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Review | 06-August-2019

REMOVAL OF HARDNESS IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENT USING MEMBRANE FILTRATION

1. INTRODUCTION Hardness is a measure of the amount of calcium and magnesium salt that is present in water. In general, surface water is characterized by lower hardness than groundwater. Water with a hardness of up to 100 mgCaCO3/L is regarded as very soft, between 100 and 200 mgCaCO3/L as soft, between 200 and 350 mgCaCO3/L as medium-hard, between 350 and 550 mgCaCO3/L as hard and above 550 mgCaCO3/L as very hard [1]. The effluents from urban wastewater treatment plant may be characterized by

Mariusz DUDZIAK, Edyta KUDLEK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 141–147

research-article | 08-April-2020

TREATMENT OF WASTEWATER FROM THE FOUNDRY INDUSTRY USING FENTON PROCESS

1. INTRODUCTION The increase in automation and intensification of production processes and the reduction of the amount of water used in these processes leads to a significant increase of pollutants in industrial wastewater. Bearing in mind the progressive degradation of the natural environment, there is a need to limit the negative impact of industry on various elements of the environment, including on surface waters through the use of effective methods of wastewater treatment. This situation

Paulina DAWCZAK, Mariusz DUDZIAK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 115–120

research-article | 21-July-2020

METHODS USED IN DISINFECTIONS OF WASTEWATER AND SEWAGE SLUDGE – SHORT REVIEW

1. INTRODUCTION The problem of a proper water management is not only the decreasing water resources in the world, the consumption of which exceeds possibilities of their renewal, but also deteriorating water quality to the extent preventing from natural self-cleaning processes. Due tothe above, it is extremely important to protect water resources, that are treated wastewater receivers. Removal of microorganisms found in sewage and sewage sludge is a significant problem of the 21st century. In

Eliza HAWRYLIK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 57–63

Article | 28-August-2018

EFFECT OF PAC ON MBR PERFORMANCE DURING THE TREATMENT OF SYNTHETIC WASTEWATER CONTAINING ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of powdered activated carbon on fouling intensity of capillary membranes working in the submerged membrane bioreactor during the treatment of synthetic municipal wastewater loaded with organic compounds. The research were carried out in a membrane bioreactor including a capillary ultrafiltration module made of polyethersulfone. The feed used in the presented study was synthetic municipal wastewater which was prepared in order to include high

Anna MARSZAŁEK, Jolanta BOHDZIEWICZ, Ewa PUSZCZAŁO

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 10 , ISSUE 3, 127–133

research-article | 30-November-2018

APPLYING INTERNAL CIRCULATION ANAEROBIC REACTOR FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT: A CASE STUDY IN SAIGON PAPER MILL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

1. INTRODUCTION Industrial wastewater containing high organic compounds and high flow rate has always been a problem in developing and developed countries. To addressed the issue, many possible treatments have been developed through years of researches, some can be mention such as coagulation, [1] absorbance [2] and advanced oxidation process; [3; 4] however, biological treatments are favoured as they are environmental friendly, high BOD, COD removal rate, able to treat N and P. Two of the most

Nhat-Ha TRAN, Manh-Ha BUI

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 145–151

original-paper | 28-February-2020

High Flocculation of Coal Washing Wastewater Using a Novel Bioflocculant from Isaria cicadae GZU6722

Introduction Coal is one of the most important global energy resources and comprises the majority of China’s energy economy. However, coal mining and its use in energy applications have resulted in considerable ecological issues. Coal washing wastewater is the tailwater of wet coal washing in coal processing, which contains large amounts of silt and slime with a typical characteristic of dark black color (Kirk et al. 2003; Yan et al. 2012). The vicinity of the coal mine has caused serious

XIAO ZOU, JIALONG SUN, JUAN LI, YANLONG JIA, TANGFU XIAO, FANLI MENG, MAOSHENG WANG, ZENGPING NING

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 69 , ISSUE 1, 55–64

research-article | 30-November-2018

THE USAGE OF ULTRASOUNDS TO DISINTEGRATE ESCHERICHIA COLI BACTERIA CONTAINED IN TREATED WASTEWATER

1. INTRODUCTION Wastewater and sewage sludge is a place of occurrence of the many microorganisms, including pathogenic and relatively pathogenic bacteria. Their number is subject to significant changes over time, and depends on many factors such as: type of wastewater flowing into the treatment plant, or the presence of substances that are a source of food for microorganisms. Wastewater allows microorganisms to enter other environments, such as receiver waters or soil. The type of pathogens

Eliza HAWRYLIK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 131–136

research-article | 30-November-2019

CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

[4]. 2. THE N-E-W (NUTRIENTS-ENERGY-WATER) PARADIGM The idea of the N-E-W paradigm was created in the USA by the National Association of Clean Water Agencies, Federation of Water Environment and Water Environment Research Foundation [5] in 2012 and presented by the Working Group of the Water Environment Federation [6] in 2014. It was a response to the ongoing climate and demographic changes and increasing water pollution. This paradigm represents a new, holistic approach to wastewater treatment

Katarzyna KALEMBA

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 93–97

research-article | 30-November-2018

PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS OF NITRATES REMOVAL FROM WASTEWATER

1. INTRODUCTION The protection of the environment, and in particular diminishing water resources, which are most vulnerable to pollution from anthropogenic sources, is and will continue to be one of the major challenges facing the international community. The undertaking of integrated solutions, such as implementation of strict quality standards for discharged industrial wastewater, the creation of special hazard exposure areas by eutrophication or the application of new treatment technologies

Maciej ŻOŁNIERCZYK, Krzysztof BARBUSIŃSKI

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 153–159

Article | 27-August-2018

CHEMICAL REDUCTION OF NITRATES IN THE WASTEWATER FROM 2-EHN PRODUCTION

The objective of the research was to determine the efficiency of nitrate removal from wastewater from 2-ethylhexyl nitrate production using chemical reduction process. The average concentration of nitrate nitrogen in raw wastewater was about 5.2 g/dm3. The processes of chemical reduction were conducted both in batch and continuous flow reactor under strongly acid conditions using two reducers: steel swarf, as a source of iron, and technical grade urea. In the batch process the maximum degree of

Krzysztof BARBUSIŃSKI, Maciej ŻOŁNIERCZYK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 101–106

research-article | 08-April-2020

APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM FERRATE(VI) IN THE TREATMENT OF SELECTED WATER AND WASTEWATER POLLUTANTS – SHORT REVIEW

origin and discharged into wastewater, together with the pollutants adsorbed on them, also adversely affect the entire aquatic ecosystem. It is also important, that in suspensions a higher content of toxic impurities is generally observed compared to bottom sediments [1]. Contaminants getting in the aquatic environment, can have a negative impact on them and accumulate in other components of the natural environment, e.g. in groundwater or soil. A huge progress in many fields of technology, entailing

Simona KLIŚ, Krzysztof BARBUSIŃSKI, Maciej THOMAS, Anna MOCHNACKA

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 129–138

Article | 01-March-2012

MONITORING OF NITRATES AND PHOSPHATES IN WASTEWATER: CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES AND FURTHER CHALLENGES

Safety, as it can significantly reduce the level of damage and also the cost to remedy the problem. This paper critically analyses both commercially available and state-of-the-art research methods and devices suitable for real-time wastewater quality monitoring and suggests further developments in this area. In particular, the focus is made on the monitoring of nitrates and phosphates in wastewater and a novel microwave based method for instantaneous water quality assessment is suggested.

O. Korostynska, A. Mason, A. Al-Shamma’a

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 5 , ISSUE 1, 149–176

Article | 26-August-2018

THE USE OF CHITOSAN FOR REMOVING SELECTED POLLUTANTS FROM WATER AND WASTEWATER – SHORT REVIEW

Chitosan is a natural product derived from chitin, which is mostly found in exo-skeletons of shrimp, crab and lobster shells. This paper presents a short review of the literature regarding the use of chitosan and its modifications for removing selected pollutants from water and wastewater. In particular, the examples of removal of metal ions, dyes, anions and phenols were described. Furthermore, the possibility of the use of chitosan as a coagulant and flocculant in water and wastewater

Krzysztof BARBUSIŃSKI, Szymon SALWICZEK, Agnieszka PASZEWSKA

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 107–115

Article | 27-August-2018

DISCOLORATION OF DYE WASTEWATER BY MODIFIED UV-FENTON PROCESS WITH SODIUM PERCARBONATE

A modified Fenton process using sodium percarbonate (SP), as an alternative source of H2O2, and UV radiation was investigated to discoloration of dye wastewater containing Acid Green 16 (concentration 100 mg/dm3). This acid dye is characterized by the harmful effect on aquatic organisms and it may cause adverse effects in the aquatic environment. The experiments were carried out in two systems, in which two lamps were used as a UV radiation source: low pressure (system I) and medium pressure

Barbara PIECZYKOLAN, Izabela PŁONKA, Krzysztof BARBUSIŃSKI

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 135–140

research-article | 30-November-2020

Improving total nitrogen removal using a neural network ammonia-based aeration control in activated sludge process

Introduction Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a topic of pivotal importance in providing a sanitary water which is a vital resource for everyone. Protecting water sources and safeguarding the ecosystem is a long-standing challenge for the WWTP industry. WWTP are facing more stringent effluent standards which were formed for a safer ecosystem (Åmand and Carlsson, 2013; Han and Qiao, 2014; Olsson et al., 2014). The WWTP industry must come up with a solution that abide the stringent effluent

M. H. Husin, M. F. Rahmat, N. A. Wahab, M. F. M. Sabri

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 1–16

research-article | 30-November-2018

THE INVESTMENT EXPENDITURES ON ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN POLAND IN 2003–2017

wastewater management [15]. 2. RESEARCH METHODS The aim of the study was to analyse investment expenditures on environment protection and water management, taking into account tangible effects created in 2003–2017. The considered time period has been selected to evaluate the impact of Poland’s access to European Union on environment protection development. Information about Polish voivodeships were collected from the Local Data Bank within Statistics Poland [1]. In the paper voivodeships’ expenditures

Katarzyna OSZCZAPIŃSKA

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 137–144

Article | 09-August-2018

INVESTIGATION OF FUNCTIONAL DIVERSITY AND ACTIVATED SLUDGE CONDITION USING BIOLOG® SYSTEM

Activated sludge method dominates among the currently used biological wastewater treatment systems. The dynamic development of this technology implies need for research, most of which are carried out in laboratory conditions. Biolog system seems to be an effective tool that allows a quick assessment of microbial activity of activated sludge. The aim of this study was to verify Biolog® EcoPlates’ usage for comparing the functional and metabolic diversity of activated and excess sludge

Justyna Michalska, Danuta Wojcieszyńska, Izabela Greń

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 119–126

research-article | 07-January-2020

ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBLE APPLICATION OF DEAMMONIFICATION TECHNOLOGY IN THE MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN ZABRZE

metabolism (R). Ammonification results in forming of ammonia nitrogen according to the reaction [1]: (1) R−NH2+HOH→R−OH+NH3+energy Figure 1. Nitrogen cycle in the environment [3] Ammonia nitrogen can be assimilated by plants and microorganisms. Then, it is changed into nitrate nitrogen at favourable conditions biological decomposition is a commonly used method to remove inorganic nitrogen compounds from wastewater. Ammonia nitrogen occurring in wastewater is partly used to build new microorganism

Grażyna PĘCIAK-FORYŚ, Krzysztof BARBUSIŃSKI, Krzysztof FILIPEK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 115–123

Article | 09-August-2018

RESEARCH ON THE CULTIVATION OF NITRIFYING BACTERIA AND POSSIBILITY OF THE BIOMASS STORAGE

The efficiency of nitrification has a great influence on the effect of removing nitrogen from wastewater. Problems with the process are associated with reducing the age of activated sludge, lower temperatures of wastewater in aeration chambers, rapid changes in the amount and composition of wastewater containing toxic substances or inhibiting the oxidation of ammonia nitrogen. The research concerned the possibility of cultivation and storage of the nitrifying bacteria biomass, which could be

Magdalena DOMAŃSKA, Kamila HAMAL, Małgorzata FRĄSZCZAK, Janusz ŁOMOTOWSKI

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 113–118

research-article | 30-November-2018

APPLICATION OF POTASSIUM FERRATE(VI) FOR OXIDATION OF SELECTED POLLUTANTS IN AQUATIC ENVIRONMENT – SHORT REVIEW

1. INTRODUCTION Treatment of industrial wastewater due to its varied quantitative and qualitative composition is a complex issue, which is still the subject of numerous studies. An example of wastewater whose cleaning up causes many problems are wastewater from dyes, textile, polygraph and mining industry. Industry wastewater is characterized by considerable nuisance and environmental toxicity. First of all, their composition contains dyes and other substances such as: mineral and silicone oils

Simona KLIŚ, Krzysztof BARBUSIŃSKI, Maciej THOMAS, Anna MOCHNACKA

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 129–137

Article | 05-June-2013

A SIMPLIFIED MODEL STRUCTURE FOR AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEM

Activated sludge system is the essential technology in use for municipal wastewater treatment plant. The system design for pollutants removal, safety analysis and experimentation relied upon an effective, straightforward and reliable model. However, most of the available models are too complex to use for control purposes either practically or via simulation. Therefore, vehement need for a simplistic and efficient model could not be avoided. This paper presents a simplified model structure for

M.S. Gaya, N. A. Wahab, Y. M. Sam, A.N Anuar, S.I. Samsuddin, M.C Razali

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 1167–1179

Article | 26-August-2018

ECONOMIC ANALYSES IN SEWAGE SYSTEM DESIGNING FOR RURAL SETTLEMENT – CASE STUDY

domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and full pressure sewerage network. In all variants, the container wastewater treatment plant of daily capacity 450 m3 day-1 was applied. Estimations of investment and exploitation costs for 30 years period operation were performed. Economic multivariate analysis was based on: Payback Period, Dynamic Generation Cost (DGC), Net Present Value (NPV) and Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR). The obtained indicators were the input data for the weighted sum model allowing to

Aleksandra LEWICKA, Marcin K. WIDOMSKI, Grzegorz ŁAGÓD

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 145–152

original-paper | 11-March-2020

Oligotrophic Nitrification and Denitrification Bacterial Communities in a Constructed Sewage Treatment Ecosystem and Nitrogen Removal of Delftia tsuruhatensis NF4

application values for micro-polluted water treatment (Su et al. 2015). Notably, some oligotrophic denitrifiers were isolated from copiotrophic environments. The oligotrophic denitrifiers from the topsoil of agricultural field sand played a significant role in denitrification (Hashimoto et al. 2006). Lee et al. (2011) had successfully used oligotrophic nitrifiers in the bioremediation of over-fertilized land. The highly relative abundance of these bacteria has been reported in a study of wastewater

RUILAN YANG, JING LI, LUYAO WEI-XIE, LIN SHAO

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 69 , ISSUE 1, 99–108

Article | 26-August-2018

PREDICTION OF THE CHROMIUM (III) SEPARATION FROM ACIDIC SALT SOLUTIONS ON NANOFILTRATION MEMBRANES USING DONNAN AND STERIC PARTITIONING PORE (DSP) MODEL

different concentrations of chloride and sulfate ions. It means that the DSP model may be helpful for the monitoring of nanofiltration applied to treatment of chromium wastewater.

Anna KOWALIK-KLIMCZAK, Mariusz ZALEWSKI, Paweł GIERYCZ

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 135–140

Article | 26-August-2018

NOVEL ANAMMOX MEMBRANE ELECTRO-BIOREACTOR

This paper presents an alternative method for nitrogen removal using modified membrane reactor. A novel Anammox submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (Anammox-SMEBR) was developed to enhance nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater. At lab scale a comparison between continuous flow MBE and Anammox-SMEBR reactors was conducted. The novel reactor removed nitrate and ammonia by over 95% and 97%, respectively. The removal was due to subsequent application of aerobic and anoxic conditions in the

Maria ELEKTOROWICZ, Seyedehfatemeh HOSSEINI, Sharif IBEID

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 123–128

Research Article | 15-February-2020

Detection of Pathogenic Bacteria in Aqueous Media: Assessing the Potential of Real-Time Electromagnetic Wave Sensing

solutions. The distinct feature of the proposed system is that the detection is performed in real time, without the need for additional sample processing or chemicals. This bacteria detection method would be of benefit in a broad range of applications, ranging from water quality monitoring in wastewater treatment facilities to safety assurance in healthcare and food industry.  

I. Nakouti, O. Korostynska, A. Mason, A. I. Al-Shamma’a

International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Volume 7 , ISSUE 5, 1–6

Original Paper | 04-September-2018

Isolation of Bacterial Endophytes from Phalaris arundinacea and their Potential in Diclofenac and Sulfamethoxazole Degradation

approximately 35% of DCF and 61% of SMX, while an increase in the optical density of the cultures was noted. The higher removal efficiency can be explained by adaptive mechanisms in microorganisms exposed to phenol (i.e. changes in the composition of membrane lipids) and by a co-metabolic mechanism, where non-growth substrates can be transformed by non-specific enzymes. The presence of both DCF and SMX and the influence of the supply frequency of CWs with the contaminated wastewater on the diversity of

ANNA WĘGRZYN, EWA FELIS

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 67 , ISSUE 3, 321–331

Research Article | 08-February-2019

PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF SEWAGE MANAGEMENT IN SOKÓLSKI DISTRICT

ecological imbalance and water pollution as the result. The aim of this paper was to evaluate water and sewage economy development in Sokólski District in Poland. In the study were used Central Statistical Office of Poland data from 2008–2016. There was considered cesspit and household sewage treatment plants amount and water and wastewater systems length. Also, sewage systems built in recent years and planned in the analysed area were considered. In recent years reducing trend in a number of cesspits

Iwona SKOCZKO, Katarzyna OSZCZAPIŃSKA

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 11 , ISSUE 4, 179–184

Article | 09-August-2018

USE OF BIOLOGICAL METHODS FOR REMOVAL OF H2S FROM BIOGAS IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS – A REVIEW

Krzysztof Barbusiński, Katarzyna Kalemba

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 103–112

research-article | 21-July-2020

ISOLATION AND SCREENING OF BACTERIA WITH ABILITY TO DECOLORIZE SELECTED SYNTHETIC DYES – PRELIMINARY RESULTS

multiplication of adapted microflora for the purpose to creating biopreparation for bioaugmentation of treatment systems may be an interesting solution [4, 16, 18, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28]. The most popular sources of obtaining decolorizing bacteria are industrial sewages, especially textile wastewater [8, 17, 24]. The aim of the study was to show if other source materials may be used for izolation the bacteria with high abilities of decolorization of synthetic dyes. The screening was led for decolorization

Ewa ZABŁOCKA-GODLEWSKA, Wioletta PRZYSTAŚ, Maria GODLEWSKA

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 75–86

Article | 26-August-2018

THE INFLUENCE OF WATER MATRIX ON THE SEPARATION OF BISPHENOL A WITH LOW AND HIGH PRESSURE DRIVEN MEMBRANE TECHNIQUES

from a variety of environmental matrices including real effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The process of pressure-driven membrane filtration was realized through dead-end flow filtration with the use of different commercial membranes. It has been proved that bisphenol A retention coefficient depended both on the process type and the physical and chemical properties of the membrane applied. The type of water matrix was also significant. It has been determined that efficient

Mariusz DUDZIAK, Edyta BURDZIK-NIEMIEC

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, –

research-article | 30-November-2017

THE REUSE OF WASHINGS FROM POOL FILTRATION PLANTS AFTER THE USE OF SIMPLE PURIFICATION PROCESSES

year, it is over 5 000 m3 of unproductive wastewater discharged usually into the sanitary sewage system. In Poland, there are over 560 pools equipped with at least 2 filters [7]. Therefore it can be estimated that annually more than 2 800 000 m3 of backwash water is lost. Assuming the average price for wastewater discharges in large cities, 1.48 €/m3, it is easy to estimate that over 4 million € per year is spent on discharging “pool” washings [8]. In addition, the water used to backwash filtration

Joanna WYCZARSKA-KOKOT, Anna LEMPART

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 163–170

Article | 26-August-2018

USE OF COMPACT TRICKLE BED BIOREACTOR FOR THE PURIFICATION OF AIR FROM A VOC’s MIXTURE – PRELIMINARY RESEARCH

strains found in the wastewater and adopted to chosen pollutants. The gas-flowrate was 4.0 m3/h and VOC concentration in the gas phase was changed from 40 to 255 ppm. In the whole period of research the efficiency of pollutant removal was in the range 92-99%. The lowest result of efficiency was achieved in the 2nd day of research as a response of the highest concentration of VOC. Possible consequences of a violent pollutant overload and the time required for regenerating the microorganisms and

Damian KASPERCZYK, Krzyszof BARBUSIŃSKI, Violetta KOZIK

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 137–143

Research Article

CRESOLS AND THE MICROORGANISMS OF THE SOIL ENVIRONMENT

Phenolic compounds, including cresols, in the soil environment are a result of natural processes such as: biodegradation of lignins and tannins, and anthropogenic activity. Cresols are present in disinfectants as well as in the wastewater from chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, paper and textile industry. They are also used in the production of insecticides, herbicides, medicines and antioxidants and have been classified as hazardous substances. Exposure of microorganisms to cresols can

Magdalena Zaborowska

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology, Volume 56 , ISSUE 1, 7–17

Review | 06-August-2019

ENERGY EFFICIENCY ECONOMICS OF CONVERSION OF BIOGAS FROM THE FERMENTATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE TO BIOMETHANE AS A FUEL FOR AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES

]. Presently, sewage networks have extensive infrastructure that requires the use of control systems, e.g. an intelligent multithreaded system, hierarchical prediction control with the use of parallel computational architecture. Such solutions are implemented mainly in high inertia networks, including very large ones, in order to ensure continuous and laminar supplies of municipal sewage. Such asituation ensures the stability of the wastewater treatment process and consequently the optimal quality of

Józef CIUŁA, Krzysztof GASKA, Łukasz ILJUCZONEK, Agnieszka GENEROWICZ, Viktor KOVAL

Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 131–140

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