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  • Immunohematology

 

Article | 09-November-2020

The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the adsorption of autoantibodies

The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the adsorption of warm autoantibodies on red blood cells (RBCs) was evaluated in our laboratory in an effort to reduce the time and cost associated with routine differential adsorptions. Sera from 19 patients with warm autoantibodies were tested. Fourteen of these sera contained alloantibodies or additional autoantibody specificities underlying the dominant autoantibody. The sera were differentially adsorbed using equal volumes of serum, reagent

Christina L. Barron, Mary Beth Brown

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 119–122

Article | 26-October-2020

Precipitation of serum proteins by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in  pretransfusion testing

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used as a potentiator of blood group antigen-antibody interactions. Although PEG is known to precipitate immunoglobulins, we could find no reports of this reagent entrapping red blood cells (RBCs) in irreversible clumps. The patient we describe here had hyperglobulinemia with a reversed albumin: globulin ratio and a diffuse immunoglobulin peak on serum protein electrophoresis. During preparation of serologic tests, a precipitate formed that entrapped the RBCs when

Jack Hoffer, William P. Koslosky, Elizabeth S. Gloster, Therese M. Dimaio, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 105–107

Article | 17-November-2020

Analysis ofthe routine use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an enhancement medium

This study compared the performance of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and low-ionic saline solutions (LISS) as enhancement media for routine use in a large transfusion service. A PEG additive solution (PEG plus LISS) was compared to a LISS additive (LISS plus polymers) and to an albumin-indirect antiglobulin test (A-IAT). Fifty serum samples containing clinically significant alloantibodies and fifty samples without alloantibodies were tested. Following an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR

Vicki J. Barrett, James R. Stubbs, Karen Stuardi, Angela Hollis, Leslie Clear

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 11–13

Article | 14-October-2020

PEG adsorption of autoantibodies causes loss of concomitant alloantibody

Use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote adsorption of autoantibodies is reported to give good recovery of concomitant alloantibodies. In initial experiments, PEG and ZZAP (Ficin and DTT) adsorption procedures were compared for removal of autoantibody and recovery of alloantibody. Postadsorption studies (n = 11) were performed and hemagglutination scores compared. In subsequent studies, equal volumes of alloantibody containing sera, PEG, and antigen-negative red blood cells (RBCs) were used

W. John Judd, Louann Dake

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 82–85

Review | 01-December-2019

Polyethylene glycol antiglobulin test  (PEG-AGT)

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was described in 1987 as a new technique for immunohematology testing. The original paper described its use in detection and identification of weakly reactive antibodies. PEG is used as an additive to enhance reactivity and to reduce incubation time when testing for unexpected antibodies. PEG can be used as an alternative to low-ionicstrength saline and whenever weak reactions are encountered.

Larry Weldy

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 4, 158–160

Article | 14-October-2020

Confirmation of positive antibody screens by solid-phase red cell adherence assay using a tube technique method with polyethylene glycol enhancement

Our blood bank routinely screens donors for antibodies using a solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assay. Positive results are then confirmed using a tube technique with polyethylene glycol (PEG) enhancement due to reported higher specificity than with SPRCA. Over a 5-month period, 49,084 donor serum or plasma samples were tested using the SPRCA assay. Further identification of positive samples was performed using a PEG enhancement method. Testing was performed with strict adherence to the

Richard R. Gammon, Michele Lake, Norberto D. Velasquez, Alicia Prichard

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 14–16

Article | 14-October-2020

Selecting an acceptable and safe antibody detection test can present a dilemma

The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant

Martha Rae Combs, Steven J. Bredehoeft

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 86–89

Article | 22-January-2021

Anti-Ata in a renal transplant candidate: a case report

antibody detection tests were performed, and the patient’s ABO/Rh status was determined to be group O, D+. Antibody detection test results were positive, with all reagent RBCs in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-IAT incubated at 37°C. Initial antibody identification studies by the same method also showed panagglutination. RBC phenotyping was performed in-house by the tube method to determine possible alloantibody specificities. Phenotyping results showed the patient’s RBCs to be positive for the following

J. Gao, S. Wise, S.H. Tinsley, J.F. Shikle

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 104–107

Article | 03-November-2020

Implementation of gel column technology, including comparative testing of Ortho ID-MTS with standard polyethylene glycol tube tests

With the intent to increase laboratory efficiency and according to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA ’88), a parallel testing program comparing traditional tube technology with the gel system technology was undertaken. Test tube indirect antiglobulin tests were performed using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the antibody enhancement medium. Gel (GEL) column technology used the ID-Micro Typing System™, using predispensed anti-IgG and lowionic-strength saline for

Diane A. Derr, Stacy J. Dickerson, E.Ann Steiner

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 72–74

Article | 03-November-2020

The gel test: use in the identification of unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The IgG GEL test was compared with the LISS tube test (Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline) for antibody identification. The suitability of red blood cells (RBCs) pretreated with ficin, dithiothreitol (DTT), or chloroquine diphosphate (CDP) also was assessed for use in the GEL test. In addition, time-in-motion studies were performed comparing GEL (12 panels per batch) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) tube tests (3 panels per batch). In 57 antibody identification studies, there

W. John Judd, E.Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf, Colleen Masters

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Article | 03-November-2020

Improved detection of weak, clinically significant antibodies by supplementation of polyethylene glycol with a low-ionic solution

A comparative study of 164 serum samples was carried out to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) in three different formulations: physiologic saline, low-ionic solution (RAM), and RAM supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Serum samples containing mostly weak antibodies (anti-D, -C, -E, -c, -Jka, -Fya, -K, -S, -Lea, -Lua, -M, -Cob, -P1, -I, and -Kna) were used in a 10-minute IAGT in which PEG-IAGTs were compared with salineIAGTs and RAM-IAGTs

Kim Swee Low, Yew-Wah Liew, Peter M. Bradley

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 68–71

Report | 29-October-2019

Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline–albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization

Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch (IAT-XM) using enhancement media such as low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) usually requires 15 minutes of incubation. These methods are necessary when testing samples from blood recipients who have a higher risk of alloimmunization. In emergency situations, IAT-XM can be time-consuming and can influence presurgery routine, resulting in more red blood cell (RBC) units being tested and stored to avoid the transfusion of 

Carla Luana Dinardo, Sílvia Leão Bonifácio, Alfredo Mendrone Júnior

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

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