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  • Journal Of Nematology


research-article | 30-November-2020

Quantification of pH tolerance levels among entomopathogenic nematodes

toxicity, which may be as a result of excessive fertilization (Sun et al., 2016), affects not only plants, but also insects (Mogren and Trumble, 2010) and microorganisms, either beneficial or nonbeneficial. One such group of beneficial microorganisms is entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). The EPN infective juveniles (IJs) seek hosts in the soil and penetrate through natural openings, such as mouth, anus, or spiracles, to reach the hemocoel, where the symbiotic bacterial cells are released (Salvadori et

Zanele Khathwayo, Tshimangadzo Ramakuwela, Justin Hatting, David I. Shapiro-Ilan, Nicolene Cochrane

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2019

First record of native entomopathogenic nematodes from Montana agroecosystems

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), which occur naturally in soils, are obligate parasites of soil-inhabiting insects. EPNs were first described in 1923 with the identification of Aplectana kraussei Steiner (now known as Steinernema kraussei) (Nguyen and Hunt, 2007). Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae are two major families of EPNs with potential for managing insect populations (Kaya and Gaugler, 1993; Georgis et al., 2006). EPNs are associated with endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the

Ramandeep K. Sandhi, Ratnasri Pothula, Satyendra K. Pothula, Byron J. Adams, Gadi V.P. Reddy

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–11

research-article | 19-March-2020

Natural occurrence and distribution of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae, Heterorhabditidae) in Viti Levu, Fiji Islands

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species belonging to the genera Steinernema Travassos, 1927 and Heterorhabditis Poinar, 1975 and their symbiotic bacteria from genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively, are lethal parasites of soil inhibiting insects (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2017). Globally, EPNs are being widely researched as promising biocontrol agents for wide range of agricultural pests (Lacey et al., 2015). Because of the increasing awareness of EPN as an effective non-chemical

Sumeet Kour, Uma Khurma, Gilianne Brodie, Selcuk Hazir

journal of nematology, Volume 52 , 1–17

research-article | 19-March-2020

Effect of an Alltech soil health product on entomopathogenic nematodes, root-knot nematodes and on the growth of tomato plants in the greenhouse

considered while adopting any sustainable pest management approach (Saleh et al., 2017). Very often, in an attempt to control PPN, the beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are harmed by bionematicides or organic amendments (Bednarek and Gaugler, 1997; Somasekhar et al., 2002). Entomopathogenic nematodes are widely used by farmers and growers commercially for biological control of insect pests (Somasekhar et al., 2002). Species within the EPN genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida) are

Anusha Pulavarty, Karina Horgan, Thomais Kakouli-Duarte

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

Research Article | 17-October-2018

Survival and Infectivity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Formulated in Sodium Alginate Beads

An alternative control method to the use of chemical insecticides against soil dwelling insect pests is the application of entomopathogenic nematodes formulated in alginate beads for enhanced shelf life. The aim was to compare the benefit on nematode survival and infectivity of: (i) pre-conditioning of juveniles, and (ii) coating of alginate beads. The nematodes Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were reproduced in last instar larvae of the wax moth

Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Carlos I. Cortés-Martínez, Cipriano García-Gutiérrez

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 3, 273–280

research-article | 30-November-2020

Steinernema sandneri n. sp. (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), a new entomopathogenic nematode from Poland

Entomopathogenic nematodes of the families Steinernematidae Travassos, 1927 and Heterorhabditidae Poinar, 1976 are obligate lethal pathogens of insects with a worldwide distribution (Adams et al., 2007; Hominicki, 2002; Spiridonov and Subbotin, 2016). These organisms are commercially produced and used as biological control of insect pest populations (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2002). The family Steinernematidae is divided into seven clades: affine-intermedium, bicornutum, cameroonense, carpocapsae

Magdalena Lis, Ewa Sajnaga, Marcin Skowronek, Adrian Wiater, Kamila Rachwał, Waldemar Kazimierczak

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–24

research-article | 30-November-2019

Mortality of Phyllophaga vetula larvae by the separate and combined application of Metarhizium anisopliae, Steinernema carpocapsae and Steinernema glaseri

chemical pesticides for the control of white grubs is causing increased resistance of this insect pest and has resulted in negative effects on the environment and human health, which make necessary the development of effective biological control products with low impact on the environment and human health (Cory and Franklin, 2012; Chandel et al., 2019; Karabörklü et al., 2018). The combined application of entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) and entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) through a formulated product is

Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Carlos I. Cortés-Martínez, Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Pastor T. Matadamas-Ortíz, Cipriano García-Gutiérrez, José Navarro-Antonio

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 29-March-2019

Survival of entomopathogenic nematodes in oil emulsions and control effectiveness on adult engorged ticks (Acari: Ixodida)

available in the national market. However, the risk of generating populations of ticks resistant to the ixodicides is higher if its use is not handled as indicated by the standards (Rodríguez-Vivas et al., 2014). Nowadays, there are very few studies on the biological control of ticks using entomopathogenic nematodes (Kocan et al., 1998). Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are efficient agents of biological control, and are compatible with some chemical pesticides (Kaya and Gaugler, 1993). The

Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Jaime Ruiz-Vega, Yolanda D. Ortiz Hernández, Julio C. Jiménez Castañeda

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–10

research-article | 30-November-2020

Virulence of Steinernema ceratophorum against different pest insects and their potential for in vivo and in vitro culture

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Steinernema Travassos and Heterorhabditis Poinar are natural parasites of many insects (Kaya and Gaugler, 1993). The infective juveniles (IJ) of EPN harbor the symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus Thomas and Poinar and Photorhabdus Boemare in their intestines (Boemare, 2002; Poinar, 1990; Qiu et al., 2009). The EPN-bacteria complex actively searches, infects and kills the host, propagates in the host, and produces progeny to start a new life cycle after

Xun Yan, Guimei Chen, Yuqing Chen, Bingjiao Sun, Xinghui Gu, Weibing Ruan, Richou Han

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2019

Potential of entomopathogenic nematodes against the pupal stage of the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Snow for which 60% parasitism was observed in hawthorn fruit. Entomopathogenic nematodes may be another alternative approach for the biological control of R. pomonella. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) from genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis have the ability to infect and kill insect pests and they are naturally found in all types of agricultural and natural soils (Grewal et al., 2005). Entomopathogenic nematodes are associated with symbiotic bacteria, i.e. Xenorhabdus spp. bacteria are

Muhammad Usman, Sehrish Gulzar, Waqas Wakil, Jaime C. Piñero, Tracy C. Leskey, Laura J. Nixon, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, Shaohui Wu, David Shapiro-Ilan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–9

research-article | 21-October-2020

Optimizing for taxonomic coverage: a comparison of methods to recover mesofauna from soil

-Herrera et al., 2015, 2019). For example, surveys of naturally occurring communities of entomopathogenic nematodes and some of their natural enemies have identified soil properties such as pH (Hara et al., 1991; Campos-Herrera et al., 2013a), salinity (Hara et al., 1991; Nielsen et al., 2011), texture and moisture (Campos-Herrera et al., 2013b) that potentially modulate EPN populations directly, or indirectly by affecting their hosts (Gazit et al., 2000) or natural enemies (Duncan et al., 2013; Campos

Alexandros Dritsoulas, Larry W. Duncan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–9

research-article | 30-November-2018

Hatching and Mortality of Meloidogyne enterolobii Under the Interference of Entomopathogenic Nematodes In vitro

existing sources of resistance to other species of Meloidogyne (Brito et al., 2007; Cantu et al., 2009). Several methods are studied for the control of phytonematodes (Rosa et al., 2015; Silva et al., 2014). Studies show that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have potential for biological control of these parasites (Pérez and Lewis, 2004; Lewis and Grewal, 2005). In view of the above, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the hatching, mortality and infectivity of hatched juvenis of M

Alixelhe Pacheco Damascena, Júlio César Antunes Ferreira, Marylia Gabriella Silva Costa, Luis Moreira de Araujo Junior, Silvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2018

In vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes using Galleria mellonella: costs and effect of diets on nematode pathogenicity

The use of biological agents, such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, is one of a range of tools for biological control. These nematode species are obligate parasites, lethal, and easy to apply (San-Blas, 2013). They can be mass-produced using in vivo or in vitro (solid or liquid) culture methods (Gaugler and Han, 2002; Rahoo et al., 2019), but in vivo is the method of choice for laboratory-scale production (e.g. for generating material for field

Régina Kotchofa, Hugues Baimey

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–15

Article | 21-July-2017

Are Entomopathogenic Nematodes Effective Biological Control Agents Against the Carob Moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae?

of exploring effective control methods, especially environmental friendly approaches. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are a group of biological control agents that actively search for the host, including those in a cryptic habitat like the carob moth larvae within infested fruits. Here, we assumed that treatment of the infested and dropped fruits with EPNs may provide new insight into the management of the carob moth. Three species of EPNs, Steinernema feltiae, S


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 4, 261–267

Article | 21-July-2017

Curative Control of the Peachtree Borer Using Entomopathogenic Nematodes


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 3, 170–176

research-article | 30-November-2020

Reclaimed desert habitats favor entomopathogenic nematode and microarthropod abundance compared to ancient farmlands in the Nile Basin

Research on entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in Egypt started in the 1970s, and focused heavily on imported, non-indigenous species (Abd-Elgawad, 2017). Surveys to isolate and identify indigenous EPNs began two decades later (Shamseldean and Abd-Elgawad, 1994). Inconsistent efficacy by expensive EPN products hinders their use by the Egyptian farmers, suggesting a need for further exploration to identify species which are adapted to North African conditions and best suited to infect local insect

Alexandros Dritsoulas, Fahiem E. El-Borai, Ibrahim E. Shehata, Mostafa M. Hammam, Ramadan M. El-Ashry, Moawad M. Mohamed, Mahfouz M. Abd-Elgawad, Larry W. Duncan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–13

research-article | 30-November-2019

A draft genome of Steinernema diaprepesi

against this insect, but have since been deregistered. Currently, there are no effective registered pesticides against this insect pest (Campos-Herrera et al., 2015). Studies on the use of biological control agent to manage this weevil has been of interest for the past couple of decades (Beavers et al., 1983; Shapiro et al., 2000) and as a result, the use of entomopathogenic nematodes as control agents was found to be effective on D. abbreviates larva (McCoy et al., 2002; Ali et al., 2010; Duncan et

Anil Baniya, Jose C. Huguet-Tapia, Peter DiGennaro

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

research-article | 30-November-2019

Infection parameters of Heterorhabditis amazonensis (Nematoda: Heterorhabditidae) in different stages of Hibiscus pink mealybug

of insect mass production in laboratories, among other causes (Cermelli et al., 2002). For those reasons, there is a need to study biological alternatives to reduce the populations of PHM in Venezuela. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used in biological control programs for crops worldwide because of their effectiveness, time of response, innocuousness to mammals, and relative simplicity of mass production (Kaya et al., 2006). Some laboratories in Venezuela work actively on these

Yvan Fuenmayor, Edgar Portillo, Brynelly Bastidas, Mayamarú Guerra, Ernesto San-Blas

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–7

research-article | 30-November-2019

Characterization of a population of Pelodera strongyloides (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) associated with the beetle Lucanus ibericus (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) from Georgia

O. Gorgadze, A. Troccoli, E. Fanelli, E. Tarasco, F. De Luca

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2019

An innovative strategy for control of fungus gnats using entomopathogenic nematodes alone or in combination with waterlogging

adults, ozone water (Shi et al., 2016), soil solarization (Shi et al., 2018), and biotic approaches, such as Beauveria bassiana (Hugo et al., 2018), entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (San-Blas et al., 2017), etc. Among them, EPNs have been intensively studied and considered to be potential alternative control agents for Bradysia spp. on a large scale (San-Blas et al., 2017; Katumanyane et al., 2018b). EPNs of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae and

Chaoying Chen, Haikun Ma, Mingyang Ma, Jingjing Li, Shuyuan Zheng, Qifeng Song, Xinghui Gu, David Shapiro-Ilan, Weibin Ruan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–9

research-article | 18-March-2020

Soil texture, infective juvenile concentration, and soil organic matter influence the efficacy of Steinernema feltiae isolate Lican Ray

Gabriela Lankin, Giselle Vidal-Retes, Geraldine Allende, Carlos Castaneda-Alvarez, Ernesto San-Blas, Erwin Aballay

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–11

Article | 21-July-2017

Occurrence of Panagrellus (Rhabditida: Panagrolaimidae) Nematodes in a Morphologically Aberrant Adult Specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

and 18S ribosomal DNA and shown to belong to the family Panagrolaimidae (Rhabditida), within a clade of Panagrellus. While most nematodes in the insect were juveniles, a single male adult was partially characterized by light microscopy. Morphometrics showed similarities to a species described from Germany. Excluding the entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), only five other genera of entomophilic or saprophytic rhabditid nematodes are associated with this weevil. This is the first


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

research-article | 30-November-2018

Conspecific pheromone extracts enhance entomopathogenic infectivity

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema are potent biocontrol agents that are used to control a wide variety of economically important insect pests (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2017, 2018). The nematodes occur naturally in the soil and kill arthropod hosts with the aid of symbiotic bacteria (Xenorhabdus spp. bacteria are associated with steinernematid nematodes and Photorhabdus spp. bacteria are associated with heterorhabditid nematodes). Despite the commercial

David I. Shapiro-Ilan, Fatma Kaplan, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, Paul Schliekelman, Hans T. Alborn, Edwin E. Lewis

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–5

research-article | 30-November-2020

Entomopathogenic nematode-gastropod interactions

Parasitic nematodes infect a variety of invertebrates and are used in biological control. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), a guild of insect-parasitic nematodes, have been used with some success in the biological control of insects. These nematodes have been shown to be pathogenic to insects and are considered to have few non-target effects, although it must be noted that specificity studies and non-target infection experiments are few (Bathon, 1996; Piedra-Buena et al., 2015; Sandhi and

Jacob Schurkman, Adler R. Dillman

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–10

Article | 21-July-2017

Steinernema biddulphi n. sp., a New Entomopathogenic Nematode (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) from South Africa


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 3, 148–158

research-article | 23-July-2019

Efficacy of Heterorhabdits indica LPP35 against Aedes aegypti in domiciliary oviposition sites

on chemical and microbial larvicides, insect growth-regulators and predatory fish, copepods and Toxorhynchite larvae. Nonetheless, field trials have brought mixed reports of the prospect of these approaches to prevent or curb dengue fever outbreaks (Horstick and Runge-Ranzinger, 2018; Achee et al., 2019). Recent reviews on biological control of mosquitoes (Benelli et al., 2016; Huang et al., 2017) have not even mentioned entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as potential agents. Nonetheless, a range

Bruna Silva, Alexandre M. Almeida, Claudia Dolinski, Ricardo M. Souza

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–7

research-article | 30-November-2020

Performance of entomopathogenic nematodes on the mealybug, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the compatibility of control agents with nematodes

in plant development (Pietrowski et al., 2010; Takahashi and Gonçalo, 2005). Even in other cultures, the management of these insects is considered unsatisfactory, due to their underground their habits, which impedes control by most natural enemies and agricultural pesticides (Alves and Moino, 2009; Guide et al., 2016; Souza and Ribeiro, 2003). However, underground scale insects that attack roots can be easy targets for entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae and

Marcelo Zart, Mariana Ferracim de Macedo, Jael Simões Santos Rando, Gabriela Souza Doneze, Cassia Pereira Brito, Rodrigo de Souza Poletto, Viviane Sandra Alves

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–10

research-article | 30-November-2019

Isolation, identification, and pathogenicity of Steinernema carpocapsae and its bacterial symbiont in Cauca-Colombia

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) of the Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae families are widely used as biological control agents that represent a promising alternative to replace pesticides (Labaude and Griffin, 2018), because of their ability to parasitize insects, being able to identify, locate, and infect a host and to kill it within 48 hr, as well as they are safe to vertebrates, plants, and other non-target organisms. Moreover, they can be applied by means of standard spraying

Esteban Neira-Monsalve, Natalia Carolina Wilches-Ramírez, Wilson Terán, María del Pilar Márquez, Ana Teresa Mosquera-Espinosa, Adriana Sáenz-Aponte

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–16

research-article | 06-March-2020

Control of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) larvae in laboratory using entomopathogenic nematodes from subtropical environment

use of natural enemies (parasitoids, predators and entomopathogens) (Husin, 2017). Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are good alternatives to synthetic insecticides, are soil-dwelling organisms that attack insect pests that live in, on, or near the soil surface and can be used effectively to control important insect pests (Adams and Nguyen, 2002). EPNs in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae do not affect non-target species, do not leave residues (Georgis et al., 2006) and are

Bonginkhosi E. Dlamini, Nelisiwe Dlamini, Michael T. Masarirambi, Nxumalo Kwanele A.

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

Article | 21-July-2017

Oscheius microvilli n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae): A Facultatively Pathogenic Nematode from Chongming Island, China


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 1, 33–41

Article | 21-July-2017

First Report and Comparative Study of Steinernema surkhetense (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and its Symbiont Bacteria from Subcontinental India

Two populations (CS19 and CS20) of entomopathogenic nematodes were isolated from the soils of vegetable fields from Bijnor district, India. Based on morphological, morphometrical, and molecular studies, the nematodes were identified as Steinernema surkhetense. This work represents the first report of this species in India. The infective juveniles (IJs) showed morphometrical and morphological differences, with the original description based on longer IJs size. The IJs of the Indian


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 1, 92–102

research-article | 30-November-2020

Entomopathogenic nematode management of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) in three native Alabama soils under low moisture conditions

Pest Management (IPM) systems are currently the best option for SHB control because chemical applications can affect A. mellifera individuals as well as hive products (Berry et al., 2013; Fulton et al., 2019). Recent laboratory bioassay studies suggest that entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) can successfully infect, feed on, and reproduce in A. tumida wandering larva and pupa (Cabanillas and Elzen, 2006; Cuthbertson et al., 2012; Ellis et al., 2010; Hill et al., 2016; Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2010

WinDi Sanchez, David Shapiro, Geoff Williams, Kathy Lawrence

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–14

Research Article | 03-December-2018

Enhanced entomopathogenic nematode yield and fitness via addition of pulverized insect powder to solid media

Beneficial nematodes are used as biological control agents. Low-cost mass production of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) is an important prerequisite toward their successful commercialization. EPNs can be grown via in vivo methods or in sold or liquid fermentation. For solid and liquid approaches, media optimization is paramount to maximizing EPN yield and quality. In solid media, the authors investigated the effects of incorporating pulverized insect powder from larvae of three insects

Shiyu Zhen, Yang Li, Yanli Hou, Xinghui Gu, Limeng Zhang, Weibin Ruan, David Shapiro-Ilan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 4, 495–506

research-article | 30-November-2019

Oscheius myriophila (Nematoda: Rhabditida) isolated in sugar cane soils in Mexico with potential to be used as entomopathogenic nematode

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) exhibit a cosmopolitan distribution and have been isolated on five continents in different habitats around the world (Griffin et al., 1990; Hominik et al., 1996). In Mexico, EPNs, particularly species of the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, have been isolated in the desert, forests, and arable areas (Lezama et al., 2001; Stock et al., 2009). Worldwide, the main studies and reported isolates have come from these genera. Recently, two new species of EPNs

Iveth del Rocio Castro-Ortega, Juan Manuel Caspeta-Mandujano, Ramón Suárez-Rodríguez, Guadalupe Peña-Chora, José Augusto Ramírez-Trujillo, Karina Cruz-Pérez, Iván Arenas Sosa, Víctor Manuel Hernández–Velázquez

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2019

Activity of Steinernema colombiense in plant-based oils

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema and Heterorhabditis are well-known biological control agents used against many arthropod species (Campos-Herrera, 2015; Lacey et al., 2015). They selectively search for insect hosts and kill them within 2 to 3 days with the aid of mutualistic bacteria of the genera Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus, respectively (Adams et al., 2006; Dillman et al., 2012). Their worldwide distribution in soils (Kaya et al., 2006) and the availability of

Gabriela Castruita-Esparza, Francisco Ángel Bueno-Pallero, Rubén Blanco-Pérez, Lídia Dionísio, Teodulfo Aquino-Bolaños, Raquel Campos-Herrera

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

research-article | 30-November-2020

The impact of chemical nematicides on entomopathogenic nematode survival and infectivity

substantially restricted in several developed countries (Bird and Kaloshian, 2003; Chitwood, 2003; Lambert and Bekal, 2002) but are still available for use in many developing or underdeveloped countries (Global Situation of Pesticide Management in Agriculture and Public Health, 2019; Manyilizu, 2019). Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) in the genera Steinernema (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae) and Heterorhabditis (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) are lethal natural enemies of soil dwelling insects. They are

Mustapha Touray, Harun Cimen, Sebnem H. Gulsen, Derya Ulug, Dolunay Erdogus, David Shapiro-Ilan, Selcuk Hazir

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–17

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