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  • Journal Of Nematology


research-article | 24-April-2019

DNA barcoding evidence for the North American presence of alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis

Alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis (Kirjanova & Krall, 1971) was originally described from the USSR in 1971 and redescribed by Gerber and Maas (1982). The redescription added information missing in the original description regarding juvenile and male stages (Gerber and Maas, 1982). Host testing was conducted for the redescription that included 20 plant species from 7 plant families. These tests included Glycine max, Medicago lupulina, M. sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum

Thomas Powers, Andrea Skantar, Tim Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Saad Hafez, Zafar Handoo, Tim Todd, Kirsten Powers

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–17

Article | 05-December-2017

A New Race (X12) of Soybean Cyst Nematode in China

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a serious economic threat to soybean-producing regions worldwide. A new SCN population (called race X12) was detected in Shanxi province, China. Race X12 could reproduce on all the indicator lines of both race and Heterodera glycines (HG) type tests. The average number of females on Lee68 (susceptible control) was 171.40 with the lowest Female Index (FI) 61.31 on PI88788 and the highest FI 117.32 on Pickett in the race test. The average


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 3, 321–326

Article | 24-July-2017

Draft Transcriptome of Globodera ellingtonae

Globodera ellingtonae is a newly described cyst nematode found in Idaho, Oregon, and Argentina. Here we present the first transcriptome assembly of G. ellingtonae, providing a valuable resource for comparing the evolution of expressed genes between potato cyst nematode species.


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 129–130

Article | 24-July-2017

First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada

Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 131–132

research-article | 30-November-2018

First report of the cactus cyst nematode, Cactodera cacti, from a cactus garden in Idaho

The cactus cyst nematode, Cactodera cacti (Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941; Krall amily Heteroderidae on the basis of th and Krall, 1978) is distributed worldwide, mainly on plants of family Cactaceae grown in glasshouses as ornamentals. This cyst nematode has been well known for over 85 years and was first recorded and described by Adam (1932) from Maartensdiijk, near Utrecht, The Netherlands. The dispersal of C. cacti from native regions in the America is believed to be associated

Andrea M. Skantar, Zafar A. Handoo, Mihail R. Kantor, Maria N. Hult, Saad. A. Hafez

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–6

Research Article | 24-July-2017

The Draft Genome of Globodera ellingtonae

Globodera ellingtonae is a newly described potato cyst nematode (PCN) found in Idaho, Oregon, and Argentina. Here, we present a genome assembly for G. ellingtonae, a relative of the quarantine nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis, produced using data from Illumina and Pacific Biosciences DNA sequencing technologies.


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 127–128

Article | 21-July-2017

New Cyst Nematode, Heterodera sojae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Soybean in Korea

A new soybean cyst nematode Heterodera sojae n. sp. was found from the roots of soybean plants in Korea. Cysts of H. sojae n. sp. appeared more round, shining, and darker than that of H. glycines. Morphologically, H. sojae n. sp. differed from H. glycines by fenestra length (23.5–54.2 mm vs. 30–70 mm), vulval silt length (9.0–24.4 mm vs. 43–60 mm), tail length of J2 (54.3–74.8 mm vs. 40–61 mm), and hyaline part of J2 (32.6–46.3 mmvs. 20


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 4, 280–289

research-article | 30-November-2020

Molecular and morphological characterization of a first report of Cactodera torreyanae Cid del Prado Vera & Subbotin, 2014 (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Minnesota, the United States of America

In March 2020, a cyst nematode was discovered during a Pale Potato Cyst Nematode survey conducted by Minnesota Department of Agriculture as part of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) efforts to survey states for the presence of PCN. The soil samples were collected from a potato field, located in Karlstad, Kittson County, Minnesota, USA. The cyst samples were sent to the Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory (MNGDBL) for identification purposes

Zafar A. Handoo, Andrea M. Skantar, Sergei A. Subbotin, Mihail R. Kantor, Maria N. Hult, Michelle Grabowski

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–5

research-article | 30-March-2020

Characterization of Vittatidera zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Indiana with molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus

Globally, cyst nematodes species cause serious damage to a wide variety of economically important crops. The need for information on cyst-forming nematode species has been instrumental in stimulating growth of nematology worldwide. The cyst nematode group currently contains eight genera, with a total of 121 valid species (Handoo and Subbotin, 2018). The general morphology and molecular taxonomy and phylogeny of cyst nematodes have been given in detail in two recent review articles (Baldwin and

Andrea M. Skantar, Zafar A. Handoo, Mihail R. Kantor, Lynn K. Carta, Jamal Faghihi, Virginia Ferris

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 17-March-2020

Molecular and morphological characterization of the alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis, from Utah

The alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis Kirjanova in the study of Kirjanova and Krall (1971) was originally described from the USSR in 1971 and re-described by Gerber and Maas (1982). The distribution of H. medicaginis is mostly Europe (Russia and Ukraine) and Asia (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan) (Subbotin et al., 2010). This cyst nematode species can cause up to 46% green matter losses in lucerne under arid conditions (Artokhnica, 1984; Subbotin et al., 2010). More recently, the first

Zafar A. Handoo, Andrea M. Skantar, Saad L. Hafez, Mihail R. Kantor, Maria N. Hult, Stephen A. Rogers

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

research-article | 23-April-2019

Nematicidal Activity of Fosthiazate Against Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

Soybean (Glycine max, Family Leguminosae) is widely grown worldwide due to its unique property of possessing high plant-based protein contents, lipid minerals, and vitamins (Olaoye and Ade-Omowaye, 2011). Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) infection is the most serious disease affecting soybean production worldwide; this infection was reported for the first time in 1899 in Northeast China, since then, this nematode has been spread widely in various regions, including Asia, America

Hai Yan Wu, Man Luo, Lu Yuan Zhang, Xun Bo Zhou

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–9

Research Article | 03-September-2018

An Agent-Based Metapopulation Model Simulating Virus-Based Biocontrol of Heterodera Glycines

With recently discovered soybean cyst nematode (SCN) viruses, biological control of the nematodes is a theoretical possibility. This study explores the question of what kinds of viruses would make useful biocontrol agents, taking into account evolutionary and population dynamics. An agent-based model, Soybean Cyst Nematode Simulation (SCNSim), was developed to simulate within-host virulence evolution in a virus-nematode-soybean ecosystem. SCNSim was used to predict nematode suppression under a

Safyre Anderson, Chinmay Soman, Sadia Bekal, Leslie Domier, Kris Lambert, Kaustubh Bhalerao

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 79–90

Research Article | 26-September-2018

Control of Globodera spp. Using Brassica juncea Seed Meal and Seed Meal Extract

The eradication program for the potato cyst nematode (PCN), Globodera pallida, in the Northwest of the United States revolves around the use of soil fumigation. Alternative, integrated strategies are needed to continue to battle this invasive nematode. Laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments were conducted with G. pallida and another cyst nematode found in the United States, Globodera ellingtonae, to evaluate the efficacy of a new formulated Brassica juncea seed meal extract, as well as a


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 4, 437–445

research-article | 27-May-2019

Effect of the trap crop, Solanum sisymbriifolium, on Globodera pallida, Globodera tabacum, and Globodera ellingtonae

Species in the genus Globodera are production-limiting pests in a number of crops, and novel methods are required to combat these plant-parasitic nematodes. Globodera pallida (Stone, 1973) Behrens, 1975, a potato cyst nematode, is of worldwide regulatory concern, and one of the most economically important pests of potato causing in excess of 80% yield loss in infested fields (Talavera et al., 1998). First detected in the United States in 2006 (Hafez et al., 2007), the introduction and potential

L. M. Dandurand, I. A. Zasada, J. A. LaMondia

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–11

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report of Cactodera milleri Graney and Bird, 1990 from Colorado and Minnesota

(Graney and Bird, 1990). This cyst nematode has a narrow distribution, being reported only in North America from Michigan (Graney and Bird, 1990), Wisconsin (Schroeder et al., 2008), and Indiana (Ferris et al., 1999). In November of 2019, lemon shaped cysts and juveniles were recovered from a soil sample collected from Alamosa county, Colorado, USA. The sample was sent to University of Idaho for identification (SH) who in turn forwarded the extracted cysts to the Mycology and Nematology Genetic

Andrea M. Skantar, Zafar A. Handoo, Mihail R. Kantor, Saad L. Hafez, Maria N. Hult, Kathryn Kromroy, Kimberly Sigurdson, Michelle Grabowski

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–7

Research Article | 03-September-2018

First Report of Carrot Cyst Nematode Heterodera carotae in Mexico: Morphological, Molecular Characterization, and Host Range Study

During 2008 to 2016 in several nematological surveys in the Tepeaca Valley, Puebla, Mexico, carrot cyst nematode, Heterodera carotae was found parasitizing carrots, Daucus carota. The nematode was present in 61% of the sampled fields with high population densities, causing severe carrot yield losses in the Tepeaca Valley. The aim of this work was to study morphology, morphometrics, host range, and molecular characterization of the nematode. The morphological and morphometric characterization

Ilia Mariana Escobar-Avila, Edgar Óliver López-Villegas, Sergei A. Subbotin, Alejandro Tovar-Soto

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 229–242

research-article | 17-March-2020

Fungal communities associated with Heterodera glycines and their potential in biological control: a current update

The soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) was discovered as a significant pest of soybean in 1954 in North Carolina in the USA, and subsequently spread across a few counties in Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky and Tennessee, as well as few other pockets in North Carolina (Winstead and Skotland, 1955). In 2014, bolstered by the increase in planting of soybean, the SCN has become a significant plant health issue all over the agrarian eastern continental United States as well as Hawaii and

Deepak Haarith, Kathryn E. Bushley, Senyu Chen

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–17

research-article | 30-November-2020

Slight induction and strong inhibition of Heterodera glycines hatching by short-chain molecules released by different plant species

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) is an important source of proteins and oil, and therefore, more research are essential to increase productivity under different conditions, including biotic stress (Pagano and Miransari, 2016). The soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) is one of the main pathogens causing yield reduction worldwide and, just in the United States it is responsible for losses of more than U$1 billion annually (Koenning and Wrather, 2010; Wu et al., 2019). The planting of

Jeanny A. Velloso, Vicente P. Campos, Willian C. Terra, Aline F. Barros, Márcio P. Pedroso, Luma A. Pedroso, Letícia L. Paula

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–12

Research Article | 31-May-2018

Identification of HG Types of Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines and Resistance Screening on Soybean Genotypes in Northeast China

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious soybean pathogen worldwide. HG Type 0 had been a predominant SCN in Heilongjiang province, the largest soybean (Glycine max L.) producing region in China. Recently, increased virulence on resistant cultivars originally developed for resistance to HG Type 0 was observed in fields. In order to identify new cultivars resistant to local SCN populations, two soil samples were collected from two counties (Anda and Wuchang) in

Cui Hua, Chunjie Li, Yanfeng Hu, Yanzhi Mao, Jia You, Mingze Wang, Jingsheng Chen, Zhongyan Tian, Congli Wang

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 1, 41–50

research-article | 30-November-2018

Active and inactive forms of biotin synthase occur in Heterodera glycines

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is an obligate plant parasite that poses a serious threat to soybean production worldwide. It is the most damaging pest of soybean in the USA and is estimated to cause more yield loss than any other disease (Koenning and Wrather, 2010; Wrather et al., 2010; Allen et al., 2017). Yield losses are attributed to the fact that this nematode injects a complex mixture of proteins and metabolites into the plant root cells (Niblack et al., 2006) and

Khee Man Kwon, Sadia Bekal, Leslie L. Domier, Kris N. Lambert

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–12

research-article | 17-March-2020

The effects of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines on the yield and quality of edamame (Glycine max l.) in Arkansas

(Wrather and Koenning, 2003, 2006). Two nematodes of major concern for soybean production in Arkansas include the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, Ichinoe) and the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita, Kofoid & White, Chitwood). Both nematodes have been historically present in Arkansas soybean and cotton fields (Kirkpatrick et al., 1992; Bateman et al., 2000; Walter and Barker, 1994; Tylka and Marett, 2014). A survey from 2018 identified that soybean cyst and root-knot nematode

J. E. Wilkes, T. L. Kirkpatrick

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–15

research-article | 03-June-2019

Field and greenhouse evaluations of soil suppressiveness to Heterodera glycines in the Midwest corn-soybean production systems

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is widely distributed throughout most soybean producing regions in the world (Riggs, 2004). This nematode has become a major yield-limiting factor in soybean production and causes an estimated annual yield loss of about $1 billion in the USA (Koenning and Wrather, 2010). Crop rotation, cultural practices, resistant cultivars, and nematicides are employed to reduce soybean yield suppression caused by SCN. Particularly, rotation of SCN

Weiming Hu, Eyob Kidane, Deborah A. Neher, Senyu Chen

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–12

Research Article | 26-September-2018

First Report of Estonian Cyst Nematode Cactodera estonica from India


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 4, 384–385

Article | 24-July-2017

Sampling Error in Relation to Cyst Nematode Population Density Estimation in Small Field Plots


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 150–155

Research Article | 17-October-2018

First Report of the Yellow Nutsedge Cyst Nematode, Heterodera cyperi, in Georgia, U.S.A.

Abolfazl Hajihassani, Bhabesh Dutta, Ganpati B. Jagdale, Sergei A. Subbotin

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 3, 456–458

research-article | 30-November-2020

Characterization of Globodera ellingtonae Populations from Chile Utilizing Whole Genome Sequencing

C.N. Hesse, I. Moreno, O. Acevedo Pardo, H. Pacheco Fuentes, E. Grenier, L. M. Dandurand, I. A. Zasada

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–9

research-article | 30-November-2018

Resistance and tolerance reactions of winter wheat lines to Heterodera filipjevi in Turkey

). Recently, Wuletaw et al. (2016) also reviewed wheat production in Sub-Saharan Africa under a changing climate. Cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae complex; CCN) is found globally and leads to significant economic yield losses, particularly in areas where dryland and cereal monoculture systems are practiced (Nicol et al., 2003; Dababat et al., 2015). After hatching, second-stage juvenile (J2) cyst nematodes start attacking the roots of the plant and begin feeding. The J2s penetrate the root system

Abdelfattah A. Dababat

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–12

research-article | 24-November-2020

Description of Heterodera microulae sp. n. (Nematoda: Heteroderinae) from China – a new cyst nematode in the Goettingiana group

morphomolecular characterizations, Handoo and Subbotin (2018) divided Heterodera into nine distinct groups such as Afenestrata, Avenae, Bifenestra, Cardiolata, Cyperi, Goettingiana, Humuli, Sacchari, and Schachtii group. Sequence analysis of these groups is significant to study the phylogenetic relationship and identifying the Heterodera species. During 2018 and 2019, a population of cyst nematode was collected from the rhizosphere of Microula sikkimensis in Tianzhu county of Gansu Province, China

Wenhao Li, Huixia Li, Chunhui Ni, Deliang Peng, Yonggang Liu, Ning Luo, Xuefen Xu

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–16

research-article | 30-November-2018

Development of a decision support system for managing Heterodera schahtii in sugar beet production

Zahra S. Omer, Jens Levenfors, Susanne Andersson, Ann-Charlotte Wallenhammar

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–11

research-article | 30-November-2018

Swine manure application enriches the soil food web in corn and soybean production

management of plant-parasitic nematodes is necessary to optimize crop productivity (Grabau and Chen, 2016a, 2016b) and non-parasitic, free-living nematodes contribute to and are sensitive indicators of soil fertility and ecology (Bongers, 1990; Ferris et al., 2001). In particular, soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is the major yield-limiting pest in soybean production (Koenning and Wrather, 2010). Additional strategies to manage this pest are needed because management relies on a narrow set of

Zane J. Grabau, Yong Bao, Jeffrey A. Vetsch, Senyu Chen

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–14

Research Article | 03-December-2018

Effector gene vap1 based DGGE fingerprinting to assess variation within and among Heterodera schachtii populations

Rasha Haj Nuaima, Johannes Roeb, Johannes Hallmann, Matthias Daub, Sandra Otte, Holger Heuer

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 4, 517–528

research-article | 30-November-2021

Review of nematode interactions with hemp (Cannabis sativa)

. Cyst nematodes (Globodera and Heterodera spp.) Cyst nematodes are sedentary endoparasites. They typically have smaller host ranges than the common root-knot nematodes. Several species are among the most serious parasites of their favored host plants, including G. pallidum and G. rostochiensis (potato), H. glycines (soybean) and H. schachtii (sugar beet). Cannabis sativa is not a favored host for any known cyst nematode species, and Globodera spp. have never been reported from the plant

Ernest C. Bernard, Angel G. Chaffin, Kimberly D. Gwinn

Journal of Nematology, Volume 54 , 1–18

research-article | 30-November-2018

Reproduction and life history traits of a resistance breaking Globodera pallida population

The potato cyst nematode (PCN) Globodera pallida (Stone, 1972) is a potato pest of economic importance worldwide. Plant resistance is the most efficient way to reduce crop damage and reproduction of this nematode. In contrast to Globodera rostochiensis (Wollenweber, 1923) which is effectively controlled using resistant potato cultivars, there is a lack of cultivars with stable resistance to G. pallida pathotypes. Nevertheless, using plant resistance in an integrated pest management system

James M. Mwangi, Björn Niere, Maria R. Finckh, Stefan Krüssel, Sebastian Kiewnick

Journal Of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–13

research-article | 30-November-2019

Morphological and molecular characterization of Heterodera dunensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Gran Canaria, Canary Islands

Phougeishangbam Rolish Singh, Gerrit Karssen, Marjolein Couvreur, Wim Bert

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–14

Research Article | 26-September-2018

First Report of Cactodera estonica in Canada

A population of cyst nematode with terminal protuberance was found in soil samples associated with and on the roots of Polygonum aviculare L. at N45°23.480′, W75°40.463′ in South Ottawa, Ontario. Both J2 and cysts were found. It was subsequently confirmed with morphological and molecular methods as Cactodera estonica Krall and Krall, 1978 (Krall and Krall, 1978). The cysts are dark brown, elongated with length/breadth ratio more than 2, and vulval fenestra circumfenestrate 33 ± 4.1 (20–48) μm


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 4, 403–403

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