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Article | 29-December-2020

Serological and immunochemical characteristics of Ge-negative red cells and anti-Ge

Gerbich-negative red cells lack ß and Ƴ sialoglycoproteins (SGPs), which are now known to carry the Gerbich (Ge) antigens. Gerbich and Yus-type Ge-negative red cells possess distinct diffuse SGPs that migrate on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a position between those normally occupied by ß and Ƴ SGPs. Both these SGPs lack Ge2 antigens and possess epitopes recognized by monoclonal anti-ß. These SGPs differ from each other in at least two

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 2, 19–22

Article | 27-December-2020

The elucidation of a Kell-related autoantibody using ZZAP-treated red cells

A 61-year-old, nontransfused, Caucasian male was found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and an autoantibody in his serum prior to total hip replacement. Autoabsorption with the patient's ZZAP-treated red cells failed to absorb the autoantibody, giving a clue to its possible specificity, which was subsequently found to be Kell-system related. In addition, his red cells were found to have a slightly weakened expression of Kell system antigens. The patient was fit and healthy

Graham P. Rowe, Guiseppe G. Tozzo, Joyce Poole, Yew Wah Liew

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 79–82

Article | 06-December-2020

Expression of B and H antigens on red cells from a group Bweak individual studied by serologic and scanning electron microscopic techniques

The proposita was classified as Bel, By, or Bm, Le(b+) by routine blood grouping and by adsorption/elution studies using anti-A and -B hyperimmune pregnancy sera. Red cells from the proposita adsorbed as much anti-B from the hyperimmune sera as did red cells from normal B individuals, but adsorbed less anti-A,B (group O serum). Saliva contained H, but not B, soluble substance. Red cells from the proposita and a normal B donor were sensitized with monoclonal A and B blood group antibodies

Hans Erik Heier, Leif Kornstad, Ellen Namork, Peder Østgard, Randi Sandin

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 94–99

Article | 22-November-2020

A comparison of the reactivity of monoclonal and polyclonal Rh reagents with red cells after prolonged storage

Previous studies with stored red cells collected into EDTA anticoagulant had shown that commercial polyclonal anti-C, -c, and -E reagents gave acceptable reactions for 60 days, hut polyclonal antie reagents reliably detected the e antigen only through 14 days. At that time it was noted that a monoclonal anti-e reacted 3+ to 4+ with red cells that no longer reacted, or reacted very weakly, with the polyclonal anti-e reagents. This observation led to a comparison study of the reactivity of

Connie M. Westhoff, Belva D. Sipherd, Larry D. Toalson

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 1, 12–15

Article | 10-November-2020

Leukocyte reduction of red cells when transfusing patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a strategy to decrease the incidence of confounding transfusion reactions

transfusing the patient. We report a case of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA) in which the transfusion of red cells was complicated by a febrile transfusion reaction. Evaluation of the reaction resulted in a significant delay in transfusion therapy. Subsequent administration of leukocyte-poor red cells resulted in uneventful transfusions with a good therapeutic response. Retrospective analysis of the pretransfusion sample demonstrated significant levels of anti-neutrophil antibodies. This case

Jeanne A. Lumadue, Rosetta Sue Shirey, Thomas S. Kickler, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 84–86

Article | 22-November-2020

Use of monoclonal Jka and Jkb reagents in phenotyping red cells with a positive direct antiglobulin test

Twenty-five red cell samples with a positive anti-IgG direct antiglobulin test QAT) were tested with human monoclonal IgM Jka and Jkb antibodies. Red cell samples were first tested by a 5- minute incubation tube test with the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The same red cells were then chloroquine diphosphate (CDP)-treated, and retested. Eleven of the CDP-treated samples were also tested with conventional polyclonal antibodies (PAhs) that required a 37°C incubation for 30 minutes, followed by

Judy L. Brazell

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 27-December-2020

A simple alternative for Rh phenotyping red cells that have a persistently positive Rh control

lnvestigation of a patient's red cell sample with a persistently positive Rh control revealed that if the patient's red cells were treated with ZZAP, then incubated at 37°C with commercial Rh-typing reagents, then washed four times with saline, the positive Rh control could be circumvented and the Rh phenotype readily determined. One hundred red cell samples of known Rh phenotype were treated with ZZAP and coated with autoantibody to resemble the cells of the index case. Accurate

Jill T. Hardman, Malcolm L. Beck, Patricia Lamley

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 83–85

Case report | 09-November-2020

Quantitating fetomaternal hemorrhages of D+ red cells using an FITC-conjugated IgG monoclonal anti-D by flow cytometry: a case report

Several methods for quantitating fetomaternal hemorrhages (FMHs) have been described; these include the Kleihauer-Betke and red cell rosetting tests, and flow cytometry that uses an indirect antiglobulin technique, employing either FITC-conjugated IgG/unlabeled anti-D or streptavidin conjugates with biotinylated anti-D to enumerate D+ red cells in maternal blood. We have used a recently described directly conjugated FITC anti-D for direct flow cytometric (direct FC) quantitation of FMH in a

Anatole Lubenko, John Raymond Collier, Mark Williams, Damien Hindmarch, Sally Rosemary Wilson, Julie Pluck

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 12–14

Article | 26-October-2020

Terminology for red cell antigens - 1999 update

Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 95–99

Article | 20-December-2020

Cromer-related blood group antigens and the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked protein, decay-accelerating factor DAF (CD55)

Cromer-related blood group antigens are located on the complement regulatory glycoprotein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF is not detectable on red cells from individuals with a Cromernull phenotype (termed Inab), which is probably an inherited condition. DAF is also absent from a subpopulation of red cells (PNH III) from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired hematological defect. PNH III red cells, like Inab cells, lack all the Cromer-related antigens

Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 27–29

Article | 10-November-2020

Detection of tube agglutination 37°C-only antibodies by solid-phase red cell adherence

There are no published data on the detection of tube agglutination (TA) 37°C-only antibodies by solid-phase (SP) red cell adherence assays using anti-IgG-coated indicator red cells. Thirteen examples of TA 37°C-onIy antibodies were tested by conventional SP methods. Four TA 37°C-only antibodies failed to react by SP. Three were anti-Lea, considered clinically insignificant, and one was anti-E, an anti­body of potential clinical significance. The remaining nine TA 37°C-only

Susan Rolih, Fern Fisher, Dolores Fiqueroa, Gwenn Lindsay

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 27–29

Article | 03-November-2020

GIL: a red cell antigen of very high frequency

Geoff Daniels, E. Nicole DeLong, Virginia Hare, Susan T. Johnson, Pierre-Yves LePennec, Delores Mallory, M. Jane Marshall, Cindy Oliver, Peggy Spruell

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 49–52

Article | 31-December-2020

Cold Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia With Auto-Anti-AI Specificity: 51Chromium Studies

group OI and AI red cells. The group OI red cells survived normally (97% at 24 hours) while the group A1I red cells were removed in a "two-component" pattern characteristic of IgM complement-fixing antibodies (62% survival at one hour, 49% at 24 hours). Based on these observations, the patient was subsequently transfused without incidence with six group O units of washed red cells prior to splenectomy. Although auto-anti-AI has been previously reported, this is the first case to

May H. McGinniss, Richard J. Davey, Richard A. Binder, Arthur N. Kales

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 2, 20–22

Article | 06-December-2020

En(a-) phenotype in a Japanese blood donor

The first Japanese En(a-) individual (T.N.) was found by screening red cells from 250,000 Japanese blood donors with monoclonal anti-Ena. His serum contained no atypical antibodies and his partial red cell phenotype was M-N-S+s-, although a trypsin-resistant N antigen was detected. His red cells were En(a-) and Wr(b-), as determined by various human and mouse monoclonal antibodies. The absence of glycophorin A (GPA) and the presence of apparently normal glycophorin B (GPB) were demonstrated by

Yasuto Okubo, Taiko Seno, Hideo Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa Miyata, Carole A. Green, Geoffrey L. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 105–108

Article | 06-December-2020

The P1H antigen and antibody

P1H, a newly discovered compound antigen associated with both the ABO and P systems, occurs in approximately 7 percent of Natal (South African) blacks. The compound antigen, is evident only when the red cells have exceptionally strong expression of both P1 and H antigens, and it is apparentIy a dominant character. The antigen is thought to originate by steric rearrangement in the molecule, or to he the product of competition between P1 and H gene transferases for the available paragloboside

Phyllis P. Moores

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 7–10

Article | 06-December-2020

Compatibility testing problems associated with bovine thrombin-treated plasma

Plasma converted to serum by the addition of bovine thrombin prior to compatibility testing agglutinated all donor red cells. This finding prompted an investigation of bovine thrombin-associated incompatibility that showed that (1) thrombin derived from bovine plasma contains IgG antibodies directed against all human red cells, and (2) excess (> 50 units/mL) bovine thrombin used for conversion of plasma to serum may cause hemagglutination and erroneous serologic test results because of the

Rosetta Sue Shirey, Ana B. Ciappi, Thomas S. Kickler, Darrell Triulzi, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 19–21

Article | 14-October-2020

Comparison of three low-ionic diluents for dilution and storage of reagent A1 and B cells for testing in gel technology

Currently, ABO serum grouping performed by gel technology employs a red cell diluent containing EDTA (MTS Diluent 2 Plus™) that does not permit extended storage of the red cell suspensions. A diluent currently used for suspension and long-term storage of reagent red cells for antibody detection and identification (Ortho 0.8% Red Cell Diluent™) was evaluated for use with A1 and B cells. Because this diluent does not contain EDTA, testing was limited to EDTA samples. As a comparison

E. Ann Steiner, LouAnn Dake

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 53–56

Review | 09-October-2019

Requests for red cells with rare blood types in the Netherlands

Jessie S. Luken, Fikreta Danovic, Masja de Haas, Rianne (M.M.W.) Koopman

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 2, 51–52

Letter to Editor | 14-December-2020

Letter to the Editor: The use of pooled reagent red cells

M. Contreras, M. de Silva, Ira A. Shulman, Roland Nakayama, Cintia Calderon

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 82–83

Article | 18-October-2020

Human anti-Dia monoclonal antibodies for mass screening

The use of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to blood group antigens is constantly increasing for routine typing. Two heterohybridoma cell lines, HMR15 and HMR22, were established by Epstein-Barr virus transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a blood donor with anti-Dia. HMR15 mab directly agglutinated Di(a+) red cells, and HMR22 mab agglutinated Di(a+) red cells exclusively by the indirect antiglobulin test. Reactivities of both HMR15 and HMR22 mabs were specific for Dia and had good

Toru Miyazaki, Shinichiro Sato, Toshiaki Kato, Hisami Ikeda

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 78–81

Article | 06-December-2020

Antibody detection errors due to acidic or unbuffered saline

Isotonic saline solutions, buffered with potassium phosphate or sodium phosphate salts, were evaluated in parallel with unbuffered saline to determine if they improved antibody detection by solid phase red cell adherence or hemagglutination methods. Saline buffered to a pH of 7.0 to 7.5, when used to suspend red cells or to wash sensitized red cells in preparation for the antiglobulin test, produced the best positive solid phase and hemagglutination results. The pH range of commercially

Susan Rolih, Ron Thomas, Fern Fisher, Joanne Talbot

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 15–18

Article | 06-December-2020

Red cell antigen stability in K3EDTA

strength to be 2+ (score 8). As expected, the A, B, and D reactions were very stable with red cells stored for 60 days. All antigens except Lea exhibited 2+ (score 8) or greater reactions at day 14, and at day 21 only the Lea, Fyb, and e antigens were less than 2+. On day 60, twelve of twenty-one antigens tested still exhibited 2+ or greater reactions. This study shows that antigen reactivity for red cells collected and stored in EDTA is at least equal to that for clotted specimens. These red

Connie M. Westhoff, Belva D. Sipherd, Larry D. Toalson

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 109–111

Article | 06-December-2020

Effect of enzymes on and chemical modifications of high-frequency red cell antigens

Enzyme or chemical modification of intact red cells results in the destruction of some blood group antigens. The pattern of reactions of an antibody with red cells treated with various proteinases, with sialidase, and with the disulfide bond-reducing agent 2-aminoethylisothiouronium bromide (AET) can aid in antibody identification. This information can prove particularly beneficial with antibodies to antigens of very high frequency, where antigen-negative cells may be difficult to obtain

Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 53–57

Article | 29-December-2020

Assessing the clinical significance of anti-Cra and anti-M in a chronically transfused sickle cell patient

Banks (AABB) failed to identify Cr(a -), M-, E-, K -, S -, Fy(a - b -) donors. Various studies were performed to pre­dict the clinical significance of the anti-Cra and anti-M. Results of 51chromium survival studies showed 91.8 percent survival at 10 minutes and 87.2 percent survival at 60 minutes with Cr(a +), M -, E -, K -, S -, Fy(a - b -) red cells, suggesting that immediate de­struction of transfused Cr(a +) red cells would be unlikely. How­ever, further analysis revealed diminished

Mary B. Leatherbarrow, Sandra S. Ellisor, Patricia A. Collins, Deborah K. Douglas, Robert J. Eckrich, Susan S. Esty, Michael L. Baldwin, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 4, 71–74

Case Study | 10-November-2020

Characteristics of anti-Cob in vitro and in vivo: a case study

Serologic and biologic properties of an example of anti-Cob were investigated. The antibody was of the IgG class, and it bound small amounts of complement. It reacted optimally in the albumin-antiglobulin test with little or no enhancement of its reactivity in tests using enzymes. Additional experiments indicated that the Cob antigen is resistant to treatment with chemicals known to destroy other antigens. The antibody caused shortened survival of radiola­beled Co(b+) donor red cells in our

Johannes J.M.L. Hoffmann, Marijke A.M. Overbeeke

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 11–13

Article | 14-December-2020

The sensitivity of antibody detection testing using pooled versus unpooled reagent red cells

Ira A. Shulman, Roland Nakayama, Cintia Calderon

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 1, 16–19

Article | 06-December-2020

Alloimmunization by blood group antigens from bone allografts

The purpose of this report is to heighten awareness of the risk of blood group antigen sensitization following bone allografting. Two Rh-negative females of childbearing age developed multiple antibodies to Rh antigens following transplantation of bone from Rh-positive donors. A previous pregnancy and/or blood transfusions were ruled out as factors influencing the antibody production. It is postulated that red cells or red cell stroma in the allografts stimulated the antibody production

C. Elizabeth Musclow, Glen Dietz, Robert S. Bell, Madeleine Beaudry-Clouatre

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 102–104

Case report | 06-December-2020

Case report: hemolytic anemia produced by tolmetin

anticomplement reagents. The patient's serum was nonreactive with reagent red cells in the absence of tolmetin, but addition of tolmetin to the serum resulted in strong agglutination of all reagent red cells tested. Serologic evaluation of this patient's serum indicated that tolmetin caused hemolysis by an immune complex mechanism. Hemolysis subsided and anemia improved spontaneously.

LeeAnn McCall, Michael R. Owens

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 17–18

Case report | 27-December-2020

Case ABO report: discrepancy due to vancomycin complicating a transfusion reaction investigation

A 3-year-old patient with acute myelogenous leukemia developed fever and chills during transfusion of packed red cells. A preliminary workup suggested that a group AB donor unit had been issued to a Group A patient. However, a discrepancy between the ABO group of the original donor unit segment (A) and blood taken from the IV tubing (AB) and the patient's pre- and posttransfusion samples (A and AB, respectively) suggested another reason for the weak reactivity of some samples with anti-B

Denise M. Gilbert, Ronald E. Domen

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 4, 119–120

Article | 20-December-2020

Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I (Bg) on red cells studied with monoclonal antibodies

Carolyn M. Giles

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 53–58

Article | 10-November-2020

Evidence that the low-incidence red cell antigens R1a and Lsa are identical

Testing of Ls(a+) and R1(a+) red cells with numerous antisera containing antibodies to low-incidence antigens indicated that these antigens are identical. This conclusion was confirmed by adsorption and elution tests, and supported by immunoblotting of Ls(a+) and R1(a+) cells with antibodies to giycophorin C and glycophorin D.

Leif Kornstad, Carole Green, Pertti Sistonen, Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Article | 17-November-2020

En(a-)FIN phenotype in a Pakistani

An antibody to a high-incidence antigen in the serum from a Pakistani female (SD) was identified as anti-Ena. Her red cells have the En(a-)FIN phenotype and lack glycophorin A. This is the first En(a-) to be described in a Pakistani individual and represents the fourth family to be reported.

Judy Rapini, Rita Batts, Michelle Yacob, Christine Howard, Prema Singa, Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 51–53

Article | 06-December-2020

Fy3 and Sla are carried on different red cell membrane proteins

Fy3 and Sla are high-incidence antigens that are absent from the red cells of 60-70 percent of black individuals. The correspond­ing antibodies have similar serologic characteristics. Therefore, a study was undertaken to investigate whether Fy3 and Sla might be the same antigen. Red cells from donors shown to be Fy3+, Sl(a+) were labeled with 125I and detergent solubilized. The sol­ubilized membranes were immunoprecipitated with two examples of anti-Sla and four examples of anti-Fy3

Joann M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 50–52

Case report | 27-April-2020

Case report: massive postpartum transfusion of Jr(a+) red cells in the presence of anti-Jra

Shan Yuan, Rosalind Armour, Allison Reid, Khaled F. Abdel-Rahman, Michael Phillips, Dawn M. Rumsey, Theresa Nester

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 97–101

Case report | 20-December-2020

A case report: clinically benign anti-Csa

Previous reports on the clinical significance of anti-Csa(Cost-Stirling) have presented conflicting data. We report our findings, over an 8-month period, of a patient whose serum contained anti-Csa and anti-Fya. Nineteen donor units of ABO and Rh-matched, Fya-negative red cells, which were crossmatch incompatible, were transfused with no clinical, serological, or biochemical evidence of a hemolytic transfusion reaction.

Thom Sererat, Jan Alexander, Jack Beatty

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 71–72

Article | 06-December-2020

Donor origin Rh antibodies as a cause of significant hemolysis following ABO-identical orthotopic liver transplantation

A group A, D-positive patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from a group A, D-negative (cde/cde) donor. Anti-D and -E were eluted from the recipient’s red cells and were found in the recipient’s serum 13 days later, at which time significant hemolysis developed. These Rh antibodies appear to he secondary to passive transfer of sensitized donor lymphocytes, a rare finding following liver transplantation.

Brian K. Kim, Carolyn F. Whitset, Christopher D. Hillyer

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 100–101

Article | 10-November-2020

Glycophorin A-deficient red cells may have a weak expression of C4-bound Ch and Rg antigens

Patricia Tippett, Jill Storry, Phyllis Walker, Yasuto Okubo, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 4–7

Article | 18-October-2020

From kill to overkill: 100 years of (perhaps too much) progress

Peter D. Issitt

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 18–25

Article | 03-November-2020

The first case of the p phenotype in a Gurkha Nepalese

A serum sample from a Gurkha Nepalese soldier, residing in Hong Kong, was found to cause hemolysis of reagent ABO red cells (RBCs) in the reverse blood grouping test. Subsequent follow-up studies revealed that he was of the p phenotype, with potent anti-PP1Pk that was strongly hemolytic both at room temperature and 37°C. The anti-PP1Pk was composed of IgG and IgM, and its various components were separable.

C.K. Lin, K.H. Mak, C.K. Cheng, C.P. Yang

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 30–32

Case report | 06-December-2020

Case report: a time study of management of a chronically transfused patient with multiple antibodies

This case report describes laboratory management of a chronically transfused sickle cell anemia patient with multiple antibodies and the time involved in providing compatible red cells for transfusion. Time was evaluated using the laboratory workload record ing method of the College of American Pathologists. Red cell units were sent to the hospital within 24 to 48 hours from receipt of a referral sample, despite a workload recording time in excess of 15 hours for a typical sample.

Kirk D. Kitchen, Mary F. Corgan, Brenda L. Hillard

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 81–82

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of the MAIEA assay to demonstrate that Fy3 is on the same glycoprotein as Fy6, Fya, and Fyb

same membrane protein as Fy6. The well-established location and relationship of Duffy blood group antigens Fya, Fyb, and Fy6 were again confirmed by the MAIEA assay, and those facts were used to standardize a variation of the assay to establish the relationship between Fy3 and Fy6 using red cells with various Fy phenotypes. The MAIEA assay generated high absorbance values when Fy6 and Fya (or Fyb) antigens were evaluated. Similarly, high absorbance values were seen when Fy3 and Fy6 antigens were

Jaw-Lin Tzeng, Roger Dodd, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Article | 17-November-2020

Correlation of monocyte monolayer assays and posttransfnsion survival of Yt(a+) red cells in patients with anti-Yta

Robert J. Eckrich, Delores M. Mallory, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 81–84

Article | 20-December-2020

An example of anti-JMH with characteristics of a clinically significant antibody

The authors studied an example of red cell anti-JMH (John Milton Hagen) that exhibited several characteristics of a possible clinically significant antibody able to cause red cell destruction in vivo. Strong serological reactivity, a positive monocyte monolayer assay, and immunoglobulin subclass determination as IgG3 all indicate possible ability to destroy red cells. A 51Cr-labeled red cell survival study was not done as the patient did not require red cell transfusions but may be recommended

John R. Geisland, Mary F. Corgan, Brenda L. Hillard

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 1, 9–11

Article | 17-November-2020

The first example of anti-Gya detected in Hong Kong

The incidence of anti-Gya is known to be extremely rare, and only a few examples have been reported in Japanese persons and in Caucasians. This case history reports the first example of anti-Gya detected in a Chinese person. The propositus is an 83-year-old male patient whose anti-Gya was revealed because of incompatibility of all units of blood tested by a saline indirect antiglobulin test (SIAT). Although the antibody had a titer of 512 by SIAT, 10 units of Gy(a+) red cells were transfused

King Hang Mak, Derek S. Ford, Gregory Cheng, Che Kit Lin, Cindy Yuen

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 20–21

Article | 14-December-2020

Typing of normal and variant red cells with ABO, Rh, and Kell typing reagents using a gel typing system

Don Tills, Derek J. Ward, Dieter Josef

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 4, 94–97

Article | 30-November-2020

The incidence of V (Rh10) and Jsa (K6) in the contemporary African American blood donor

Following an apparent increase in the number of patients with anti-V and/or anti-Jsa who required V- and/or Js(a-) red cell units, red cells from African American blood donors negative for C, E, S, K, Fya, Fyb, and Jkb were typed for V and Jsa over a 2-year period. Of the 438 donors typed for V and Jsa, 168 (38.36%) were V+ and 71 (16.44%) were Js(a+). The incidence of V (Rh10) was higher than that reported in previous studies, but no change was seen in the incidence of Jsa (K6).

Peter C. Byrne, John H. Howard

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 136–138

Article | 20-December-2020

Red cell antibody identification by solid phase red cell adherence utilizing dried RBC monolayers

Recent technological advances in the immobilization and drying of red cell monolayers for use in solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assays have resulted in the development of reagent red cells for antibody screening and identification that are stable at room temperature. Panels consisting of twelve different RBC samples dried onto individual microplate wells were evaluated with 176 samples whose antibody specificities had previously been determined by conventional hemagglutination

Darryl L. Stone, Ralph A. Eatz, Susan D. Rolih, Seaborn J. Farlow, Gordon S. Hudson, Lyle T. Sinor

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 1, 12–17

Case report | 26-October-2020

Case report: passively acquired anti-D in a D+ pregnant patient

A sample was submitted for serologic evaluation from a pregnant patient with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) for possible transfusion in the future because of a decreased platelet count. Anti-D and -E were identified in the patient’s serum using several antibody identification techniques, and anti-D was recovered in an acid eluate prepared from the patient’s red cells. It was discovered that WinRho™ had been administered to treat the ITP. This product has been licensed

Marie P. Holub, Kirk D. Kitchen, Eugene Mensinger

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 69–70

Case report | 17-November-2020

Case report: anti-Cra in pregnancy

A 39-year-oId Grenadian multiparous patient presented in the 12th week ofpregnancy. Her red cells were found to have the rare Cr(a-) (ISBT Number 202001) phenotype within the Cromer complex, and her serum contained anti-Cra. To date, anti-Cra has not been implicated in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), but there are very few published reports on this topic. This case provided an excellent opportunity for study. The patient’s serum showed no detectable functional activity in in vitro

Anne C. Dickson, Claire Guest, Mary Jordon, Jackie Banks, Belinda Kumpel

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 14–17

Article | 09-November-2020

A maternal warm-reactive autoantibody presenting as a positive direct antiglobulin test in a neonate

. Umbilical cord blood testing revealed a panreactive eluate though the antibody was not detected in cord serum. The neonate’s mother was also found to have a positive DAT. A panagglutinin was identified in an eluate of her red cells, although the autoantibody could not be detected in her serum by a variety of sensitive techniques. There was no clinical or laboratory evidence of maternal hemolysis.

Terry D. Williamson, Linda H. Liles, Douglas P. Blackall

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Article | 30-November-2020

First example of Rh:-32,-46 red cell phenotype

The red cells of a white male blood donor typed as Rh:-1, -2, -3, w4, w5, 6, -17, w19, -31, -32, -34, and -46. Although the donor has no history of transfusion, his serum contains an alloantibody that is weakly reactive with most red blood cells (RBCs) tested. Only Rhnull and D-- RBCs are nonreactive. Reactivity is enhanced with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs and is unaffected by AET or DTT treatment of the RBCs. Previously described Rh:-46 RBCs have been of deletion types D--, D•&bull

Jill Storry, Michael Gorman, Nancy I. Maddox, Ella Toy, Peter D. Issitt, Delores M. Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 130–133

Case report | 29-December-2020

A case report: cold hemagglutinin disease in a pancreatic and renal transplant patient

thermal amplitude of 37°C. The patie  nt had a weakly positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) with only complement detectable on the red cells. The patient recovered spontaneously. The etiology of the CHD is unclear. The use of cyclosporin-A, OKT3 monoclonal antibody, and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) to treat acute rejection could have played a part.

Catherine Y. Beiting, Kathleen S. Larimore

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 4, 85–87

Article | 20-December-2020

Tech tip: a simple method to remove excess white cells from a leukemia patient's sample prior to ZZAP treatment of the red cells

Irene E. Stocker

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 73–74

Article | 14-December-2020

Antibody detection using pooled sera and a solid phase system

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of substituting the Immucor Capture™-R solid phase (SP) antibody detection system for our routine donor antibody screen. Our routine procedure (RP) used a 12-drop pool of six donor sera and one drop of pooled reagent red cells, with 37°C incubation and indirect antiglobulin test readings. The SP system was used according to the manufacturer’s directions except that one drop of the pooled sera (rather than an individual

Malcolm L. Beck, Jill T. Hardman, Alicia M. Briseño

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 73–75

Case report | 20-December-2020

A case report: IgG autoanti-N as a cause of severe autoimmune hemolytic anemia

anti-N activity, and radioimmunoassay with monoclonal anti-IgG was strongly positive, indicating that both the cold- and the warm-reacting anti-N reactivity resided in the IgG fraction. The patient was treated with N - ‘N’ + red cell transfusions, prednisone, and azathioprine and gradually became transfusion independent. Postrecovery typing revealed her red cells to be M+N+S+s+. This constitutes the third case of autoimmune hemolytic anemia associated with IgG autoanti-N. The marked

Martha Rae Combs, Marilyn J. Telen, Sharon E. Hall, Wendell F. Rosse

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 4, 83–86

Article | 18-October-2020

Frequency of HLA-DQB*06 in Caucasian, African American, and Mexican American patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test

A reduced frequency of HLA-DQ6 in patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was previously reported but race was undisclosed. Therefore, we investigated a total of 275 patients (80 Caucasian, 113 African American, and 82 Mexican American) and 518 normal controls (205 Caucasian, 208 African American, and 105 Mexican American). These were typed for class II HLA antigens using molecular techniques. A DAT was performed on each patient’s red cells drawn into EDTA using both mouse

Joann M. Moulds, Laura A. Diekman, T. Denise Wells, John D. Reveille

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 74–77

Article | 30-November-2020

An example of anti-LWa in a 10-month-old infant

Blood samples from a 10-month-old male infant requiring transfusion were found to contain an allomtibody reacting at 37°C in saline, by indirect antiglobulin test (IAT), and with a manual polybrene technique. Preliminary results suggested anti-D and another weaker reacting antibody, but the patient had been previously transfused with only D- blood. His serum reacted more weakly by IAT against red cells treated with 0.2M dithiothreitol (DTT), and one D+, LW(a-) sample was nonreactive. The

Alan Devenish

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 127–129

Article | 14-October-2020

The investigation of the significance of a positive direct antiglobulin test in blood donors

Sixty-two samples from 62 donors were investigated to determine the significance of warm IgG autoantibodies that were detected using a gel system during compatibility testing. The presence of autoantibodies on the red cells was confirmed by elution studies. Twelve of 23 strongly positive samples, 7 of 19 moderately positive samples, and 6 of 11 weakly positive samples were studied. The remaining nine samples were found positive during crossmatching, then negative when it was repeated.These nine

Marianna Bellia, John Georgopoulos, Vasilis Tsevrenis, Efrosini Nomikou, Niki Vgontza, I. Kontogpoulous-Griva

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 78–81

Article | 10-November-2020

Anti-Holley detected in a primary immune response

. The antibody was reactive at room temperature, 37°C, and in the antiglobulin phase. IgG and IgM components of anti-Hy were demonstrated in the maternal serum, documenting a primary immune response. This resulted in serologic findings not previously described for anti-Hy. A direct antiglobulin test on the newborn red cells was negative and there was no clinical evidence of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). A monocyte monolayer assay performed with maternal serum yielded negative results

Vicki J. Barrett, M. Margaret O’Brien, John J Moulds, Peggy Spruell, Valerie Jackson, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 62–65

Article | 03-November-2020

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria and the elusive DonathLandsteiner antibody

following a rapid drop in hemoglobin of 30 g/L; the DAT was positive with anti-C3d. A 17-month-old female, unwell for 2 weeks, had a hemoglobin of 41 g/L; the DAT was strongly positive with anti-C3d and weakly positive with anti-IgG and -C3c. In all patients, PCH was confirmed by positive indirect DonathLandsteiner tests, and the autoantibodies demonstrated P specificity. In two patients, the test was strongly positive; in the third patient, it was only positive using papainized red cells; and in the

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 109–112

Article | 09-November-2020

Immune hemolytic anemia due to diclofenac

, and C3d, but an eluate only yielded weakly reacting IgG antibodies. In tests for drug-dependent antibodies, group O, R1R2 red cells were incubated with the patient’s serum that had been mixed with either urine (which contained diclofenac metabolites) or diclofenac solution and then tested by an antiglobulin method. Strongly positive reactions with anti-IgG occurred in the tests using urine but only weak reactions in those tests employing diclofenac solution. All controls gave negative

S.T. Laidlaw, R. Stamps, D.J. Booker, M.J. Brown, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 9–11

Article | 10-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to IgA class autoantibodies

that was thought to reflect the develop­ing autoimmune response. The autoantibodies had high affinity for red cells with very little free antibody detectable in the serum; in two instances Rh specificity was evident. Hemolysis was severe in four patients. Two of them had intravascular hemolysis, one of whom also had marked dyserythropoiesis and a transiently positive Ham’s test. Although IgA autoantibodies caused hemolysis pre­dominantly through immune adherence, on occasions they

R.J Sokol, D.J Booker, R. Stamps, J.R. Booth

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 14–19

Article | 18-October-2020

A gel technology system to determine postpartum RhIG dosage

was titrated against D+ and D– red cells using GT and an interpretation of the required RhIG dose was made. Results were compared with the K–B test. Results were easily discernible and interpretations leading to determination of recommended RhIG dosage were reproducible. Correlation to standard K–B testing was confirmed. Elapsed time for result availability by GT testing was 60 minutes, with a direct technical time requirement of 30 minutes. The GT system is easier, objective

John R. Fernandes, Ronny Chan, Ahmed S. Coovadia, Marciano D. Reis, Peter H. Pinkerton

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 3, 115–119

Article | 17-November-2020

Detection of Lewis, P1, and some MNS blood group system antibodies by a solid phase assay

Some solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assays are designed to detect IgG antibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. These assays use anti-IgG-coated red cells as the indicator. It is reported that most antibodies to Lea, Leb, P1, M, and N fail to react by solid phase (SP), presumably because they are IgM antibodies. Those detected are assumed to be IgG. In one year, during routine testing using SPRCA to screen patients for intended RBC transfusion, 28 of 59 such examples were found

Susan Rolih, Ronald Thomas, Lyle Sinor

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 78–80

Article | 31-December-2020

Stimulation of Antibody Following 51Chromium Survival Studies

The survival of red blood cells (RBCs) radiolabeled with 51chromium (51Cr) is a reliable method for predicting transfusion compatibility. Approximately 1.0 ml of 51Cr tagged RBCs is infused into the patient and samples are drawn at predetermined intervals post infusion to determine RBC survival. Red cells used for the study are usually incompatible with the patient's antibody. This antigenic rechallenge may stimulate further antibody production, which could contribute to accelerated

Susan S. Esty, Delores Mallory, Richard J. Davey, Tracy Wahl, Julie Zswisza

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Article | 03-November-2020

Improved detection of weak, clinically significant antibodies by supplementation of polyethylene glycol with a low-ionic solution

268 by both saline-IAGTs and RAM-IAGTs. The four antibodies that were not detected were identified as anti-D, anti-E, anti-Bga, and an autoantibody known previously to be only reactive with papain-pretreated red cells. No nonspecific reactions were detected by PEG-IAGTs and no hemolysis was evident in any of the IAGTs. PEG-IAGTs were more sensitive than saline- and RAM-IAGTs. PEG-IAGTs detected all weak, clinically significant antibodies as well as four antibodies that were otherwise undetected by

Kim Swee Low, Yew-Wah Liew, Peter M. Bradley

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 68–71

Article | 22-November-2020

An improved method for removal of red cell-bound immunoglobulin using chloroquine solution

In some patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia or hemolytic disease of the newborn, the red cells are so heavily coated with immunoglobulin that phenotyping cannot be carried out unless the antibody is removed without destroying the red cell antigens. Studies were performed initially to determine the optimum conditions for removal of immunoglobulin from red blood cells (RBCs) using chloroquine. Group O, R1r RBCs were coated with serial dilutions of anti-D; aliquots were incubated in

Angela E. Beaumont, R. Stamps, D.J. Booker, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 1, 22–24

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