vietnam

One hundred voluntary blood donors in Hanoi were typed for antigens in the MNS, Rh, Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems. They were also tested for the presence of the Mi.III (GP.Mur) phenotype and Lewis system antigens. The Jk phenotype frequencies were markedly different from those previously reported. The frequency of the Mi.III phenotype was similar to that reported in Chinese and Taiwanese.

Nguyen Thi Huynh, Tran Thi Duyen, Mai Thanh Huong, Derek S. Ford

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 57–58

Article | 17-November-2020

Identification of the Tcb allele of the Cromer blood group gene by PCR and RFLP analysis

The Cromer blood group antigens reside on the complement regulatory protein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). The Cromer system comprises 10 antigens, 3 of which are of low incidence. When an individual is homozygous for the allele encoding one of these low-incidence antigens, they are liable to produce an antibody to the anti-thetical high-frequency antigen if challenged by pregnancy or transfusion. These antibodies are often difficult to identify, because of the lack of readily available

Manisha Udani, Nicole Anderson, Neeraja Rao, Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 1–4

Article | 10-April-2021

The Ok blood group system: an update

Summary of the Ok Blood Group Antigens To date, the Ok blood group system, system 24 in the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT024), comprises three high-prevalence antigens: Oka, OKGV, and OKVM. Only one example of the OKGV− and OKVM− phenotypes has been described, each identified by the presence of a specific antibody to its respective high-prevalence antigen.1,2 The Ok(a−) phenotype was identified in Japanese people only,3 and the allele frequency in the gnomAD database is 0.1

J.R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 18–19

Review | 01-December-2019

P1PK: The blood group system that changed its name and expanded

The antigens in the P1PK blood group system are carried on glycosphingolipids. The system currently includes three different antigens, P1, Pk, and NOR. The P1 antigen was disovered in 1927 by Landsteiner and Levine, and Pk and NOR were described in 1951 and 1982, respectively. As in the ABO system, naturally occurring antibodies of the immunoglobulin (Ig) M or IgG class, against the missing carbohydrate structures, can be present in the sera of people lacking the corresponding antigen. Anti-P1

Åsa Hellberg, Julia S. Westman, Britt Thuresson, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 25–33

Article | 16-November-2020

A second example of anti-Esa, an antibody to a high-incidence Cromer antigen

A blood sample contained an antibody to a high-incidence antigen that reacted with all red blood cells (RBCs) tested by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The antibody reacted with papain-, ficin-, and trypsin-treated RBCs, but not with α-chymotrypsin-treated RBCs. This pattern of reactivity suggested the possibility that the antibody was recognizing an antigen in the Cromer blood group system. Tests against RBCs deficient in decay-accelerating factor (which carries the Cromer antigens

Marion E. Reid, Roselyn Marfoe, Anita Mueller, Patricia A. Arndt, Laima Sausais, Peggy Spruell

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 112–114

Review | 20-March-2020

Detection and identification of platelet antibodies and antigens in the clinical laboratory

Brian R. Curtis, Janice G. McFarland

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 125–135

Article | 31-December-2020

The Deleterious Effects of Dithiothreitol (DTT) on Red Blood Cell LW Antigens

Ella M. Toy

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 3, 33–35

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Augustine blood group system

New Augustine Antigens Since the publication of the original review,1 two new antigens have been added to the Augustine (AUG) blood group system: AUG3 and AUG4 (Table 1). Table 1. Antigens of the Augustine system Antigen Molecular basis Reference Number Name Prevalence Nucleotides Exon Amino acids AUG1 High c.589+1G>C 6 Slice site 1 AUG2 Ata High c .117 1 G > A 12 Glu391l_ys 1 AUG3 ATML Low c .115 9 A > C 12 p.Thr387Pro 2 AUG4 ATAM High c.242A>G 3 p.Asn81Ser 3 An

G. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 1–2

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