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  • Journal Of Nematology


Research Article | 03-December-2018

Enhanced entomopathogenic nematode yield and fitness via addition of pulverized insect powder to solid media

Beneficial nematodes are used as biological control agents. Low-cost mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) is an important prerequisite toward their successful commercialization. EPNs can be grown via in vivo methods or in sold or liquid fermentation. For solid and liquid approaches, media optimization is paramount to maximizing EPN yield and quality. In solid media, the authors investigated the effects of incorporating pulverized insect powder from larvae of three insects

Shiyu Zhen, Yang Li, Yanli Hou, Xinghui Gu, Limeng Zhang, Weibin Ruan, David Shapiro-Ilan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 4, 495–506

Research Article | 03-September-2018

Molecular Identification of Entomopathogenic Nematode Isolates from the Philippines and their Biological Control Potential Against Lepidopteran Pests of Corn

In search for local entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species as a biological control agent of lepidopterous insect pests of corn, a survey for EPN in the major islands in the Philippines was conducted. Seven EPN populations from 279 soil samples were isolated using Ostrinia furnacalis, the key target insect pest of corn in the country, as bait. Analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequence revealed the presence of Steinernema abbasi, Steinernema minutum, Steinernema tami, and

Barbara L. Caoili, Romnick A. Latina, Regina Faye C. Sandoval, Joey I. Orajay

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 99–110

research-article | 30-November-2020

Virulence of Steinernema ceratophorum against different pest insects and their potential for in vivo and in vitro culture

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Steinernema Travassos and Heterorhabditis Poinar are natural parasites of many insects (Kaya and Gaugler, 1993). The infective juveniles (IJ) of EPN harbor the symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus Thomas and Poinar and Photorhabdus Boemare in their intestines (Boemare, 2002; Poinar, 1990; Qiu et al., 2009). The EPN-bacteria complex actively searches, infects and kills the host, propagates in the host, and produces progeny to start a new life cycle after

Xun Yan, Guimei Chen, Yuqing Chen, Bingjiao Sun, Xinghui Gu, Weibing Ruan, Richou Han

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2018

Conspecific pheromone extracts enhance entomopathogenic infectivity

, two aspects of EPN biology that contribute significantly to biocontrol efficacy include nematode dispersal and infectivity. Prior research indicates that certain substances within EPN-infected hosts enhance nematode dispersal (Shapiro and Glazer, 1996). Furthermore, EPN-infected host substances enhance nematode infectivity, i.e. the propensity to invade the host (Shapiro and Lewis, 1999). Dispersal-inducing compounds in steinernematid nematodes were later described as specific ascaroside

David I. Shapiro-Ilan, Fatma Kaplan, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, Paul Schliekelman, Hans T. Alborn, Edwin E. Lewis

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–5

research-article | 30-November-2019

An innovative strategy for control of fungus gnats using entomopathogenic nematodes alone or in combination with waterlogging

, and higher mortality of B. odoriphaga was obtained when EPNs were applied as cadavers compared to aqueous application (Bai et al., 2016). Two EPN species collected from Northern China, S. feltiae JY-17 and S. hebeiense JY-82 significantly reduced the larval population of B. odoriphaga in a chive field at a level similar to the pesticide phoxim; the average population of B. odoriphaga was 3.8, 4.4, 3.9, and 9.6 larvae/stem in the Phoxim, S. feltiae JY-17, S. hebeiense JY-82 and control plots

Chaoying Chen, Haikun Ma, Mingyang Ma, Jingjing Li, Shuyuan Zheng, Qifeng Song, Xinghui Gu, David Shapiro-Ilan, Weibin Ruan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–9

research-article | 30-November-2020

Reclaimed desert habitats favor entomopathogenic nematode and microarthropod abundance compared to ancient farmlands in the Nile Basin

Research on entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in Egypt started in the 1970s, and focused heavily on imported, non-indigenous species (Abd-Elgawad, 2017). Surveys to isolate and identify indigenous EPNs began two decades later (Shamseldean and Abd-Elgawad, 1994). Inconsistent efficacy by expensive EPN products hinders their use by the Egyptian farmers, suggesting a need for further exploration to identify species which are adapted to North African conditions and best suited to infect local insect

Alexandros Dritsoulas, Fahiem E. El-Borai, Ibrahim E. Shehata, Mostafa M. Hammam, Ramadan M. El-Ashry, Moawad M. Mohamed, Mahfouz M. Abd-Elgawad, Larry W. Duncan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–13

research-article | 30-November-2019

Activity of Steinernema colombiense in plant-based oils

agent is the massive application of infective juveniles (IJs) stages in belowground agroecosystems, where they are naturally adapted (Lacey et al., 2015). Numerous substrates such as vermiculite, clay, activated charcoal, polyacrylamide, alginate capsules, or simple water-dispersible granules have been tested as formulation agents with variable shelf life and storage limitations (Hiltpold, 2015; Ramakuwela et al., 2015; Kary et al., 2018; Leite et al., 2018; Touray et al., 2020). Then, EPN is

Gabriela Castruita-Esparza, Francisco Ángel Bueno-Pallero, Rubén Blanco-Pérez, Lídia Dionísio, Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Raquel Campos-Herrera

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2020

Entomopathogenic nematode management of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) in three native Alabama soils under low moisture conditions

). Subsequently, these EPNs may represent an efficient biological control option for an IPM program. EPNs naturally live in soil and require an insect host to reproduce. The two main genera of EPNs that have been marketed for control of A. tumida in Europe and North America are Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp. These EPN genera have different hunting styles and each species have different environmental and host preferences (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2002). Steinernema spp. generally hunt insect hosts using

WinDi Sanchez, David Shapiro, Geoff Williams, Kathy Lawrence

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–14

Research Article | 17-October-2018

Responses of Anastrepha suspensa, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, and Sensitivity of Guava Production to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora in Fruit Fly Integrated Pest Management

Caribbean fruit fly, also known as Caribfly or Anastrepha suspensa, is a major tephritid pest of guavas. A virulent entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species was investigated to suppress the fruit-to-soil stages of Caribflies, which are also attacked by the koinobiont parasitoid Diachasmimorpha longicaudata in south Florida. The main objective was to develop a feasible and cost-effective EPN-application method for integrated pest management (IPM) of Caribfly to improve guava production. Naturally

William K. Heve, Fahiem E. El-Borai, Evan G. Johnson, Daniel Carrillo, William T. Crow, Larry W. Duncan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 3, 261–272

research-article | 19-March-2020

Effect of an Alltech soil health product on entomopathogenic nematodes, root-knot nematodes and on the growth of tomato plants in the greenhouse

considered while adopting any sustainable pest management approach (Saleh et al., 2017). Very often, in an attempt to control PPN, the beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are harmed by bionematicides or organic amendments (Bednarek and Gaugler, 1997; Somasekhar et al., 2002). Entomopathogenic nematodes are widely used by farmers and growers commercially for biological control of insect pests (Somasekhar et al., 2002). Species within the EPN genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida) are

Anusha Pulavarty, Karina Horgan, Thomais Kakouli-Duarte

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

research-article | 06-March-2020

Control of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae in laboratory using entomopathogenic nematodes from subtropical environment

essential biocontrol agents used for controlling insect pests (Grewal and Georgis, 1999). These EPNs are capable of penetrating and killing their hosts within 24–48 h of nematode invasion, which is caused by their mutualistic relationship with bacteria and of the genera Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus that are carried in the intestine of Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae, respectively (Akhurst and Boemare, 1990; Husin, 2017). EPNs were reported to control T. absoluta but the use of sub-tropical EPN

Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini, Nelisiwe Dlamini, Michael T. Masarirambi, Nxumalo Kwanele A.

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 19-March-2020

Natural occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species belonging to the genera Steinernema Travassos, 1927 and Heterorhabditis Poinar, 1975 and their symbiotic bacteria from genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively, are lethal parasites of soil inhibiting insects (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2017). Globally, EPNs are being widely researched as promising biocontrol agents for wide range of agricultural pests (Lacey et al., 2015). Because of the increasing awareness of EPN as an effective non-chemical

Sumeet Kour, Uma Khurma, Gilianne Brodie, Selcuk Hazir

journal of nematology, Volume 52 , 1–17

research-article | 30-November-2019

Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and its bacterial symbiont in Cauca-Colombia

Search Tool (BLAST) (Altschul et al., 1990) on the basis of the non-redundant (nr) database of the NCBI. Consensus sequences of all markers were deposited in GenBank (NCBI) under the accession numbers listed in Table 1. Table 1. Accession numbers of sequences used for phylogenetic analysis of the EPN isolated and its bacterial symbiont. Gen Species 18S ITS 28S Steinernema carpocapsae BPS MK558002 ■ MK558041 ■ MK558056 ■ Steinernema carpocapsae KJ636405 AF121049 KJ950293

Esteban Neira-Monsalve, Natalia Carolina Wilches-Ramírez, Wilson Terán, María del Pilar Márquez, Ana Teresa Mosquera-Espinosa, Adriana Sáenz-Aponte

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–16

research-article | 30-November-2020

The impact of chemical nematicides on entomopathogenic nematode survival and infectivity

insecticides (Gulcu et al., 2017; Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2012, 2017). Thus, these beneficial and highly virulent organisms can be reared in laboratories and applied to suppress insect pests to augment the natural EPN populations or in soils where EPNs do not occur (e.g., nursery soils), or against insects in cryptic habitats (e.g., tree trunks, rhizomes) (Casteliani et al., 2020; Gulcu et al., 2017; Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2017). However, formulated forms of the nematicidal compounds are applied around the

Mustapha Touray, Harun Cimen, Sebnem H. Gulsen, Derya Ulug, Dolunay Erdogus, David Shapiro-Ilan, Selcuk Hazir

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–17

research-article | 30-November-2018

In vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes using Galleria mellonella: costs and effect of diets on nematode pathogenicity

The use of biological agents, such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, is one of a range of tools for biological control. These nematode species are obligate parasites, lethal, and easy to apply (San-Blas, 2013). They can be mass-produced using in vivo or in vitro (solid or liquid) culture methods (Gaugler and Han, 2002; Rahoo et al., 2019), but in vivo is the method of choice for laboratory-scale production (e.g. for generating material for field

Régina Kotchofa, Hugues Baimey

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–15

research-article | 30-November-2019

Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against the pupal stage of the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

). EPNs are extensively used to combat root feeding insects (Johnson and Murray, 2008; Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2017). Numerous studies have been conducted to measure EPN efficacy against tephritids including Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Stark and Lacey, 1999; Yee and Lacey, 2003), Rhagoletis cerasi L. (Kepenekci et al., 2015), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Karagoz et al., 2009; Malan and Manrakhan, 2009; Rohde et al., 2010), several Anastrepha species (Toledo et al., 2005, 2006, 2009; Barbosa

Muhammad Usman, Sehrish Gulzar, Waqas Wakil, Jaime C. Piñero, Tracy C. Leskey, Laura J. Nixon, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, Shaohui Wu, David Shapiro-Ilan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–9

research-article | 30-November-2019

Mortality of Phyllophaga vetula larvae by the separate and combined application of Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri

chemical pesticides for the control of white grubs is causing increased resistance of this insect pest and has resulted in negative effects on the environment and human health, which make necessary the development of effective biological control products with low impact on the environment and human health (Cory and Franklin, 2012; Chandel et al., 2019; Karabörklü et al., 2018). The combined application of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) through a formulated product is

Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Carlos I. Cortés-Martínez, Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Pastor T. Matadamas-Ortíz, Cipriano García-Gutiérrez, José Navarro-Antonio

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2018

Hatching and Mortality of Meloidogyne enterolobii Under the Interference of Entomopathogenic Nematodes In vitro

, 500 eggs of M. enterolobii and 1.000 IJ of each EPN species were placed in a plastic pot (50 mL) dispersed in 25 mL of suspension and kept in an incubator (BOD) at 25°C. The number of hatched J2 in the suspension was counted every 2 days, until 10 days. For counting, 1 ml of suspension was withdrawn and the nematodes counted in Peters’s chamber under light microscope. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with six treatments (T1 = M. enterolobii; T2 = M. enterolobii

Alixelhe Pacheco Damascena, Júlio César Antunes Ferreira, Marylia Gabriella Silva Costa, Luis Moreira de Araujo Junior, Silvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–8

Article | 21-July-2017

Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) Nematodes in a Morphologically Aberrant Adult Specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

and 18S ribosomal DNA and shown to belong to the family Panagrolaimidae (Rhabditida), within a clade of Panagrellus. While most nematodes in the insect were juveniles, a single male adult was partially characterized by light microscopy. Morphometrics showed similarities to a species described from Germany. Excluding the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), only five other genera of entomophilic or saprophytic rhabditid nematodes are associated with this weevil. This is the first


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

research-article | 30-November-2020

Entomopathogenic nematode-gastropod interactions

., 2009; Ogier et al., 2020). As with many skin-penetrating nematodes that infect mammals, EPNs are only infectious to insects when they are in the infective juvenile (IJ) life stage, an alternate L3 stage similar in many anatomical respects to the dauer juvenile in C. elegans. EPN IJs emerge from a resource-depleted insect cadaver to seek a new host using various behavioral strategies. If successful in making contact with a susceptible host, they enter its hemocoel and then release their symbiotic

Jacob Schurkman, Adler R. Dillman

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–10

Article | 21-July-2017

Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., a New Entomopathogenic Nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) from South Africa

A new species of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN), Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., was isolated from a maize field in Senekal, Free State Province of South Africa. Morphological and molecular studies indicated the distinctness of S. biddulphi n. sp. from other Steinernema species. Steinernema biddulphi n. sp. is characterized IJs with average body length of 663 mm (606–778 mm), lateral fields with six ridges in mid-body region forming the formula 2,6,2. Excretory pore located anterior to mid


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 3, 148–158

Article | 21-July-2017

Are Entomopathogenic Nematodes Effective Biological Control Agents Against the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae?

seasons. Future work on additional EPN populations more adapted to the extreme conditions of the pomegranate production area in Iran may provide sufficient evidence to continue the further investigation on the best EPN species populations and advanced formulations with high durability.


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 4, 261–267

research-article | 30-November-2020

Quantification of pH tolerance levels among entomopathogenic nematodes

toxicity, which may be as a result of excessive fertilization (Sun et al., 2016), affects not only plants, but also insects (Mogren and Trumble, 2010) and microorganisms, either beneficial or nonbeneficial. One such group of beneficial microorganisms is entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The EPN infective juveniles (IJs) seek hosts in the soil and penetrate through natural openings, such as mouth, anus, or spiracles, to reach the hemocoel, where the symbiotic bacterial cells are released (Salvadori et

Zanele Khathwayo, Tshimangadzo Ramakuwela, Justin Hatting, David I. Shapiro-Ilan, Nicolene Cochrane

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–12

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