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Article | 16-February-2021

Addition of fresh serum to plasma to aid in enhancement of complement-dependent antibodies

Principle Given the right conditions, antibodies in several blood group systems will activate complement once bound to red blood cells (RBCs), with most having the ability to activate complement to the C3 stage. Examples of antibodies that can activate complement include those in the Kidd, Kell, Duffy, and Lewis blood group systems. Complement activation is of importance in immunohematology testing because it can enable the antibody to act as a hemolysin in vitro or to bind complement that may

C. Grey

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 102–104

Review | 28-April-2020

Review: complement receptor 1 therapeutics for prevention of immune hemolysis

The complement system plays a crucial role in fighting infections and is an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. However, inappropriate complement activation can cause tissue damage, and it underlies the pathology of many diseases. In the transfusion medicine setting, complement sensitization of RBCs can lead to both intravascular and extravascular destruction. Moreover, complement deficiencies are associated with autoimmune disorders, including autoimmune hemolytic

Karina Yazdanbakhsh

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 109–118

Review | 26-October-2019

CD59: A long-known complement inhibitor has advanced  to a blood group system

The blood group system number 35 is based on CD59, a 20-kDa membrane glycoprotein present on a large number of different cells, including erythrocytes. The major function of CD59 is to protect cells from complement attack. CD59 binds to complement components C8 and C9 and prevents the polymerization of C9, which is required for the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Other functions of CD59 in cellular immunity are less well defined. CD59 is inserted into the membrane by a

Christof Weinstock, Markus Anliker, Inge von Zabern

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 145–151

Article | 18-October-2020

Quantitation of red cell-bound immunoglobulins and complement in lymphoma patients

Quantitative ELISA may be useful for determining the amount of red blood cell (RBC)-associated immunoglobulins (Igs) in patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). In idiopathic AIHA, there is about 20 times more RBC-associated IgG and complement than in normal persons. In patients with low-grade lymphomas (particularly, B-CLL and splenic marginal zone lymphoma) autoimmune hemolysis is a component of their anemia. In highgrade malignant lymphomas (i.e, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and

M. Podberezin, A. Levina, L. Romanova, O. Margolin, O. Nasibov, A.V. Pivnik

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 4, 147–153

Article | 09-November-2020

Measurement of red blood cell-bound C3b and C3d using an enzyme-linked direct antiglobulin test

Complement has a complex role in immune mediated red blood cell (RBC) destruction and usually induces extravascular hemolysis of C3bcoated RBCs by erythrophagocytosis and by acting synergistically with cell-bound immunoglobulins. A sensitive two-stage enzyme-linked direct antiglobulin test (ELDAT) was developed and used to measure RBC-bound C3b and C3d in 120 healthy adult individuals and in 60 patients suffering from a variety of conditions, including warm- and cold-type autoimmune hemolytic

J.D. Bellamy, D.J. Booker, N.T. James, R. Stamps, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 123–131

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the CD59 blood group system

Introduction CD59 is a 20-kDa cell membrane glycoprotein, present on a large number of cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), that binds the complement components C8 and C9 and, thereby, protects the cell from a complement attack.1 CD59 was assigned a blood group system after a CD59-deficient child presented with anti-CD59, reacting with all CD59-carrying RBCs.2 In contrast to patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, where an acquired mutation in a stem cell clone causes the

C. Weinstock, M. Anliker, I. von Zabern

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 7–8

Review | 21-April-2020

Review: Cromer and DAF: role in health and disease

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system are located on the protein decay-accelerating factor (DAF). This system consists of ten high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens; the molecular basis for all of these antigens is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the DAF gene. DAF is a 70,000-Da plasma membrane protein that is widely distributed on all blood cells and on endothelial and epithelial tissues. The physiological role of DAF is to inhibit the complement cascade at the level of

Douglas M. Lublin

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 39–47

Case report | 11-March-2020

Persistent complement-dependent anti-AnWj in a lymphoproliferative disorder: a case study and review

intravascular hemolysis, including hemoglobinuria. Testing revealed a complement-dependent anti-AnWj. Phenotyping confirmed the AnWj– phenotype. Anti-AnWj was persistent despite immunosuppression, including treatment with allogeneic HSCT. Of interest, the pathogenesis of the downregulation of the graft AnWj in this patient is unclear.

George Grigoriadis, Jennifer Condon, Kate Green, Mary Ann Anderson, Marija Borosak, Erica Wood

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 83–88

Case report | 29-December-2020

Evaluation of a complement-dependent anti-Jka by various sensitization and detection methodologies: a case report

A 79-year-old woman with a diagnosis of lower gastrointestinal bleeding was found to have a complement-dependent anti-Jka in her serum. The anti-Jka was evaluated by the antiglobulin technique with polyspecific, anti-C3, and anti-IgG antihuman globulin (AHG). A variety of sensitization and detection methods were used, including the prewarmed saline technique, enzyme treatment of test cells, a low-ionic additive solution (LISS), 22 percent albumin, Polybrene, and an increased serum/cell ratio

E. Nicole DeLong

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 3, 59–63

Article | 06-December-2020

Clinical correlation of positive direct antiglobulin tests in patients with sickle cell disease

with sickle cell disease and serologic findings of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, but only one had increased RBC destruction attributed to the autoantibody. That patient’s RBCs had IgG and complement on the surface, while those of the other patient had IgG without complement. Functional asplenism may diminish the role of an IgG autoantibody that does not bind complement, since RBCs coated with complement are removed by the liver. Therefore, complement-binding autoantibodies may have particular

Raymond L. Comenzo, Marie E. Malachowski, Eugene M. Berkman

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 13–16

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the Chido/Rodgers blood group system

A review of the Chido/Rodgers blood group system published in 2010 summarized the discovery of this blood group,1 with the eventual recognition that Chido/Rodgers antigens were not intrinsic red blood cell (RBC) antigens but were epitopes carried on the C4 component of complement. In normal homeostasis, fragments of the C4 protein (C4b) are deposited on the RBC membrane and on other tissues as well. C4b is then broken down to C4d. Thus, with anti-Ch or anti-Rg, agglutination with indirect

R. Mougey

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 135–138

Research Article | 13-December-2017

Human-Based Sensing Sensor Systems to Complement Human Perception

Peter Wide

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 1 , ISSUE 1, 57–69

Article | 01-April-2020

Application of gel technology in the serologic characterization of autoantibody in DAT-positive autoimmune diseases

Gel tests are now available for the determination of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses and complement fractions coating RBCs. These tests simplified serologic characterization of autoantibodies in various autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gel cards in the serologic characterization of autoantibody with regard to the immunoglobulin classes, complement fractions, and IgG subclasses, and the influence of these characteristics on hemolysis. Gel cards were

Sudipta Sekhar Das, Rajendra K. Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Article | 13-April-2020

Problems highlighted when using anticoagulated samples in the standard tube low ionic strength antiglobulin test

Within the UK blood transfusion services, there is currently no recommendation for the use of either clotted or anticoagulated samples for antibody identification testing. This report describes three cases in which the detection of IgM antibodies was impeded by the use of anticoagulated samples. Two patient samples,referred for compatibility testing, were both identified as having IgM complement-activating anti-S and the remaining case involved an antenatal patient with IgM complement

Amanda J Sweeney

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 72–77

Review | 14-March-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system reside on decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a protein belonging to the regulators of complement activation family. The blood group system consists of 12 high-prevalence and three lowprevalence antigens. The molecular basis for the antigens is known, and with the exception of IFC, each antigen is the product of a single nucleotide change in the DAF gene and has been localized to one of the four complement control protein (CCP) domains on the DAF

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 109–117

Review | 27-April-2020

Review: the burgeoning history of the complement system 1888–2005

Hugh Chaplin Jr.

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 85–93

Article | 17-November-2020

LISS-dependent autoantibody with apparent anti-U specificity

Nonspecific binding of gamma globulin and complement, resulting in falsely positive indirect antiglobulin tests, has occurred with use of low-ionic strength saline solution (LISS) reagents. These LISS-dependent antibodies have not been described in association with any particular disease state, nor do they have any apparent clinical significance. We present a LISS-dependent antibody with apparent autoanti-U specificity.

J.T. Chiofolo, M.E. Reid, D. Charles-Pierre

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 18–21

Report | 06-November-2019

Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia: the last 30 years  of changes

Patricia A. Arndt

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 44–54

Article | 16-April-2018

Providing Orientation and Mobility Services to People from Chinese Backgrounds in Sydney, Australia

Australia is a multicultural country with a large number of older people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds who require orientation and mobility (O&M) services. Guide Dogs NSW/ACT receives a majority of CALD referrals for people with vision impairment from Chinese backgrounds. To enable clients from CALD backgrounds achieve mobility goals that complement their lifestyle, it is necessary that O&M providers foster culturally competent perspectives to enhance and

Ying Wah Wan, B.Phil., M.Spec.Ed., Grad. Dip.

International Journal of Orientation & Mobility, Volume 5 , ISSUE 1, 44–48

Article | 20-December-2020

Cromer-related blood group antigens and the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked protein, decay-accelerating factor DAF (CD55)

Cromer-related blood group antigens are located on the complement regulatory glycoprotein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF is not detectable on red cells from individuals with a Cromernull phenotype (termed Inab), which is probably an inherited condition. DAF is also absent from a subpopulation of red cells (PNH III) from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired hematological defect. PNH III red cells, like Inab cells, lack all the Cromer-related antigens

Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 27–29

Article | 15-February-2021

ZZAP treatment of red blood cells

Principle ZZAP is a mixture of a sulfhydryl reagent (dithiothreitol [DTT]) and a proteolytic enzyme (papain or ficin). It was first described by Branch and Petz in their 1982 article in the American Journal of Clinical Pathology.1 ZZAP is used to dissociate IgG and complement from red blood cells (RBCs), an action that neither reagent can achieve alone. According to Branch and Petz, it is believed that ZZAP “reduces interchain disulfide linkages, increasing exposure of the IgG polypeptides to

S.I. Marckwardt

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 9–10

Article | 14-October-2020

A gel microtyping system for diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired stem cell defect, is underdiagnosed because of its atypical symptoms in some patients and because available methods, which are time consuming and complicated, are not widely used. The hemolysis of PNH red blood cells (RBCs) is attributed to their enhanced susceptibility to complement lysis caused by a deficiency in glycosylsphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored complement regulatory membrane proteins, especially membrane inhibitor of reactive

Barbara Zupanska, Irena Bogdanik, Hanna Pyl

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 9–12

Letter to Editor | 15-April-2020

A reminder that ZZAP reagent removes complement in addition to IgG from coated RBCs

Regina M. Leger, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 205–206

Article | 24-April-2018

Research on Low Voltage Power Line Carrier Communication Test Environment

Low voltage power line carrier communication simulation software and simulation test system is analog carrier communication channel environment in different ways, the two systems complement each other, the former design stage for communications equipment, flexible and comprehensive simulation of the channel complex transmission characteristics; the latter stages of a communication device for debugging, you can be more effective and intuitive reflect any change in the characteristics of the load

Sun Hongliang, Li songnong, Ye Jun, Hou Xingzhe, Zheng ke, Liu Dong, Zhou Quan

International Journal of Advanced Network, Monitoring and Controls, Volume 2 , ISSUE 4, 190–193

Article | 16-November-2020

A case of hydrops fetalis, probably due to antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of GP.Mur (Miltenberger class III) cells

The GP.Mur (Miltenberger class III) phenotype was found to occur in about 6.3 percent of Hong Kong (HK) Chinese blood donors. The incidence of antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of GP.Mur cells (anti-Mi) among patients was 0.34 percent, similar to that in Taiwan Chinese. A case of hydrops fetalis probably attributable to maternal anti-Mi was encountered in an HK Chinese woman during her sixth pregnancy. The anti-Mi was potent (titer 512, score 99). It fixed complement and was a

C.K. Lin, K.H. Mak, C.M.Y. Yuen, N.K. Chan, H.W. Liu, G. Cheng

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 115–118

Case Study | 10-November-2020

Characteristics of anti-Cob in vitro and in vivo: a case study

Serologic and biologic properties of an example of anti-Cob were investigated. The antibody was of the IgG class, and it bound small amounts of complement. It reacted optimally in the albumin-antiglobulin test with little or no enhancement of its reactivity in tests using enzymes. Additional experiments indicated that the Cob antigen is resistant to treatment with chemicals known to destroy other antigens. The antibody caused shortened survival of radiola­beled Co(b+) donor red cells in our

Johannes J.M.L. Hoffmann, Marijke A.M. Overbeeke

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 11–13

Article | 16-October-2019

Use of the prewarm method for detecting clinically significant alloantibodies in the presence of cold autoantibodies

The prewarm (PW) method is useful for detecting and identifying clinically significant antibodies that bind to red blood cells and complement at 37°C and for avoiding antibodies that bind at temperatures less than 37°C. Antibodies that bind at temperatures less than 37°C are often cold autoantibodies that may be present in the serum of healthy individuals and are usually not clinically significant. The PW method is useful when these cold autoantibodies have a wide thermal range and

Stephanie Dupuis

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 148–150

Article | 10-November-2020

Glycophorin A-deficient red cells may have a weak expression of C4-bound Ch and Rg antigens

The blood group antigens Ch and Rg are polymorphisms of C4d. Antigen-positive red blood cells (RBCs) treated with proteases type as Ch-, Rg-. Although RBCs treated with sialidase may type Ch+ Rg+, they cannot be coated with C4 by the 10 percent sucrose method. Since studies of complement binding have shown that glycophorin A (GPA) is an important component for the uptake of C4 by RBCs, we tested all available GPA-deficient RBCs for their Ch and Rg status. Using eluates of human anti-Ch and anti

Patricia Tippett, Jill Storry, Phyllis Walker, Yasuto Okubo, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 4–7

Article | 17-November-2020

Identification of the Tcb allele of the Cromer blood group gene by PCR and RFLP analysis

The Cromer blood group antigens reside on the complement regulatory protein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). The Cromer system comprises 10 antigens, 3 of which are of low incidence. When an individual is homozygous for the allele encoding one of these low-incidence antigens, they are liable to produce an antibody to the anti-thetical high-frequency antigen if challenged by pregnancy or transfusion. These antibodies are often difficult to identify, because of the lack of readily available

Manisha Udani, Nicole Anderson, Neeraja Rao, Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 1–4

Article | 27-December-2020

An update on Rodgers and Chido, the antigenic determinants of human C4

Rodgers (Rg) and Chido (Ch) blood groups are antigenic determinants of the fourth component of human complement (C4). Nine determinants have been defined by means of hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) with polyspecific human antiserums. The association of C4A isotypes with Rg and of C4B isotypes with Ch is strong hut not complete. Derived amino acid sequences from the C4d region of selected C4 allotypes of known antigenic expression have provided support for the previously reported complex

Carolyn M. Giles

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Article | 15-February-2021

Donath-Landsteiner test

The Donath-Landsteiner (DL) test is a serologic test used to detect the presence of a biphasic hemolysin, seen in patients with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH). The test relies on the characteristic cold binding of an IgG autoantibody with specificity to the P blood group antigen, which causes complement-mediated red blood cell (RBC) lysis when warmed to body temperature. Julius Donath and Karl Landsteiner first described the antibody responsible for this hemolysis in 1904.1 DL antibodies

M. Kilty, T.S. Ipe

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 3–6

Article | 14-December-2020

Phosphatidylinositol-linked red blood cell membrane proteins and blood group antigens

A new class of membrane proteins has recently been described. Unlike integral membrane proteins, which traverse the membrane with one or more hydrophobic peptide domains, the peptide domains of these more newly described proteins are entirely extracellular and are anchored to the cell membrane via a phosphatidylinositol-glycan (GPI) anchor. Erythrocyte membrane proteins of this class include proteins with diverse functions; several, however, are complement regulatory proteins. Moreover, it is

Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 65–72

Article | 01-June-2015


Due to the different imaging mechanism of optical image and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image, they have the large different characteristics between the images, so fusing optical image and SAR image with image fusion technology could complement advantages and be able to better interpret the scenes information. A fusion algorithm of Synthetic Aperture Radar and optical image with fast sparse representation on low-frequency images was proposed. For the disadvantage of target information easily

Yin Zhouping

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 8 , ISSUE 2, 1123–1141

Case report | 29-December-2020

A case report: cold hemagglutinin disease in a pancreatic and renal transplant patient

thermal amplitude of 37°C. The patie  nt had a weakly positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) with only complement detectable on the red cells. The patient recovered spontaneously. The etiology of the CHD is unclear. The use of cyclosporin-A, OKT3 monoclonal antibody, and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) to treat acute rejection could have played a part.

Catherine Y. Beiting, Kathleen S. Larimore

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 4, 85–87

Article | 01-December-2015


powerful complement for theoretical and experimental method. This paper uses ANSYS to analyze the single piezoelectric cantilever in static analysis, model analysis, harmonic response analysis and mechanical-electrical coupling analysis. It analyzes the natural frequency and voltage effect from four aspects which are length to thickness ratio, length to width ratio, the substrate thickness to piezoelectric thickness ratio and seismic mass. Test and measurement for piezoelectric energy harvester is

Yao Fenglin, Meng Wengjun, Zhao Jie, Yin Hang

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 2018–2041

Article | 01-April-2020

Reduced red blood cell destruction by antibody fragments

Antibodies to blood group antigens can cause immune RBC destruction directly (extravascular destruction) or indirectly through subsequent complement activation (intravascular hemolysis). The Fc portion of the IgG antibody is responsible for the effector functions of immune RBC destruction. We hypothesized that sensitization of RBCs with blood group antigen–specific IgG antibodies lacking their Fc portion would escape from the recipient’s immune system, allowing for a longer survival

Amina Mqadmi, Steven Abramowitz, Xiaoying Zheng, Karina Yazdanbakhsh

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

Review | 14-October-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system reside on decay accelerating factor (DAF), a protein belonging to the regulators of complement activation family. The blood group system consists of eight high-incidence antigens and three low-incidence antigens. The molecular basis for the antigens is known and, with the exception of IFC, each antigen is the product of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the DAF gene and has been localized to one of the four short consensus repeat regions on the

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 95–103

Case report | 16-November-2020

Case report: rapid onset of severe anemia in childhood. A systematic approach to laboratory diagnosis

Evaluation of a patient prompted the systematic review of causes of abrupt onset anemia in children and the development of a protocol for the immunohematologic workup of such cases. The patient, a 3- year-old boy, presented to our institution two weeks following a viral illness with gross hematuria, jaundice, and severe anemia (hematocrit 14.5%). He was found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) due to primarily complement sensitization (2+) with smaller amounts of IgG (weak). A

Linda A. Chambers

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 108–111

Article | 06-December-2020

Reactive lysis - a phenomenon of delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions

posttransfusion, a mixed-field anti-IgG direct antiglobulin test (DAT) indicated that there were two cell populations present. The DAT remained positive with anti-C3b, -C3d throughout the course of the reaction. Because of the substantially lower Hb and the severity of symptoms, immunologic clearance of the antigen-positive donor RBCs was expected. However, we demonstrated their persistence. Our data corroborates the observation that complement activation occurring during DHTRs can result in the hemolysis of

Deborah L. Greene, Sanobar Khan

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 74–77

Review | 09-October-2019

The FORS awakens: review of a blood group system reborn

the presence of complement in vitro. First believed to be part of the ABO system, it was later shown that the gene encoding the glycosyltransferase giving rise to FORS1 expression is GBGT1. This gene had previously been deemed nonfunctional in humans, but a mutation, so far only detected in FORS1+ individuals, restores the enzymatic activity. Tissue distribution of the antigen in FORS1+ individuals has not been studied in detail, although the gene is expressed in several cell types. The antigen

Annika K. Hult, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 64–72

Article | 31-December-2020

Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia With Auto-Anti-AI Specificity: 51Chromium Studies

group OI and AI red cells. The group OI red cells survived normally (97% at 24 hours) while the group A1I red cells were removed in a "two-component" pattern characteristic of IgM complement-fixing antibodies (62% survival at one hour, 49% at 24 hours). Based on these observations, the patient was subsequently transfused without incidence with six group O units of washed red cells prior to splenectomy. Although auto-anti-AI has been previously reported, this is the first case to

May H. McGinniss, Richard J. Davey, Richard A. Binder, Arthur N. Kales

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 2, 20–22

Research Article | 23-May-2019


efflux pumps – QepA and OqxAB. Although the PMQR mechanisms alone cause only low-level resistance to fluoroquinolone, they can complement other mechanisms of chromosomal resistance and facilitate the selection of higher-level resistance. Moreover, plasmids with PMQR mechanisms often encode additional resistance traits (ESBLs, pAmpC, KPC) contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR). This review is focused on a range of molecular mechanisms which underlie quinolone resistance.

Katarzyna Piekarska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology, Volume 57 , ISSUE 1, 47–57

review-article | 15-October-2020

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: an overview

) antibodies called the NMO-IgG or AQP4-IgG (Lennon et al., 2004). AQP4 forms groups of tetramers called orthogonal arrays of particles (OAPs) mainly in the membranes of astrocytes (Bukhari et al., 2012). AQP4-IgGs or the NMO-IgGs have a predilection for binding to OAPs. After binding, AQP4-IgG initiates the complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) pathway that leads to the development of necrotic lesions through the formation of membrane attack complex (MAC). Apart from MAC formation, CDC also produces

Pooja Ramakrishnan, Devipriya Nagarajan

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 80 , ISSUE 3, 256–272

Article | 17-November-2020

Loss of the Knops blood group system antigens from stored blood

Complement receptor type one (CR1) is a polymorphic glycoprotein, present on red blood cells (RBCs), that carries the Knops blood group system antigens. Since Knops system antigens can vary in strength, we investigated whether CR1 deteriorated upon storage, thus affecting Knops blood group system antigen reactivity. Units of whole blood were collected in CPDA-1 and evaluated at day 0 and day 35 for antigen strength, using routine serologic techniques. CR1 was quantitated by an enzyme-linked

Joann M. Moulds, L. Lee Brown, Elizabeth Brukheimer

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 46–50

Article | 06-December-2020

Six monoclonal antibodies to the CD59 antigen

CD59 defines an N-glycosylated glycoprotein expressed on various hemopoietic cells. It is anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosylpbospbatidylinositol linkage and restricts the action of homologous complement. Monoclonal antibodies 2/24, 182, Fib75.1, BRIC 229, MEM-43, and YTH 53.1 were compared by immunoblotting against normal erythrocyte ghosts. All six stained a diffuse band of 17-25 kDa, but BRIC 229 also detected bands at 35 and 80 kDa. 2/24 reacts with all red blood cells (RBCs) tested

Jennifer A. Bryant, Anne Fletcher, Fang Fang Yuan

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 68–73

Article | 06-December-2020

Cytomegalovirus antibody screening on the Olympus PK7100

(LAT). There were four discrepant results in the 1,495 donor plasmas tested by the two methods. Two of the three samples that were positive by the LAT and negative by the OHA test were also negative with the IMx enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and complement fixation test (CFT). The OHA failed to detect antibodies to CMV in a sample that was positive by the IMx ELISA, CFT, and LAT. The IMx ELISA, which was regarded as the arbiter of true positivity, yielded a sensitivity and specificity

LioneI A. Mohabir

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 2, 41–43

research-article | 30-November-2020

Exploring Technically Feasible and Economically Viable Hybrid Renewable Energy Solution for Off-Grid Electricity Supply Titl

Omorogiuwa Eseosa, Ekiyor Martin Thompson

International Journal of Advanced Network, Monitoring and Controls, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 9–22

Research Article | 30-November-2014

If It Looks Like a Duck and Quacks Like a Duck: Evaluating the Validity of Borderline Personality Disorder in Adolescents

validity of adolescent BPD to some extent. However, limitations of the research about the construct validity of adolescent BPD have also been identified, most notably regarding the delimitation of adolescent BPD from other disorders as well as a lack of longitudinal and family studies.Given these limitations and the limitations of the Robins and Guze approach to psychiatric nosology, we recommend exploring the potential of the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria as a complement

Carla Sharp, Allison Kalpakci

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 1, 49–62

Article | 26-August-2018


, ceilings, space-dividing structures as well as rational and effective use of finishing and building materials. Technical and technological devices incorporated into the inner space mentioned in the paper are supposed to be essential complement of these design methods assuring proper daylight transmission and distribution in workspaces. Discussed examples indicate the necessity of collaboration of interior architects with other professionals and consultants (i.e. green building accredited consultants

Magdalena CELADYN

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 5–12

Research Article | 18-March-2020

Parametric prediction of finite population total under Informative sampling and nonignorable nonresponse

the dependence of the probability of nonresponse on unobserved or missing observations. The main aim of the paper is to consider how to account for the joint effects of informative sampling designs and notmissing-at-random response mechanism in statistical models for complex survey data. For this purpose, theoretically, we use the response distribution and relationships between the moments of the superpopoulation, the sample, sample-complement, response, and nonresponse distributions for the

Abdulhakeem Eideh

Statistics in Transition New Series, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 13–35

Article | 10-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to IgA class autoantibodies

also seemed to be able to induce complement activation, possibly via the alternative pathway. Prednisolone was the mainstay of treat­ment, and was occasionally augmented with azathioprine and intra­venous immunoglobulin. Blood transfusion was required in two patients, both of whom eventually required splenectomy that result­ed in full remission. The one patient with mild hemolysis recovered without treatment.

R.J Sokol, D.J Booker, R. Stamps, J.R. Booth

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 14–19

Article | 09-November-2020

Clinical significance of an anti-Dib assessed by flow cytometry

positive results. MMA results using sera from days 0, 3, and 9 were 2.7 and 5.5, 0.8 and 4.8, and 3.0 and 3.7 percent, respectively, without and with added fresh normal serum as a source of complement (clinical significance = > 3% reactivity). The subclass of the anti-Dib was IgG1. This is the first documentation of the clinical significance of an anti-Dib.

Regina M. Leger, Patricia A. Arndt, Asuncion Co, Lauren O’Brien, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 3, 93–96

Report | 14-March-2020

The significance of a positive DAT in thalassemia patients

The DAT is performed for the detection of antibody or complement on the surface of RBCs. Our institution previously performed DATs on all chronically transfused thalassemia patients before each transfusion episode to detect early alloimmunization. The medical records of all thalassemia patients treated at our institution from 2004 to 2007 were reviewed to determine the significance of the high rate of positive DATs (52.5% of 80 patients). The majority of IgG-reactive DATs were associated with a

Suzanne A. Arinsburg, Donna L. Skerrett, Dorothy Kleinert, Patricia J. Giardina, Melissa M. Cushing

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 87–91

Article | 17-February-2021

Two Thai Burmese descendants with A4GALT*01N.21, p phenotype, and anti-PP1Pk

RBC or pregnancy sensitization. The absence of all three antigens leads to the rare p phenotype and the production of the mixture component antibody, anti-PP1Pk.2,3 This antibody is often associated with hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR), hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), and spontaneous abortion in early pregnancy.4 Anti-PP1Pk has been found to be a mixture of IgM and IgG isotypes and able to react over a wide range of temperatures and potentially bind and activate complement

K. Intharanut, W. Sasikarn, W. Chusri, O. Nathalang

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 64–68

Article | 03-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by warm-reacting IgM-class antibodies

Warm IgM autoantibodies occur in association with IgG-class and/or IgA-class immunoglobulins in approximately 30 percent of patients with warm-type autoimmune hemolysis. They may be classified as agglutinins or hemolysins, which may be incomplete or complete, depending on in vitro serology; they almost always bind complement. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia solely due to warm IgM autoantibodies is exceedingly rare. We report two cases of the incomplete agglutinin type. The autoantibodies were

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, S. Sobolewski, A.P. Haynes

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 53–58

Article | 22-November-2020

Cefotetan-induced immune hemolytic anemia due to the drug-adsorption mechanism

immune-complex mechanism when cefotetan or cephalothin was added to the patient's serum + complement + RBCs.

Robert J. Eckrich, Susan Fox, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 2, 51–54

Original Paper | 09-March-2018

Isolation of Sabin-like Polioviruses from Sewage in Poland

As a complement to the active search for cases of acute flaccid paralysis, environmental sampling was conducted from January to December 2011, to test for any putative polio revertants and recombinants in sewage. A total of 165 environmental samples were obtained and analyzed for the presence of polioviruses by use of cell culture (L20B, RD and Caco-2) followed by neutralization and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Out of the 31 CPE positive samples, 26 contained one and 5 two

Agnieszka Figas, Magdalena Wieczorek, Anna Żuk-Wasek, Bogumiła Litwińska

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 67 , ISSUE 1, 89–96

Article | 14-July-2019


technology. It is a particular concern to evaluate the activity of an operator as the element of the ergatic system. New technologies presented by automation should complement and not displace human functions in aircraft control. The paper focuses on new technologies applied in aircraft systems to ensure higher safety and system reliability. The main problem of aircraft safety is addressed to aircraft critical systems as helicopter transmission system monitoring, aircraft system integration, and system

Jan PIL'A, Jaroslaw KOZUBA

Transport Problems, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 101–110

Article | 31-December-2020


remaining months. These conclusions may indicate that the people using the analyzed parking lots are mainly commuters. On the contrary, the analysis of the use of the bike-sharing Wavelo system in Krakow allows for the conclusion that a large number of people used rental bikes for short journeys. These trips can complement the journeys made with the use of public transport or as a continuation of the journey after leaving the car in the P&R parking. Investments and development of this type of


Transport Problems, Volume 15 , ISSUE 4, Part 2, 275–286

Article | 15-May-2020

The sensitivity, specificity, and clinical relevance of gel versus tube DATs in the clinical immunology laboratory

The DAT is a test used to demonstrate in vivo antibody and/or complement coating of RBCs. Typically, the DAT is performed in test tubes; however, recently a number of commercially available tests using gel-filled microtubes have become available. Few data comparing the sensitivity of these test media are available. To compare the rate of detection of a positive DAT performed in test tubes versus in gel-filled microtubes and to assess the clinical significance of the results in patients

Na’ama Paz, Dganit Itzhaky, Martin H. Ellis

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 2, 118–121

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