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Article | 26-October-2019

Mass-scale donor red cell genotyping using real-time array technology

Blood centers are in the unique position to evaluate large numbers of blood donations for antigen-negative blood types. The limitations with the use of hemagglutination, however, can be circumvented with red cell genotyping. The reagents used for genotyping are synthesized and can be designed for any of the known blood group antigen single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with blood group antigen expression. There is interest in the application of mass-scale red cell genotyping of

Gregory A. Denomme, Michael J. Schanen

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 69–74

Article | 26-October-2019

Blood group genotyping: the power and limitations of the Hemo ID Panel and MassARRAY platform

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), is a sensitive analytical method capable of resolving DNA fragments varying in mass by a single nucleotide. MALDI-TOF MS is applicable to blood group genotyping, as the majority of blood group antigens are encoded by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Blood group genotyping by MALDI-TOF MS can be performed using a panel (Hemo ID Blood Group Genotyping Panel, Agena Bioscience Inc., San Diego, CA) that is

Rhiannon S. McBean, Catherine A. Hyland, Robert L. Flower

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 75–80

Case report | 01-December-2019

Blood group genotyping in a multitrauma patient: a case report

Currently DNA-based analysis of blood groups is mainly used to improve transfusion safety by reducing alloantibody formation in multiply transfused patients and by monitoring pregnancies at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. We present a case in which genotyping was performed after massive transfusion with unmatched group O, D– blood in a trauma setting. Our patient was genotyped as O1A1 and predicted to be D–, and we therefore transfused group A, D– red

Joyce Curvers, Volkher Scharnhorst, Masja de Haas, Loes Warnier-Wandel, Daan van de Kerkhof

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 85–87

Report | 01-December-2019

Validation of a blood group genotyping method based on high-resolution melting curve analysis

The detection of polymorphism is the basis of blood group genotyping and phenotype prediction. Genotyping may be useful to determine blood groups when serologic results are unclear. The development and application of different methods for blood group genotyping may be needed as a substitute for blood group typing. The purpose of this study is to establish an approach for blood group genotyping based on a melting curve analysis of realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using DNA extracted

Tianxiang Gong, Ying Hong, Naihong Wang, Xuemei Fu, Changhua Zhou

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 4, 161–165

Article | 16-February-2021

Comparison of ABO genotyping methods: a study of two low-resolution polymerase chain reaction assays in a clinical testing laboratory

for ABO genotyping for investigation of serologic discrepancies in 2017 and 2018 were included in this study. In some cases, little or no serologic information was provided. For this report, we compared the results obtained from two genotyping methods when used to test samples submitted for investigation of typing discrepancies. Testing was performed under a research protocol approved by the American Red Cross institutional review board. Materials and Methods Mononuclear cells from EDTA

J.A. Keller, T. Horn, S. Scholz, S. Koenig, M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 149–153

Article | 26-October-2020

DNA from urine sediment or buccal cells can be used for blood group molecular genotyping

Accurate blood group antigen typing of red blood cells with a positive direct antiglobulin test or from a recently transfused patient has been a long-standing problem. To overcome this problem, we evaluated the feasibility of using somatic cells as a source of DNA for molecular genotyping. Two sources of cells that could be obtained by noninvasive procedures were chosen for analysis: urine samples, which were already available in the clinical laboratory, and buccal epithelial cells collected

Marion E. Reid, Maria J. Rios, Kevin L. Cash, Annie M. Strupp, Joan M. Uehlinger

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 61–65

original-report | 30-September-2021

Genotyping for Dombrock blood group alleles in Northern Pakistani blood donors

, hemolytic transfusion reactions, and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.4 Commercially available RBC antibody identification panels are generally typed for ABO, Rh, Kell, Kidd, MNS, Duffy, Lewis, and Lutheran blood group antigens.5 Serologic reagents for extended blood typing are costly, available in limited quantities, and nonexistent for some blood group systems like Dombrock.5,6 Genotyping can be done to predict rare antigens or antigens that cannot be serologically tested, to resolve blood

S.A. Jadoon, N. Salamat, S.A. Khan, M.S. Yazdani, N. Khatak, M.A. Naeem

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 3, 113–117

Article | 26-October-2019

An overview of the Progenika ID CORE XT: an automated genotyping platform based on a fluidic microarray system

Automated testing platforms facilitate the introduction of red cell genotyping of patients and blood donors. Fluidic microarray systems, such as Luminex XMAP (Austin, TX), are used in many clinical applications, including HLA and HPA typing. The Progenika ID CORE XT (Progenika Biopharma-Grifols, Bizkaia, Spain) uses this platform to analyze 29 polymorphisms determining 37 antigens in 10 blood group systems. Once DNA has been extracted, processing time is approximately 4 hours. The system is

Mindy Goldman, Núria Nogués, Lilian M. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 62–68

Report | 26-October-2019

High-resolution melting analysis as an alternative method for human neutrophil antigen genotyping

genomic DNA samples were amplified via PCR with HNA-specific primers. Nucleotide substitutions in genes encoding HNAs were differentiated on the basis of the HRM curves, and the results of HRM and DNA sequencing analyses were determined to be in complete agreement. The gene frequency of HNA-1a, -1b, -1c, -3a, -3b, -4a, -4b, -5a, and -5b in the Japanese population was consistent with the previous reports. Our results suggest that HRM analysis can be used for genotyping HNA antigens determined by single

Kazuta Yasui, Mitsunobu Tanaka, Tomoya Hayashi, Nobuki Matsuyama, Ayumu Kuroishi, Rika. A. Furuta, Yoshihiko Tani, Fumiya Hirayama

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 7–13

Report | 12-March-2020

Application of real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in rapid Diego blood group genotyping

The paucity of appropriate reagents for serologic typing of the Diego blood group antigens has prompted the development of a real-time PCR and melting curve analysis for Diego blood group genotyping. In this study, we phenotyped 4326 donor blood samples for Dia using semiautomated equipment. All 157 Di(a+) samples were then genotyped by PCR using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) for DI*02 because of anti-Dib scarcity. Of the 4326 samples, we simultaneously tested 160 samples for Dia and Dib

Marcia C. Zago Novaretti, Azulamara da Silva Ruiz, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac-Llacer, Dalton Alencar Fisher Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 66–70

Research Article


. This review discusses and compares methods facilitating bacterial typing at a strain level. Phenotyping methods analysed in this article are: Biotyping, Antimicrobial Susceptibility Typing, Phage Typing and protein-based methods. Genotyping techniques reviewed in this article are based on digestion of genomic DNA, methods using amplification of DNA, and based on sequencing DNA. This would include Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS). Methods used in identification of

Marcin Brzozowski, Paweł Kwiatkowski, Joanna Jursa-Kulesza, Danuta Kosik-Bogacka

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology, Volume 56 , ISSUE 3, 353–366

Article | 17-February-2021

Identifying obstetrics patients in whom RHD genotyping can be used to assess risk of D alloimmunization

in Caucasian individuals are RHD*weak D types 1, 2, and 3. These three variants are estimated to be responsible for 85 percent of serologic weak D phenotypes in Caucasian individuals.1,2 These alleles are uncommon in individuals of African descent, where a large number of variants have been identified. RHD genotyping of African American blood donors predicted 15.9 percent have a partial D phenotype.3 Both partial D and weak D variants can give variable serologic results, depending on the reagent

T.N. Horn, J. Keller, M.A. Keller, L. Klinger

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 146–151

Article | 26-October-2019

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay for blood group genotyping, copy number quantification, and analysis of  RH variants

The blood group multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a comprehensive assay, developed for genotyping the majority of clinically relevant blood group antigens in both patients and donors. The MLPA is an easy method to apply and only requires a thermal cycler and capillary electrophoresis equipment. Because the molecular basis of blood group antigens can be a single nucleotide polymorphism, an insertion/deletion polymorphism, or genetic recombination, a single assay such as

Barbera Veldhuisen, C. Ellen van der Schoot, Masja de Haas

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 58–61

Article | 17-February-2021

Concordance of two polymerase chain reaction–based blood group genotyping platforms for patients with sickle cell disease

provide valid results in recently transfused patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based genotyping platforms have been increasingly used to provide extended antigen-matched blood for patients requiring chronic transfusion16–18 (e.g., patients with SCD or warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia), for recently transfused patients, or for patients with complex serologic workups. Genotyping can assist in identifying antigen-negative units when commercial antisera are unavailable or when the assistance of

C.A. Sheppard, N.L. Bolen, G. Meny, M. Kalvelage, G. Ochoa-Garay

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 123–128

Article | 16-November-2020

ABO genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

Genotyping enables the identification of both maternally and paternally derived alleles. A number of protocols have been described for the genotyping of the ABO blood group system. Generally, these methods have a number of disadvantages including the use of hazardous reagents, being technically demanding, and the excessive use of materials. In this study, a relatively simple polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method is described. Four different

Nicole A. Mifsud, Albert P. Haddad, Jennifer A. Condon, Rosemary L. Sparrow

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 143–148

Article | 03-November-2020

Evaluation of the GTI-ASP-1 platelet antigen genotyping kit for the determination of the HPA-1 genotype

The human platelet antigen system HPA-1 is involved in most cases of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and posttransfusion purpura, and occasionally causes refractoriness to platelet transfusions. Complete concordance was obtained in genotyping for HPA-1 in all samples tested with the HPA-1 genotyping kit and a ligation-based typing method. However, the genotyping kit is less sensitive than ligation-based typing, which could be of importance when testing cells from amnionic fluid or from

Tobias J. Legler, Christopher Hagner, Michael Köhler

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 19–21

Original Paper | 30-June-2018

Genetic Analysis Method for Staphylococcus chromogenes Associated with Goat Mastitis

Mastitis in goats is mainly caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS). The identification methods for this group are based on evaluating the expression of phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to metabolize various substrates; however, this is disadvantageous as these methods are dependent on gene expression. In recent years, genotyping methods such as the Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) and gene identification have been useful for epidemiological


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 67 , ISSUE 2, –

Report | 25-March-2020

Rapid, single-subject genotyping to predict red blood cell antigen expression

Genotyping is useful to predict the expression of those RBC antigens for which antisera are difficult to obtain and to determine the probable phenotype of highly transfused patients, and it can be used to test stored DNA when a blood sample is not available.  This study assessed a sequence-specific primer (SSP)-based genotyping system for blood group alleles suitable for the rapid testing of a small number of samples and assessed the use of stored whole blood.  Genomic DNA was

Stefanie L. Slezak, Sharon Adams, Hallie Lee-Stroka, Joshua E. Martin, Lorraine Caruccio, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 154–159

Research Article | 23-May-2019


Daria Artyszuk, Tomasz Wołkowicz

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology, Volume 57 , ISSUE 2, 179–193

Review | 09-October-2019

A Caucasian JK*A/JK*B woman with Jk(a+b–) red blood cells, anti-Jkb, and a novel JK*B allele c.1038delG

The Kidd blood group on the red blood cell (RBC) glycoprotein urea transporter-B has a growing number of weak and null alleles in its gene SLC14A1 that are emerging from more widespread genotyping of blood donors and patients. We investigated a 64-year-old Caucasian woman of Polish-Czech descent who developed anti-Jkb detected in solid-phase RBC adherence testing within 12 days after 7 units of RBCs were transfused. Her RBCs subsequently typed Jk(a+b–) by licensed reagents and human

Glenn Ramsey, Ricardo D. Sumugod, Paul F. Lindholm, Jules G. Zinni, Jessica A. Keller, Trina Horn, Margaret A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 91–95

Article | 09-November-2020

A modified PCR-RFLP genotyping method demonstrates the presence of the HPA-4b platelet alloantigen in a North American Indian population

the HPA-4 antigen system does not involve a common naturally occurring restriction enzyme site. This paper describes a new genotyping method for HPA-4 (polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism [PCR-RFLP]) that involves restriction enzyme digestion of PCR-amplified genomic DNA using a modified PCR primer to create an artificial TaqI restriction site that is present in the HPA-4a but not in the HPA-4b DNA sequence. The HPA-4 PCR-RFLP method was validated by testing a

Alexander P. Reiner, Gayle Teramura

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 37–43

original-report | 25-June-2021

Effect of cryopreservation on a rare McLeod donor red blood cell concentrate

to evaluate whether samples from non-leukocyte–reduced cryopreserved RBCs can be used for phenotype confirmation and genotyping analysis.3 Materials and Methods Control Unit Selection To evaluate the component quality of the McLeod donor RBC unit, 3 additional cryopreserved RBC units were selected as controls. These units lacked RBC antigen phenotypes associated with known membrane abnormalities and had been cryopreserved in the same year (1993) and at the same site using the same method (high

T.R. Turner, G. Clarke, G.A. Denomme, R. Skeate, J.P. Acker

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 78–83

Report | 26-October-2019

First example of an FY*01 allele associated with weakened expression of Fya on red blood cells

. Phenotypematched units were desired for a multi-transfused Vietnamese fetus with α-thalassemia. Genotyping of the fetus using a microarray assay that interrogates three SNPs (c.1-67, c.125, and c.265) in FY yielded indeterminate results for the predicted Duffy phenotype. Genomic sequencing of FY exon 2 showed that the fetal sample had one wild-type FY*01 allele and one new FY*01 allele with the c.265C>T SNP, which until recently had only been found on the FY*02 allele. Genotyping performed on samples

Patricia A. Arndt, Trina Horn, Jessica A Keller, Rochelle Young, Suzanne M. Heri, Margaret A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 103–107

Article | 14-October-2020

Rapid genotyping of the major alleles at the Duffy (FY) blood group locus using real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction

The Duffy blood group system has clinical importance due to involvement in transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Recently, the molecular basis of the two alleles, FY*A and FY*B (125G>A), and the mutation situated in the promoter region of the FY gene (–33T>C), have been elucidated. In order to develop an accurate, easy, and rapid genotyping method, we describe a procedure using the LightCycler®. Samples from 53 Caucasian Portuguese blood donors and 7 black

Fernando M. Araújo, Christina Pereira, Ana Aleixo, Isabel Henriques, Fátima Monteiro, Elsa Meireles, Pedro Lacerda, Luis M. Cunha-Ribeiro

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 42–44

Original Paper | 09-October-2019

Modeling alloantibody formation to highincidence red blood cell antigens in immune responders using genotypic data  

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is unpredictable and poorly understood. Patients who are negative for highincidence antigens (HIAs) are at risk for developing the corresponding antibodies. Molecular methods can easily predict the lack of an antigen and thus, the risk of an individual to become immunized. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for HIA alloimmunization in patients at risk based on genotyping results. Genotyping using a molecular method (HEA BeadChip&trade

Patricia A.R. Brunker, Keerthana Ravindran, R. Sue Shirey

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 9–14

original-report | 30-November-2020

Identification of RHD allelic variants discovered by atypical typing results on the NEO/Echo platforms

to predict the necessity of RHD genotyping. We wondered if weakly reactive D typing results by an automated microplate direct agglutination (MDA) testing platform might also predict the necessity of RHD genotyping and be associated with patients who carry RHD alleles encoding RHD allelic variants. Such typing results might identify individuals who appear to be D+ but are at risk of anti-D alloimmunization, such as women of child-bearing potential (WOCBP). Many practitioners believe that WOCBP who

J.P. Hudgins, C. Matsushita, C.W. Tuma, L. O’Brien, I.A. Shulman

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 4, 165–170

Article | 16-October-2019

Assessment of common red blood cell pretreatments to yield an accurate serologic antigen phenotype compared with genotype-predicted phenotype

disease, or microhematocrit centrifugation to isolate reticulocytes—are often used in an attempt to obtain a phenotype.6 The effectiveness of removing IgG from RBCs to obtain DAT-negative RBCs can vary between methods.7 With the increasing availability of RBC genotyping, more blood banks are using this testing to obtain a predicted RBC phenotype as an alternative to RBC pretreatments followed by serologic antigen typing.8 A RBC genotyping panel such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA

T. Horn, J. Hamilton, J. Kosanke, V.W. Hare, W. Kluver, W. Beres, S. Nance, M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 147–151

Article | 16-November-2020

ABO genotyping - identification of O1, O1*, and O2 alleles using the polymerase chain reaction– sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCR-SSO) technique

ABO polymorphism at the gene level has been investigated by molecular methods, predominantly sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We describe the application of the polymerase chain reaction–sequence specific oligonucleotide (PCRSSO) method, which is considered to be more versatile for large sample numbers, compared with conventional ABO genotyping by PCR-RFLP. PCR-SSO, while maintaining accurate and reliable results, reduces costs and labor. A population of 155

Nicole A. Mifsud, Albert P. Haddad, Jennifer A. Condon, Rosemary L. Sparrow

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 149–153

Article | 14-October-2020

Frequencies of the major alleles of the Diego, Dombrock,Yt, and Ok blood group systems in the Chinese Han, Hui, and Tibetan nationalities

The frequencies of the major alleles of the Diego,Dombrock,Yt,and Ok blood group systems in the Chinese Han, Hui, and Tibetan nationalities were determined using a DNA-based PCR–sequencespecific primers (SSP) genotyping technique. The frequencies of Dia , Dib , Doa , and Dob genes were 0.0295, 0.9705, 0.1159, and 0.8841 in 220 Chinese North Han, respectively. The Yta gene frequencies were 0.9928, 0.9917, and 0.9983 in 277 Han, 300 Hui, and 303 Tibetan blood donors, respectively. No Ok(a

Tongmao Zhao, Mengli Liu, Dongling Jiang, Sheng Liu

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 22–25

Article | 01-April-2020

Serologic and molecular characterization of the B(A) blood group in the Chinese population

polymerase chain reaction with a sequence-specific primer genotyping assay was developed for rapid identification of B(A)02, B(A)04, and B(A)05 alleles using genomic DNA samples.

Zhong-Hui Guo, Dong Xiang, Zi-Yan Zhu, Xi Liu, He-Ping Chen, Jian-Lian Wang, Da-Zhuang Liu, Tong-Mao Zhao

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 69–74

Report | 26-October-2019

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

and maintain adequate rare inventory of each. Molecular red blood cell genotyping allows transfusion services to increase their availability of rare phenotypes for chronically transfused patients.

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Article | 26-October-2019

An overview of the use of SNaPshot for predicting blood group antigens

The use of SNaPshot (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) for predicting blood group antigens has emerged as an alternative to hemagglutination testing and also to the current low- and highthroughput blood group genotyping methods. Several groups have developed multiplex–polymerase chain reaction SNaPshot assays to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in blood group genes with the purpose of identifying clinically relevant antigens and rare alleles. The selection of SNPs is

Flavia R.M. Latini, Lilian M. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 53–57

Article | 14-October-2020

Blood group antigen profile predicted by molecular biology - use of real-time polymerase chain reaction to genotype important KEL, JK, RHD, and RHCE alleles

The most clinically important blood group systems in transfusion medicine, excluding the ABO system, are the RH, Kell, and Kidd systems. Alloantibodies to antigens of these systems may be produced following blood transfusion or during pregnancy and can result in serious hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn.We developed rapid and robust techniques for RHD, RHCE, KEL, and JK genotyping with the use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction instrument. Two

Fernando Manuel Ferreira Araújo, Christiana Pereira, Fátima Monteiro, Isabel Henriques, Elsa Meireles, Pedro Lacerda, Ana Aleixo, Regina Celeste, Luis M. Cunha-Ribeiro, Maria J. Rodrigues

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 59–64

Report | 01-December-2019

A novel JK null allele associated with typing discrepancies among African Americans

The Jknull (Jk-3) phenotype, attributable to null or silenced alleles, has predominantly been found in persons of Polynesian descent. With the increased use of molecular genotyping, many new silencing mutations have been identified in persons of other ethnic backgrounds. To date, only two JK null alleles have been reported in African Americans, JK*01N.04 and JK*01N.05. A comparative study was undertaken to determine whether JK mutations were present in the regional African American population

Katrina L. Billingsley, Jeff B. Posadas, Joann M. Moulds, Lakshmi K. Gaur

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 145–148

Article | 01-April-2020

A novel study of association between Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the human carbohydrate blood groups

Previous studies of association of ABO blood groups with gonorrhea have shown contradictory results. Despite the interdependencies ofABO,Lewis,and secretor systems,none of the previous studies examined the combined effect of these systems on their proposed association with gonorrhea. This study attempted to redress that and used genotyping in addition to RBC phenotyping to determine correct tissue phenotypes. Samples from 131 gonorrhea-positive individuals and from 175 gonorrhea-negative

Holly E. Perry, Rick A. Franklin, Susan J. Bray, Min K. Lo, Lola A.C. Svensson, Stephen M. Henry

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 3, 100–104

Introduction | 26-October-2019

The role of red cell genotyping in transfusion medicine

Margaret A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 49–52

Article | 15-April-2020

Molecular characterization of GYPB and RH in donors in the American Rare Donor Program

become immunized to Rh antigens, indicating the units were not truly matched. RH genotyping can identify those patients with SCD who carry RH alleles that encode altered C, e, or D who are at risk for production of “apparent auto” and alloantibodies to Rh antigens. RH genotyping of alloimmunized patients with SCD,partnered with genotyping of donors,can identify compatible units that would also eliminate the risk of further Rh alloimmunization.

Sunitha Vege, Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 3, 143–147

Report | 25-March-2020

The potential of blood group genotyping for transfusion medicine practice

Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 190–195

Article | 31-March-2021

Transfusion support during childbirth for a woman with anti-U and the RHD*weak D type 4.0 allele

Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is reliably prevented by proper management, based on antenatal D typing and screening for red blood cell (RBC) antibodies. Many hospital laboratories do not determine the RHD genotype of pregnant women with a serologic weak D phenotype, because these women are often managed as D–.1 However, Rh immune globulin (RhIG) and provision of D– RBC units are unnecessary if D+ RBCs can safely be transfused. An Interorganizational Work Group on RHD Genotyping

Q. Yin, K. Srivastava, D.G. Brust, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 1–4

Original Paper | 28-December-2016

Genotyping and Clinicoepidemiological Characterization of Rotavirus Acute Gastroenteritis in Egyptian Children

Niveen Saudy, Walaa Othman Elshabrawy, Ahmed Megahed, Mona F. Foad, Aly F. Mohamed

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 65 , ISSUE 4, 433–442

Report | 01-December-2019

RHCE variant allele: RHCE*ce254G,733G

A novel RHCE allele was identified in a 53-year-old AfricanAmerican female blood donor with an Rh phenotype of D+ C– E– c+ e+ and a negative antibody screen. The donor’s cells typed e+ with all antisera tested. By gel-based genotyping and cDNA analysis, the two RHCE alleles in this donor were characterized. One allele was found to be the known allele RHCE*01.20.01 (RHCE*ce733G) and the second was novel: RHCE*01.06.02 (RHCE*ce254G,733G).

Jessica A. Keller, Trina Horn, Colleen Chiappa, Camilla Melland, Christine Vietz, Lilian Castilho, Margaret A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 3, 121–122

original-paper | 03-September-2019

Molecular Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Colonizing the Upper Respiratory Tract of Residents and Staff in A Nursing Home

further analysis using a medium of tryptic soy broth (TSB; BTL, Poland) and glycerol (POCH, Poland) in equal proportions (1:1). Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (MLVF). The MLVF genotyping was performed to analyze the genetic diversity and relatedness of all 66 identified S. aureus strains. The MLVF method involved a multiplex-PCR reaction targeting five variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) in the following loci: sspA, spa, sdr, clfA, and clfB. These five VNTRs are


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 68 , ISSUE 3, 371–376

research-article | 30-November-2019

Four Pristionchus species associated with two mass-occurring Parafontaria laminata populations

and methods Collection of millipedes Millipedes were collected manually in Koumi near Matsubara Lake (Mat) and Nobeyama (Nob), Minamimaki Village, Nagano, Japan in 2016. These sites are relatively cool mountain areas (> 1,100 m a.s.l.) in central Japan. Collected millipedes were brought to the laboratory, and kept at 10 to 15°C until dissection. Nematode isolation, culture, and genotyping First, millipedes (33 individuals from Mat and 38 from Nob) were individually dissected on water agar (2.0

Natsumi Kanzaki, Minami Ozawa, Yuko Ota, Yousuke Degawa

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

Report | 26-October-2019

A simple approach to screen rare donors in Brazil

Carine Prisco Arnoni, Flavia R.M. Latini, Janaína Guilhem Muniz, Rosangela Duarte de Medeiros Person, Tatiane Aparecida de Paula Vendrame, Diana Gazito, Lilian Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 20–23

case-report | 30-September-2021

A mild case of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-Sc2

performed Method used Results of newborn’s eluate IAT Capture, NEO* 1 + Antibody identification Capture, NEO* Anti-Sc2 *NEO; Immucor, Norcross, GA. IAT = indirect antiglobulin test. To confirm the presence of Sc2 on the newborn’s RBCs, DNA was extracted from the newborn’s peripheral blood using a DNA mini-kit (QIAamp; Qiagen, Hilden, Germany), and genotyping was performed using a DNA array platform (HEA BeadChip; BioArray Solutions, Immucor), which includes the detection of gene

M.A. Núñez Ahumada, C.E. Arancibia Aros, C.E. Villalobos Pavez, F.M. Pontigo Gonzalez, V. Abarca Arce, M. Sandoval Medrano, S. Reyes Jorquera

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 3, 122–125

Report | 01-December-2019

Transfusion practices for patients with sickle cell disease at major academic medical centers participating in the Atlanta Sickle Cell Consortium

, alloimmunization occurs infrequently with the exception of chronically transfused SCD patients, who represent the minority of active SCD patients. With increasing availability, red blood cell genotyping will be used in the near future both for determination of predicted patient phenotypes and for provision of genotypically matched donor units.

Anne M. Winkler, Cassandra D. Josephson

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 1, 24–26

Review | 20-March-2020

Detection and identification of platelet antibodies and antigens in the clinical laboratory

antibody tests. Fueled by development of PCR and determination of the molecular basis of the PlA1 human platelet antigen (HPA), serologic platelet typing has now been replaced by genotyping of DNA. Allele-specific PCR, melting curve analysis, and 5′-nuclease assays are now evolving into more high-throughput molecular tests. Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of immune platelet disorders has advanced considerably from its humble beginnings.

Brian R. Curtis, Janice G. McFarland

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 125–135

Article | 14-October-2020

Easy method for determining the frequency of O1 and O2 alleles in Brazilian blood donors by PCR-RFLP analysis

Serologic ABO blood typing is routinely performed using anti-A and anti-B sera to distinguish four phenotypes (A, B, AB, and O). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and DNA sequence studies offer the possibility of direct ABO genotyping. We used polymerase chain reaction-RFLP analysis to determine the frequency of O1 and O2 alleles in 82 unrelated blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil, known to be group O. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes by a modified salting

Ana C. Batissoco, Marcia C.Z. Novaretti, Valdecir J. Bueno, Pedro E. Dorlhiac-Llacer, Dalton A.F. Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 111–116

Article | 26-October-2020

Serologic and molecular investigations of a chimera

A chimeric individual possesses two or more genetically distinct cell populations. Although the chimerism may not be evident in all gene systems, various loci display greater numbers of alleles than genetically "normal" individuals. The proposita was referred for further laboratory investigation due to a rnixed-field ABO blood group reaction following routine antenatal testing. Various molecular (HLA class Il, ABO genotyping, and 10 short tandem repeat [STR] microsatellites) and

Nicole A. Mifsud, Albert P. Haddad, Cathie F. Hart, Jennifer A. Condon, Michael Swain, Rosemary L. Sparrow

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 100–104

mini-review | 27-December-2020

Hepatitis B Virus: From Diagnosis to Treatment

for men and women, respectively (WHO 2017b). Molecular assays The molecular diagnostic techniques are used for HBV DNA quantification, genotyping, detection of drug resistance mutations, and precore/core mutation analysis (Villar et al. 2015) Currently, UltraQual HBV PCR Assay, COBAS AmpliScreen HBV Test, Procleix Ultrio Assay, Procleix Ultrio Plus Assay, and COBAS TaqScreen MPX Test are FDA approved nucleic acids amplification tests (NATs) used for diagnosis of HB infection (FDA 2019) HBV DNA


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 69 , ISSUE 4, 391–399

Review | 09-October-2019

The Vel blood group system: a review

Jill R. Storry, Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 56–59

Case report | 01-December-2019

Weak D type 42 cases found in individuals of European descent

Maryse St-Louis, Martine Richard, Marie Côté, Carole Éthier, Anne Long

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 20–24

Review | 18-October-2020

ABO blood group system: a rev i ew of molecular aspects

Marion E. Reid, Agnes Hallie Lee

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Article | 26-October-2019

HEA BeadChipTM technology in immunohematology

Cinzia Paccapelo, Francesca Truglio, Maria Antonietta Villa, Nicoletta Revelli, Maurizio Marconi

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 81–90

case-report | 25-June-2021

B subgroup detection in a small hospital transfusion service

is important to prevent potential ABO-mismatched transfusion reactions. Weak B subgroups are rarely detected in a hospital transfusion service setting. The ability to confirm a weak ABO subgroup phenotype generally requires molecular testing. DNA-based tests are increasingly being used at immunohematology reference laboratories to predict blood group phenotype, which helps to improve transfusion medicine practices.10,11 Reference laboratories use several methods for genotyping, including PCR

E. Elardo, N. Elbadri, C. Sanchez, V. Powell, M. Smaris, Y. Li, J. Jacobson, T. Hilbert, T. Hamilton, D.W. Wu

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 89–94

Report | 01-December-2019

Transfusion practices for patients with sickle cell disease at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Stella T. Chou, David F. Friedman

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 1, 27–30

Article | 15-April-2020

Serologic and molecular genetic management of a pregnancy complicated by anti-Rh18

Antibodies,such as anti-Rh18 (Hr/HrS),that react with the common products of RHCE can cause HDN as well as severe hemolytic transfusion reactions. Individuals with anti-Rh18 antibodies can have different RHCE genetic backgrounds;therefore,sera and RBCs from these individuals may cross-react. In these situations, genotyping may be the best method to determine compatibility. We report a 26-year-old pregnant Puerto Rican woman who presented at 31 weeks’gestation with anti-E and anti-Rh18 in

Richard L. Haspel, Dawn Michelle, Richard M. Kaufman, Sunitha Vege, Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 3, 132–135

Article | 20-April-2020

Gene frequencies of the HPA-1 to 6 and Gov human platelet antigens in Thai blood donors

Human platelet alloantigens (HPA) are important in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), posttransfusion purpura (PTP), platelet transfusion refractoriness, passive alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and transplantation-associated alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Thus, HPA genotyping is essential in diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed HPA-1 to 6 and Gov alleles, using PCR with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) in 500 Thai blood donors who had been HLA class I antigen typed. HPA-4a was present

Pawinee Kupatawintu, Oytip Nathalang, Rachanee O-Charoen, Pimpicha Patmasiriwat

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 5–9

Original Paper | 28-December-2016

Gas Gangrene of Different Origin Associated with Clostridium perfringens Type A in Three Patients Simultaneously Hospitalized in a Single Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology in Poland

April 2015 and 20th April 2015. The three C. perfrin­gens isolates studied had identical biochemical profiles. Two isolates had identical resistance patterns, while the third presented a different profile. Using the multiplex PCR method, all isolates showed the presence of cpa gene encoding α-toxin; furthermore, the presence of the cpb2 gene encoding β2-toxin was confirmed in two isolates. Genotyping with the use of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) indicated that the isolates

Monika Brzychczy-Włoch, Dorota Ochońska, Anna Piotrowska, Małgorzata Bulanda

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 65 , ISSUE 4, 399–406

Article | 03-November-2020

Rapid screening of platelet donors for PlA1 (HPA-1a) alloantigen using a solid-phase microplate immunoassay

indicated the platelets were PlA1-negative. Of 520 donors, 15 (2.88%) tested PlA1-negative, which correlates well with the reported PlA2,2 frequency in whites of 2.25 percent. Results were confirmed by DNA genotyping and/or immunoblotting. This screening technique permits phenotyping donors for PlA1 alloantigen with minimal specialized equipment. Confirmatory testing for PlA2 alloantigen can be reserved for donors that test negative for PlA1.

Jo L. Procter, Faye E. Vique, Ed Alegre, Junichi Honda, Kazuhiko Matsuo, Diane Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 141–145

Case report | 14-October-2020

Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to HPA-3a antibodies: a case report

commerical antigencapture ELISA (GTI-PakPlus kit®). Anti-HPA-3a antibodies, while weakly reactive in the monoclonal antibody immobilization of platelet antigens (MAIPA) assay in the immediate postpartum serum, were readily detectable using this assay in a sample taken 4 weeks later. Genotyping for human platelet antigens (HPA) 1–5 by the polymerase chain reaction technique with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) revealed the infant’s platelet genotype to be HPA-1a/1a, 3a/3b, while that

A. Davoren, G. Smith, G. Lucas, S. Rodgers, P. O’Donoghue, J. Crowley, C.A. Barnes, J. McKiernan

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 33–36

Short Communication | 27-September-2017

Clonal Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Meknes Region, Morocco

Itto Maroui, Abouddihaj Barguigua, Asmae Aboulkacem, Hanane Elhafa, Khadija Ouarrak, Mohammed Sbiti, Lhoussain Louzi, Mohammed Timinouni, Abdelhaq Belhaj

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 66 , ISSUE 3, 397–400

Short Communication | 27-September-2017

Genetic Characterization of Human Enteroviruses Associated with Hand, Foot and Mouth Diseases in Poland, 2013–2016

Magdalena Wieczorek, Agnieszka Ciąćka, Arleta Krzysztoszek, Agnieszka Figas, Leszek Szenborn

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 66 , ISSUE 3, 405–409

Article | 17-February-2021

Identification of rare blood types in southern Brazil: impact on transfusion support

2018. We analyzed patients and blood donors with rare phenotypic composition, alloimmunized or not, and who were negative for high-prevalence antigens. Laboratory Testing RBC phenotyping was performed in tube, in gel (Bio-Rad; Lagoa Santa, MG, Brazil), and in glass microsphere column agglutination technology (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ) using commercial antisera according to the manufacturer’s instructions. RBC genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction using laboratory

C.D.S.R. de Araújo, B.A. Machado, C.D. Reche, L. Maroni, L.C. Garlet, M.M.P. dos Santos, M. Beber, A. Pasqualotti, L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 152–156

Report | 25-March-2020

DNA-based assays for patient testing: their application, interpretation, and correlation of results

Christine Lomas-Francis, Helene DePalma

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 180–190

Report | 01-December-2019

Alloimmunization of patients by blood units harboring distinct DEL variants

eight DEL donors. Coincidentally, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) performed a traceback study by investigating the RHD status of donors after a D– recipient developed anti-D after transfusion of two D– red blood cell (RBC) units. Donor genotyping was done either manually (HQ) or using the Progenika Bloodchip platform (CBS). Donations were traced through computer records. Letters were sent to hospital blood bank physicians to verify the presence of anti-D in recipients and to donors to

Maryse St-Louis, André Lebrun, Mindy Goldman, Marianne Lavoie

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 136–140

Report | 01-December-2019

Identifying D-positive donors using a second automated testing platform

Because of the variability of D expression, one method may be inadequate to correctly classify donors with variant RHD alleles. We evaluated the use of a solid-phase automated platform (ImmucorGamma Galileo) to confirm D– test results obtained on first-time donors on the Beckman Coulter PK7300 automated microplate test system. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by serologic tube methods, RHD genotyping using the BLOODchip platform (Progenika), and, if necessary, sequencing. We

Mindy Goldman, Ilona Resz, Jacqueline Cote, Gorka Ochoa, Nancy Angus

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 3, 97–100

Report | 09-October-2019

Red blood cell phenotype prevalence in blood donors who self-identify as Hispanic

Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic populations. Therefore, this study sought to determine the phenotype prevalence in a single blood center’s Hispanic population and to compare those results with previously reported rates in non-Hispanic donor

Chelsea A. Sheppard, Nicole L. Bolen, Beth Eades, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 119–124

Report | 20-March-2020

A simple screening assay for the most common JK*0 alleles revealed compound heterozygosity in Jk(a–b–) probands from Guam

screening assay was cost-efficient when compared with DNA sequencing costs. Furthermore, selection of the more common JK*0 mutations was a practical approach that resulted in rapid identification of the genetic bases behind the Jk(a–b–) phenotypes in this unusual family. Although an obvious target for eventual inclusion into high-throughput genotyping platforms for clinical diagnostic services, current systems are very limited. Our approach provides a simple and inexpensive method for the

Elisabet Sjöberg Wester, Julia Gustafsson, Beverly Snell, Peggy Spruell, Åsa Hellberg, Martin L. Olsson, Jill R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 165–169

Review | 20-March-2020

Historic milestones in the evolution of the crossmatch

introduction of the serologic crossmatch—100 years ago—had a major positive impact on all aspects of clinical medicine. As a result of these advances, we are quickly approaching the limits of improving the safety and efficacy of blood transfusions by conventional serologic methods. Future improvements are more likely to be the result of applications of molecular genotyping—which could not have become available at a more perfect time. When Immunohematology publishes its 50th-anniversary

S. Gerald Sandler, Malak M. Abedalthagafi

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 147–151

Article | 18-October-2020

Comparison of human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a typing by solid phase red cell adherence to HPA-1 allotypes determined by allelespecific restriction enzyme analysis

Michael J. McGann, Jo L. Procter, Junichi Honda, Kazuhiko Matsuo, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 68–73

Report | 25-March-2020

Molecular analyses of GYPB in African Brazilians

Ricardo Omoto, Marion E. Reid, Lilian Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 148–153

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