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Article | 06-December-2020

A Polynesian family showing co-dominant inheritance of normal glycophorin C and the Gerbich variant form of glycophorin C

Two individuals with the rare Ge:-2.-3,4 phenotype (Gerbich type of Gerbich negative) were identified in a family of Polynesian descent who reside in the Cook Islands. In initial serologic tests, all other family members typed as Ge-positive. and heterozygous individuals could not be identified. Further studies on blood samples from seven members of this Polynesian family by immunoblotting and hemagglutination tests on trypsin-treated red blood cells showed that normal glycophorin C and the

Marion E. Reid, Joyce Poole, Yew W. Liew, Linda Pinder

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 2, 29–32

Review | 12-March-2020

The Gerbich blood group system: a review

Antigens in the Gerbich blood group system are expressed on glycophorin C (GPC) and glycophorin D (GPD), which are both encoded by a single gene, GYPC. The GYPC gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2, and Gerbich antigens are inherited as autosomal dominant traits. There are 11 antigens in the Gerbich blood group system, six of high prevalence (Ge2, Ge3, Ge4, GEPL [Ge10*], GEAT [Ge11*], GETI [Ge12*]) and five of low prevalence (Wb [Ge5], Lsa [Ge6], Ana [Ge7], Dha [Ge8], GEIS [Ge9

Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 60–65

Review | 20-March-2020

MNS blood group system: a review

The MNS blood group system is second only to the Rh blood group system in its complexity. Many alloantibodies to antigens in the MNS system are not generally clinically significant although antibodies to low-prevalence and high-prevalence MNS antigens have caused hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The MNS antigens are carried on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or hybrids thereof, which arise from single-nucleotide substitution, unequal crossing over, or gene conversion

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

Review | 15-April-2020

Review: molecular basis of MNS blood group variants

The MNS blood group antigens are expressed in the RBC membrane on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or combinations of both. GPA expresses the M or N antigen,whereas GPB expresses the S or s antigen and the N antigen (′N′). Both glycophorin genes (GYPA and GYPB) are located on the long arm of chromosome 4 and share 95 percent sequence identity. This high degree of sequence identity, together with the rare involvement of a third homologous gene (GYPE), provides an increased

P. Palacajornsuk

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 171–182

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the MNS blood group system

Update on the MNS Blood Group System The MNS blood group system is highly complex, with 49 antigens currently recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion.1 All antigens are carried by glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or multiple glycophorin (GP) variants resulting from unequal crossover or gene conversion events between GYPA and GYPB genes.2 GYPE, the other glycophorin gene family member, does not encode detectable antigens on the red blood cell (RBC) surface but has

L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 61–62

Article | 10-November-2020

Glycophorin A-deficient red cells may have a weak expression of C4-bound Ch and Rg antigens

The blood group antigens Ch and Rg are polymorphisms of C4d. Antigen-positive red blood cells (RBCs) treated with proteases type as Ch-, Rg-. Although RBCs treated with sialidase may type Ch+ Rg+, they cannot be coated with C4 by the 10 percent sucrose method. Since studies of complement binding have shown that glycophorin A (GPA) is an important component for the uptake of C4 by RBCs, we tested all available GPA-deficient RBCs for their Ch and Rg status. Using eluates of human anti-Ch and anti

Patricia Tippett, Jill Storry, Phyllis Walker, Yasuto Okubo, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 4–7

Article | 01-April-2020

An alloantibody to a highprevalence MNS antigen in a person with a GP.JL/Mk phenotype

The low-prevalence MNS blood group antigenTSEN is located at the junction of glycophorinA (GPA) to glycophorin B (GPB) in several hybrid glycophorin molecules. Extremely rare people have RBCs with a double dose of theTSEN antigen and have made an antibody to a high-prevalence MNS antigen. We report the first patient who is heterozygous for GYP.JL and Mk. During prenatal tests,an alloantibody to a high-prevalence antigen was detected in the serum of a 21-year-old Hispanic woman. The antibody

John Ratliff, Susan Veneman, Joan Ward, Christine Lomas-Francis, Kim Hue-Roye, Randall W. Velliquette, Laima Sausais, Twilla Maldonado, Janet Miyamoto, Yolanda Martin, David Slater, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 146–149

Article | 26-October-2020

Evaluation and comparison of three human monoclonal anti-S, two human polyclonal anti-S, and one murine anti-GPB

Polyclonal anti-S react with Met29 of red blood cell (RBC)-bound glycophorin B (GPB) but may also require adjacent amino acids. Treatment of RBCs with certain enzymes and sodium hypochlorite­-based bleach (NaClO) affect the interaction of GPB with anti-S. Some, but not all, anti-S react with hybrid glycophorin molecules associat­ed with the TSEN antigen. The purpose of this study was to charac­terize monoclonal anti-S and to compare their reactivity to polyclon­al anti-S in

Marion Reid, Gregory R. Halverson, Janet Sutherland, Malcolm Rhodes

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 4, 163–166

Article | 26-October-2020

Contribution of MNS to the study of glycophorin A and glycophorin B

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 1, 5–9

Article | 14-October-2020

Low-incidence MNS antigens associated with single amino acid changes and their susceptibility to enzyme treatment

MNS antigens are carried on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or their variants. Antigens at the N-terminus of GPA are sensitive to cleavage by ficin, papain, and trypsin but are resistant to α-chymotrypsin. Antigens at the N-terminus of GPB are sensitive to cleavage by ficin, papain, and α-chymotrypsin but are resistant to trypsin treatment. These characteristics have been used to aid in the identification of blood group alloantibodies. Recent molecular analyses have

Marion E. Reid, Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 76–81

Article | 06-December-2020

En(a-) phenotype in a Japanese blood donor

The first Japanese En(a-) individual (T.N.) was found by screening red cells from 250,000 Japanese blood donors with monoclonal anti-Ena. His serum contained no atypical antibodies and his partial red cell phenotype was M-N-S+s-, although a trypsin-resistant N antigen was detected. His red cells were En(a-) and Wr(b-), as determined by various human and mouse monoclonal antibodies. The absence of glycophorin A (GPA) and the presence of apparently normal glycophorin B (GPB) were demonstrated by

Yasuto Okubo, Taiko Seno, Hideo Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa Miyata, Carole A. Green, Geoffrey L. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 105–108

Article | 16-February-2021

Clinical approach after identification of a rare anti-Ena in a prenatal sample

Introduction The MNS blood group system (ISBT 002) consists of red blood cell (RBC) antigens located on glycophorin A (GPA) and glycophorin B (GPB). The GYPA and GYPB genes encoding these glycophorins are located on the long arm of chromosome 4.1,2 The most frequently encountered antibodies to antigens in this system by a transfusion medicine service are those directed against M, N, S, and s. In rare cases, individuals may lack GPA or both GPA and GPB on their RBCs because of gene deletion, and

P.J. Howard, L. Guerra, D.K. Kuttner, M.R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 159–161

Case report | 01-December-2019

Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn owing to anti-U, successfully treated with repeated intrauterine transfusions

Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) owing to anti-U has rarely been reported. U is part of the MNS system. M and N glycoproteins are located on glycophorin A (GPA); S and s antigens are on glycophorin B (GPB). Individuals who lack GPB are S– and s– and also lack U. The U– phenotype occurs almost exclusively in the African population and has a very low frequency (0.25%). Anti-U is of immunoglobulin G class and can cause hemolytic transfusion reaction and HDFN. In

Johanna Strindberg, Joachim Lundahl, Gunilla Ajne

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 51–54

Article | 10-November-2020

Evidence that the low-incidence red cell antigens R1a and Lsa are identical

Testing of Ls(a+) and R1(a+) red cells with numerous antisera containing antibodies to low-incidence antigens indicated that these antigens are identical. This conclusion was confirmed by adsorption and elution tests, and supported by immunoblotting of Ls(a+) and R1(a+) cells with antibodies to giycophorin C and glycophorin D.

Leif Kornstad, Carole Green, Pertti Sistonen, Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Article | 17-November-2020

En(a-)FIN phenotype in a Pakistani

An antibody to a high-incidence antigen in the serum from a Pakistani female (SD) was identified as anti-Ena. Her red cells have the En(a-)FIN phenotype and lack glycophorin A. This is the first En(a-) to be described in a Pakistani individual and represents the fourth family to be reported.

Judy Rapini, Rita Batts, Michelle Yacob, Christine Howard, Prema Singa, Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 51–53

Article | 09-November-2020

Practical method for determination of the U status of S–s– erythrocytes

Red blood cells (RBCs) lacking S and s blood group antigens are classified as S–s–U– or S–s–U+var but the classification may vary due to the characteristics of anti-U and to the technique used. Tests on RBCs known to lack glycophorin B (GPB) or to possess an altered form of GPB showed that polyethylene glycol-indirect antiglobulin testing or MicroTyping Systems (MTS)-gel techniques can be used as a simple and reliable way to detect RBCs with variant forms of GPB

Marion E. Reid, Jill R. Storry, Joan Maurer, Sandra T. Nance

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 111–114

Article | 06-December-2020

Anti-Uz found in mother's serum and child's eluate

A saline-reactive antibody, anti-Uz, that reacted stronger with S+ than with S- red blood cells (RBCs) and failed to react with U- or ficin-treated RBCs has been previously reported. We describe an antibody of similar specificity in the postpartum serum of an untransfused woman and the eluate from her fourth child's cord RBCs. The mother's RBCs typed S-s+U+, He+(weak), and appeared to have normal glycophorin A and B content, as determined by immunoblotting. The direct antiglobulin test

Sandra M. Read, Mary M. Taylor, Marion E. Reid, Mark A. Popovsky

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 47–49

Case report | 01-December-2019

Anti-Ge2: further evidence for lack of clinical significance

Anti-Ge2 may be immune or naturally occurring, and it reacts with an antigen on glycophorin D. Ge2 is encoded by a gene, GYPC, which is located on the long arm of chromosome 2. Anti-Ge2 is usually an immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. In the available literature, we have not been able to find any reported cases of proven acute hemolytic transfusion reactions caused by anti-Ge2. We present the case of a 67-year-old man with metastatic pancreatic carcinoma who had symptomatic anemia and a

Deepthi Karunasiri, Frederick Lowder, Nora Ostrzega, Dennis Goldfinger

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 4, 156–157

Article | 01-April-2020

Reduced red blood cell destruction by antibody fragments

Amina Mqadmi, Steven Abramowitz, Xiaoying Zheng, Karina Yazdanbakhsh

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

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