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Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Duffy blood group system

Introduction A description of Duffy (FY) blood group system antigens and antibodies and how this information is used in transfusion management was featured prominently in the original Duffy blood group review published in 2010.1 At that time, the Duffy glycoprotein was also known to bind to a variety of chemokines of the CXC and CC classes and was referred to as the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC). Ongoing research studies of FY, particularly at the molecular level, continue to

G.M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 11–12

Review | 12-March-2020

The Duffy blood group system: a review

Duffy was the fi rst blood group mapped to an autosome (chromosome 1) using cytogenetic studies. Duffy antigens are located on a glycoprotein that can be found on erythrocytes and other cells throughout the body. Fya and Fyb are products of their respective alleles (FY*A, FY*B). Fyx, characterized by weak Fyb expression, is a result of an additional mutation in FY*B. The Fy(a–b–) phenotype, most commonly found in Blacks, occurs primarily as a result of a GATA promoter region

Geralyn M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 51–56

Review | 02-May-2020

Review: the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems

After the discovery (over 50 years ago) that the IAT could be applied to the detection of antibodies to blood group antigens, there was a rapid increase in the identification of alloantibodies that caused transfusion reactions or HDN. After Rh, antibodies in the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems were the next in clinically significant antibodies to be revealed. Much of what has been learned about these blood groups since the journal Immunohematology issued its first edition has to do

Constance M. Westhoff, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 37–49

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of the MAIEA assay to demonstrate that Fy3 is on the same glycoprotein as Fy6, Fya, and Fyb

The monoclonal-antibody immobilization of erythrocyte antigens (MAIEA) assay is a technique that detects trimolecular complexes formed by a human antibody and a mouse monoclonal antibody with specific red cell epitopes. This enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay test gives a positive reaction when two different epitopes on the same membrane protein are separately recognized by human and mouse antibodies. In this study, the MAIEA test was used to determine if the Duffy system antigen Fy3 is on the

Jaw-Lin Tzeng, Roger Dodd, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Report | 17-March-2020

Southeast Asian ovalocytosis is associated with increased expression of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC)

The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC or Fy glycoprotein) carries antigens that are important in blood transfusion and is the main receptor used by Plasmodium vivax to invade reticulocytes. Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) results from an alteration in RBC membrane protein band 3 and is thought to mitigate susceptibility to falciparum malaria. Expression of some RBC antigens is suppressed by SAO, and we hypothesized that SAO may also reduce Fy expression, potentially leading to

Ian J. Woolley, Paul Hutchinson, John C. Reeder, James W. Kazura, Alfred Cortés

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 63–66

Article | 14-October-2020

Rapid genotyping of the major alleles at the Duffy (FY) blood group locus using real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction

The Duffy blood group system has clinical importance due to involvement in transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Recently, the molecular basis of the two alleles, FY*A and FY*B (125G>A), and the mutation situated in the promoter region of the FY gene (–33T>C), have been elucidated. In order to develop an accurate, easy, and rapid genotyping method, we describe a procedure using the LightCycler®. Samples from 53 Caucasian Portuguese blood donors and 7 black

Fernando M. Araújo, Christina Pereira, Ana Aleixo, Isabel Henriques, Fátima Monteiro, Elsa Meireles, Pedro Lacerda, Luis M. Cunha-Ribeiro

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 42–44

Article | 20-April-2020

ABO, Rh, MNS, Duffy, Kidd, Yt, Scianna, and Colton blood group systems in indigenous Chinese

The frequencies of selected alleles in the ABO, Rh, MNS, Duffy, Kidd, Yt, Scianna, and Colton blood group systems were determined among four indigenous Chinese ethnic populations:Han,Tajik, She, and Yugu. Genotypes were determined by PCR or PCR with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP). In the Han population, the frequencies of A1, A2, B, and O1 alleles were 0.189, 0.003, 0.170, and 0.638, respectively, and the O2 allele was not identified. Among D+ Hans, the frequencies of C and c alleles were

Lixing Yan, Faming Zhu, Qihua Fu, Ji He

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 10–14

Report | 26-October-2019

First example of an FY*01 allele associated with weakened expression of Fya on red blood cells

Duffy antigens are important in immunohematology. The reference allele for the Duffy gene (FY) is FY*02, which encodes Fyb. An A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at coding nucleotide (c.) 125 in exon 2 defines the FY*01 allele, which encodes the antithetical Fya. A C>T SNP at c.265 in the FY*02 allele is associated with weakening of Fyb expression on red blood cells (RBCs) (called FyX). Until recently, this latter change had not been described on a FY*01 background allele

Patricia A. Arndt, Trina Horn, Jessica A Keller, Rochelle Young, Suzanne M. Heri, Margaret A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 103–107

Article | 20-December-2020

Two cases of autoantibodies that demonstrate mimicking specificity in the Duffy blood group system

(3+), Fy:1,2 (3+) RBCs at the antiglobulin phase (AGT) but were nonreactive with Fy: -1,- 2 RBCs. The anti­bodies in both cases were nonreactive with papain- or ficin-treated RBCs and reacted with Rhnull RBCs, which ruled out anti-Fy3 and anti-Fy5, respectively. These cases suggest mimicking autoantibody specificities in the Duffy system. One case may indicate that the degree of reactivity is dependent on the Duffy phenotype of the RBCs tested (Fy: -1,2 > Fy:1,2 > Fy: -1, -2). An

Teresa Y. Harris

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 4, 87–91

Article | 18-October-2020

Fyx is associated with two missense point mutations in its gene and can be detected by PCR–SSP

The Duffy blood group antigens are encoded by the Duffy gene with its three major alleles: Fy*A (Fya+), Fy*B (Fyb+), and a nonexpressed Fy*Fy (Fya–b–), which is most commonly found among black people. Additionally, a fourth allele, Fyx, is found among white people and defined as weak Fyb not detectable by all anti-Fyb. Three polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using sequence-specific priming (SSP) for detection of the major FY alleles were developed. Eighteen Fy(a–b&ndash

Christoph Gassner, Richard L. Kraus, Tadeja Dovc, Susanne Kilga-Nogler, Irene Utz, Thomas Mueller, Friedrich Schunter, Diether Schoenitzer

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 61–67

Article | 20-April-2020

Expression of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines during reticulocyte maturation:using a CD71 flow cytometric technique to identify reticulocytes

Flow cytometric methods commonly used to identify reticulocytes are of limited usefulness in malarious areas,since RNA staining also detects plasmodia. An important antigen expressed on reticulocytes is Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC,also known as Fy), the receptor for Plasmodium vivax. An early marker for reticulocytes is CD71 (transferrin receptor). We have been interested in CD71 as an alternative marker for reticulocytes in the context of Fy expression. Flow cytometry was used

Ian J. Woolley, Erica M. Wood, R. Michael Sramkoski, Peter A. Zimmerman, John P. Miller, James W. Kazura

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 15–20

Report | 09-October-2019

Distribution of blood groups in the Iranian general population

We report the first study of antigen and phenotype prevalence within various blood group systems in the Iranian general population. In this retrospective study, samples from 3475 individuals referred to the Immunohematology Reference Laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, Iran, for paternity testing from 1998 to 2008 were additionally tested for red blood cell (RBC) antigens in the Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, Lutheran, P1PK, and Xg blood group systems. The antigen

Ehsan Shahverdi, Mostafa Moghaddam, Ali Talebian, Hassan Abolghasemi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 135–139

research-article | 31-July-2018

Acceptability of fall prevention strategies for older people with vision impairment

Lisa Dillon, Patricia Duffy, Anne Tiedemann, Lisa Keay

International Journal of Orientation & Mobility, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 1–9

Review | 27-December-2020

A review: the Duffy blood group system

Kathryn M. Beattie

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 2, 45–54

Case report | 01-December-2019

Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups

phenotype distribution of Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS. A random subsample of 800 donor phenotypes was then evaluated for the probability of obtaining an exact match with respect to phenotype with a randomly selected patient from a particular ethnic group. Overall, there was a greater than 80 percent probability of finding an exact donor-recipient match for the K/k alleles in the Kell system. The probability ranged from 3 percent to 38 percent, depending on the ethnicity and disparities in phenotypic

Karafa S.W. Badjie, Craig D. Tauscher, Camille M. van Buskirk, Clare Wong, Sarah M. Jenkins, Carin Y. Smith, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 12–19

Article | 14-October-2020

Jk and Mi.III phenotype frequencies in North Vietnam

One hundred voluntary blood donors in Hanoi were typed for antigens in the MNS, Rh, Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems. They were also tested for the presence of the Mi.III (GP.Mur) phenotype and Lewis system antigens. The Jk phenotype frequencies were markedly different from those previously reported. The frequency of the Mi.III phenotype was similar to that reported in Chinese and Taiwanese.

Nguyen Thi Huynh, Tran Thi Duyen, Mai Thanh Huong, Derek S. Ford

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 57–58

Article | 17-February-2021

Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-E and anti-Jka

Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization to antigens other than D, such as C, c, E, e, and antigens in the Kell, MNS, and Duffy blood group systems, has emerged as an important cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).1 Antibody screening for these antibodies is not routinely practiced for all antenatal patients in developing countries, mainly because of financial constraints. We report a case of HDFN in a female baby due to maternal alloimmunization against Rh and Kidd blood

S. Mandal, S. Malhotra, G. Negi, A. Tiwari, S. Mitra, S. Basu, P. Singh

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

Report | 16-October-2019

Validity and reliability of serologic immunophenotyping of multiple blood group systems by ORTHO Sera with fully automated procedure

The increase of immunization against blood group antigens has reinforced the need for automated extensive blood typing. The aim of this study was to assess both the validity and reliability of red blood cell (RBC) automated agglutination technology in testing for antigens of Kidd (Jk), Duffy (Fy), and MNS (Ss) blood systems. ORTHO Sera (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ) anti-Jka, anti-Jkb, Anti-Fya, anti-Fyb, anti-S, and anti-s reagents were each tested on RBC samples previously typed

Ugo Salvadori, Roberto Melotti, Daniela L'Altrella, Massimo Daves, Ahmad Al-Khaffaf, Laura Milizia, Rossana Putzulu, Renata Filippi, Aurelio Carolo, Giuseppe Lippi, Ivo Gentilini

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 140–147

Report | 01-December-2019

Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors

systems including ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego. The results show similar antigen prevalence to that among Northeast Thais for ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems. In the ABO system, O was the highest at 37.72 percent, followed by 35.56 percent B, 19.83 percent A1, 6.47 percent A1B, and 0.43 percent A2B. The common phenotypes were D+C+E–c– e+ at 60.43 percent, M+N–S–s+ at 46.55 percent, Fy(a+b–) at 80.82 percent, Jk(a+b+) at 39.44 percent

Chirapha Keokhamphoui, Yupa Urwijitaroon, Douangchanh Kongphaly, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 132–136

Article | 21-April-2020

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction secondary to anti-Fy3

Horatiu Olteanu, David Gerber, Kara Partridge, Ravindra Sarode

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 48–52

Report | 26-October-2019

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Article | 26-October-2020

Serologic and molecular investigations of a chimera

serologic (HLA class I and red cell blood groups) typing techniques were employed to investigate a number of polymorphic loci located on different chromosomes. Chimerism was identified in 8 out of the 14 chromosomes tested: chromosome 1 (Duffy), 6 (HLA class I and II), 9 (ABO), 11 (HUMTH01), 12 (HUMPLA2A1), 15 (HUMFES/FPS), 18 (Kidd) and 21 (D21S11). The proposita was determined to be a probable dispermic chimera, based on the results of the serology and molecular studies.

Nicole A. Mifsud, Albert P. Haddad, Cathie F. Hart, Jennifer A. Condon, Michael Swain, Rosemary L. Sparrow

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 100–104

Case report | 01-December-2019

Alloimmunization to Kell blood group system antigen owing to unmatched blood transfusion in a resource-poor setting

One of the major drawbacks of multiple blood transfusions in patients with thalassemia is the risk of development of alloimmunization to various red cell antigens within blood group systems such as Rh, Kell, Duffy, and Kidd. The problem is greater in developing countries because of lack of awareness and insufficient availability of specific typing antisera and antibody screening panels owing to financial constraints. It is of utmost importance to provide D, C, c, E, e, and K phenotype-matched

Sheetal Malhotra, Gagandeep Kaur, Sabita Basu, Ravneet Ravneet, Geetanjali Jindal

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 45–48

Report | 20-March-2020

Characterization of three novel monoclonal anti-Oka

response, and the spleen B lymphocytes were fused with mouse myeloma X63-Ag8.653 cells to form antibodysecreting hybridomas. The resulting Mabs were tested serologically, by flow cytometry, and by immunoblotting. The specificity of each antibody was determined after excluding specificities to common antigens in the Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lewis, Lutheran, P1, Colton, Diego, Xga, and Dombrock blood group systems. In each case only the Ok(a–) RBC sample was nonreactive. The Mabs and the

Mary H. Tian, Gregory R. Halverson

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 174–178

Report | 09-October-2019

Stability guidelines for dithiothreitol-treated red blood cell reagents used for antibody detection methods in patients treated with daratumumab

14 days for observation of hemolysis. In Set 1, all antigen reactivity remained at ≥2+ with both single- and double-dose cells for 14 days. The Rh antigens gave stronger reactions longer, compared with those tested in the Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood group systems. Sets 2 and 3 were monitored for hemolysis. On day 3, Set 2 began displaying hemolysis, with complete hemolysis by day 8. Set 3 did not display hemolysis in 14 days. In conclusion, a large volume of RBCs can be treated with DTT and

Wendy L. Disbro

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 105–109

Article | 22-November-2020

An improved method for removal of red cell-bound immunoglobulin using chloroquine solution

heterozygous for C, D, and E antigens, and for Kell, Duffy, and Kidd antigens, was incubated at 30°C and at 37°C in chloroquine solution. Aliquots were removed at 30-minute intervals for up to 2 hours, tested with serial dilutions of the appropriate antisera, and titration scores obtained. The antigens were well preserved after two hours of chloroquine treatment at 30°C. However, when treatment was performed at 37°C, anitigenicity had markedly deteriorated by 60 minutes, although the

Angela E. Beaumont, R. Stamps, D.J. Booker, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 1, 22–24

Report | 09-October-2019

Red blood cell phenotype prevalence in blood donors who self-identify as Hispanic

percent of donors tested. The percentage of K+ donors in this population was 2.8 percent. The most prevalent Duffy phenotypes were Fy(a+b+) (35.9%), Fy(a+b–) (35.6%), and Fy(a–b+) (27%). Of the donors studied, 15.3 percent had an FY GATA mutation. Only 1.5 percent of the donors were Fy(a–b–). The Jk(a+b+) phenotype was found in nearly half of the population. M+N+S+s+ was the most prevalent MNS phenotype from that group, constituting 22.4 percent. A total of 95.7 percent of the

Chelsea A. Sheppard, Nicole L. Bolen, Beth Eades, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 119–124

Article | 16-October-2019

Assessment of common red blood cell pretreatments to yield an accurate serologic antigen phenotype compared with genotype-predicted phenotype

T. Horn, J. Hamilton, J. Kosanke, V.W. Hare, W. Kluver, W. Beres, S. Nance, M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 147–151

Article | 16-February-2021


ABO ABO 4 002 MNS MNS 49 003 P1PK P1PK 3 004 RH Rh 55 005 LU Lutheran 25 006 KEL Kell 36 007 LE Lewis 6 008 FY Duffy 5 009 JK Kidd 3 010 Dl Diego 22 011 YT Yt 5 012 XG Xg 2 013 SC Scianna 7 014 DO Dombrock 10 015 CO Colton 4 016 LW Landsteiner-Wiener 3 017 CH/RG Chido/Rodgers 9 018 H H 1 019 XK Kx 1 020 GE Gerbich 11 021 CROM Cramer 20 022 KN Knops 9 023 IN Indian 6 024 OK Ok 3 025 RAPH Raph 1 026 JMH John Milton Hagen 6 027 I I 1 028 GLOB

N.M. Thornton, S.P. Grimsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

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