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Article | 17-February-2021

Elimination of HLA antibodies by platelet adsorption

Introduction HLA antibodies are often a nuisance in antibody investigation and compatibility testing. These antibodies are often found in samples from multiply transfused patients who are refractory to platelet transfusion. They are common in multiparous women and can also develop spontaneously. Before the introduction of leukocyte reduction, HLA antibodies were known as a major cause of febrile transfusion reactions.1 HLA antibody reactivity may mask the presence of clinically significant red

J. Jung, C. Barron

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 1–3

Review | 13-April-2020

Review: monoclonal reagents and detection of unusual or rare phenotypes or antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies have been used in the formulation of commercially available blood grouping reagents since the early 1990s. It became apparent early on that introducing them into routine use along with, or instead of, human- or animal-derived reagents could and did lead to discrepant reactions. These discrepancies most often came to light when confirming a blood type obtained previously with human- or animal-source reagents or when using two or more sources of a reagent from the same or

Marilyn K. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 52–63

Article | 14-October-2020

Antibodies detected in samples from 21,730 pregnant women

Although anti-D is still the main cause of HDN, many other antibodies have been implicated. From September 1995 to April 2000,screening for RBC antibodies was performed on samples from 21,730 pregnant women regardless of RhD type. Standard tube and gel methods were used. Anti-D was identified in 254 samples;other antibody specificities were detected in 376 samples, for a total of 630 antibodies. For this study, 522 antibodies were considered clinically significant. The incidence of potentially

Snezana Jovanovic-Srzentic, Milan Djokic, Nenad Tijanic, Radmila Djordjevic, Nada Rizvan, Darko Plecas, Dejan Filimonovic

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 89–92

Article | 16-October-2019

Sulfhydryl treatment of serum or plasma for the reduction of IgM antibodies

Dithiothreitol (DTT) and 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) are sulfhydryl compounds that can be used to treat serum or plasma to denature IgM antibody reactivity. By using sulfhydryl agents, IgG and IgM antibodies can be separated, the relative amount of IgM and IgG antibodies can be determined, and the risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn can be assessed.

Lorraine N. Blagg

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 135–139

Article | 14-October-2020

One thousand seventy antibodies detected only by a 2-stage papain test: wanted and unwanted positive reactions

Despite the wide use of the antibody detection test for unexpected antibodies, controversy still remains regarding the use of enzymetreated red blood cells. Over a 6-year period, 72,573 samples from 49,863 patients submitted for pretransfusion compatibility testing were examined for unexpected antibodies. The antibody detection tests included a low-ionic-strength solution (LISS) indirect antiglobulin test and a two-stage papain (2SP) test. One thousand and seventy of the 2267 (47%) antibodies

Carmen Martin-Vega, Dolores Castella, Joan Cid, Marta Panadés

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 122–124

Review | 16-October-2019

A brief overview of clinical significance of blood group antibodies

This review was derived from a presentation made on September 2, 2016 for the first Academy Day presented by the Working Party on Immunohematology at the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Congress in Dubai. The focus of this review is to provide a brief overview of the clinical significance of blood group antibodies. Blood group antibodies can be naturally occurring (e.g., anti-A and anti-B through exposure to naturally occurring red blood cell [RBC] antigen-like substances) or

Manish J. Gandhi, D. Michael Strong, Barbee I. Whitaker, Evangelia Petrisli

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 1, 4–6

Article | 14-October-2020

Drug-dependent antibodies with immune hemolytic anemia in AIDS patients

We studied the presence of drug-dependent antibodies (D-DAbs) in 53 patients with AIDS who developed immune hemolytic anemia (IHA). We examined sera and eluates for the presence of D-DAbs. Drug antibodies were detected in 43.4 percent (23/53) of the patients with IHA. Antibodies to more than one drug were detected in 60.8 percent (14/23) of patients with drug-induced IHA (D-IHA). The DAT was positive by RBC-bound IgG in eight patients, RBCbound IgG/C3d in nine, IgG/IgA in three, IgG/IgA/C3d in

Carlos A. González, Liliana Guzmán, Gabriela Nocetti

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 10–15

Report | 01-December-2019

Seroprevalence of unexpected red blood cell antibodies among pregnant women in Uganda

We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among pregnant women in Kampala, Uganda, to determine ABO and D blood types and to determine the percentage who have unexpected red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and their specificities. Deidentified blood samples from routine testing of 1001 pregnant women at the Mulago Hospital antenatal clinics in Kampala were typed for ABO and D and screened for the presence of unexpected RBC antibodies with confirmation and subsequent antibody

Kristina Eipl, Clemensia Nakabiito, Kabali Bwogi, Mahnaz Motevalli, Angela Roots, Lorraine Blagg, J. Brooks Jackson

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 115–117

Article | 16-October-2019

Separation of multiple antibodies by adsorption with allogeneic red blood cells

. Routinely, antibody identification practices in a blood bank comprise the testing of a patient’s plasma against reagent RBCs using standard agglutination and indirect antiglobulin methods.1 There are, however, instances when identification of multiple antibodies may be complicated and require additional serologic methods. When the presence of multiple antibodies is suspected, several methods—including neutralization of patient’s plasma, titration, elution, chemical or enzyme treatment of reagent RBCs

E.M. Ekema

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 155–158

Article | 15-April-2020

Efficacy of murine monoclonal antibodies in RBC phenotyping of DAT-positive samples

method. There are a limited number of direct agglutinating monoclonal antibodies available. Murine monoclonal antibodies provide an additional tool for typing RBCs with a positive DAT. Five murine monoclonal IgG antibodies (anti-K: MIMA-22, MIMA-23; anti-Kpa: MIMA-21, MIMA-27; anti-Fya: MIMA-19) were used in this study. Donor RBCs with known phenotypes were sensitized in vitro with alloanti-D, alloanti-c, and alloanti-K and with 20 autoantibodies (autoanti-D [n=3],autoanti-e [n=5], autoanti-Ce/e [n=5

Edmond Lee, Kevin Hart, Gordon Burgess, Gregory R. Halverson, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 161–165

Article | 03-November-2020

Improved detection of weak, clinically significant antibodies by supplementation of polyethylene glycol with a low-ionic solution

A comparative study of 164 serum samples was carried out to determine the specificity and sensitivity of the indirect antiglobulin test (IAGT) in three different formulations: physiologic saline, low-ionic solution (RAM), and RAM supplemented with polyethylene glycol (PEG). Serum samples containing mostly weak antibodies (anti-D, -C, -E, -c, -Jka, -Fya, -K, -S, -Lea, -Lua, -M, -Cob, -P1, -I, and -Kna) were used in a 10-minute IAGT in which PEG-IAGTs were compared with salineIAGTs and RAM-IAGTs

Kim Swee Low, Yew-Wah Liew, Peter M. Bradley

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 68–71

Report | 01-December-2019

The production, serologic evaluation, and epitope mapping of ten murine monoclonal Dombrock antibodies

The Dombrock (Do) glycoprotein is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-linked membrane protein carrying Dombrock blood group antigens. There are no standardized typing reagents for Doa or Dob. We have developed ten different monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) that are specific for Dombrock. The objectives of this study were to characterize these MoAbs serologically and determine the epitopes they recognize. MoAbs were generated by standard fusion methods. Mice were immunized with transfected human

Magdalena Grodecka, Kazimiera Wasniowska, Gregory Halverson, Karina Yazdanbakhsh, Marion E. Reid, Elwira Lisowska

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 124–129

Case report | 14-October-2020

Case report: four donors with granulocyte-specific or HLA class I antibodies implicated in a case of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)

. Four of the donors of the implicated units of plasma were female and all had a history of pregnancy. Two donors had HLA class I antibodies and two had granulocytespecific antibodies detectable in their serum. In crossmatch studies, granulocyte-reactive antibodies from two donors bound to granulocytes from the patient, which suggested that these antibodies were clinically relevant. These clinical and serologic findings support a diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

A. Davoren, O.P. Smith, C.A. Barnes, E. Lawler, R.G. Evans, G.F. Lucas

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 117–121

Review | 16-October-2019

Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, LandsteinerWeiner, Chido/Rodgers, H, Kx, Cromer, Gerbich, Knops, Indian, and Ok blood group systems

This article reviews information regarding the clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, Landsteiner-Wiener, Chido/Rodgers, H, Kx, Cromer, Gerbich, Knops, Indian, and Ok blood group systems. Like most blood group systems, antibodies to many of the antigens in these groups are rarely encountered because of the high prevalence of the associated antigens in most populations. For many, the clinical significance—that is, the potential to cause reduced

Sofia Lejon Crottet

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 103–108

Review | 16-October-2019

Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Raph, John Milton Hagen, I, Globoside, Gill, Rh-associated glycoprotein, FORS, JR, LAN, Vel, CD59, and Augustine blood group systems

This article reviews information on the clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Raph, John Milton Hagen, I, Globoside, Gill, Rh-associated glycoprotein, FORS, JR, LAN, Vel, CD59, and Augustine blood group systems. Antibodies to many of the antigens in these groups are rarely encountered because of the high prevalence of the associated antigens in most populations. For many of these antibodies, the clinical significance—that is, the potential to cause reduced survival of

Mostafa Moghaddam, Amir Ali Naghi

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 85–90

Article | 14-October-2020

False reactivity in GTI Pak Plus® ELISA kits due to the presence of anti-mouse antibody in patients' samples

The development of commercially available ELISA kits (GTI, Inc., Waukesha,WI) that use antigens adhered to microtiter plate wells by the use of mouse monoclonal antibodies made it possible for hospital transfusion service laboratories to test for platelet- and/or HLA-specific antibodies without reliance on reference laboratories. However, human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMAs) may cause false reactions in ELISAs. We designed a study to determine the impact of HAMAs on these ELISAs. Samples from

Miriam Fogg Leach, James P. AuBuchon

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 112–116

Review | 16-October-2019

Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the International Society of Blood Transfusion collections, 700 series of low-incidence antigens, and 901 series of high-incidence antigens

This article reviews information regarding the clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the blood group collections, the 700 series of low-incidence antigens, and the 901 series of high-incidence antigens. Antibodies to many of the antigens in these groups are rarely encountered, meaning that available information is limited. For a few, the clinical significance— the potential to cause reduced survival of transfused antigen-positive red blood cells, a hemolytic transfusion

Christine Lomas-Francis

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 39–45

Article | 06-December-2020

Six monoclonal antibodies to the CD59 antigen

CD59 defines an N-glycosylated glycoprotein expressed on various hemopoietic cells. It is anchored to the cell membrane by a glycosylpbospbatidylinositol linkage and restricts the action of homologous complement. Monoclonal antibodies 2/24, 182, Fib75.1, BRIC 229, MEM-43, and YTH 53.1 were compared by immunoblotting against normal erythrocyte ghosts. All six stained a diffuse band of 17-25 kDa, but BRIC 229 also detected bands at 35 and 80 kDa. 2/24 reacts with all red blood cells (RBCs) tested

Jennifer A. Bryant, Anne Fletcher, Fang Fang Yuan

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 68–73

Article | 16-February-2021

Acidification of plasma for detection of pH-dependent antibodies

carboxyl group charges of these sialic acids results in a negatively charged red blood cell (RBC) membrane.4 The pH dependency or enhancement of some antibodies with M specificity may be due to the charged carboxyl groups present on the glycophorin A that carry the M antigen.5 The first naturally occurring pH-dependent anti-M was discovered in 1964 when a saline agglutinin was present in a donor’s acid citrate dextrose plasma that was not demonstrable in the serum from the same donation. After

K.L. Bowman, B.C. Dunlap, L.M. Hawthorne, K.L. Billingsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 116–118

Article | 18-October-2020

Further characterization of transfusion-related acute lung injury: demographics, clinical and laboratory features, and morbidity

. The male-to-female ratio was approximately 1:1. The mean age at diagnosis was 54 years. The most frequent presenting symptom or signs were acute respiratory distress, hypotension, and hypertension. Antibodies to human leukocyte antigens or granulocytes were identified in 61 percent of cases, with 50 percent associated with antibodies in a donor whose blood had been transfused to a patient developing TRALI. Clinical recovery occurred in 87 percent of patients, but TRALI contributed to deaths in 13

Mark A. Popovsky, N. Rebecca Haley

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 4, 157–159

Article | 15-February-2021

Heat elution: a modification of the Landsteiner-Miller method

Principle Antibodies and antigens fit together in a “lock and key” mechanism, stabilized by van der Waals forces,1 hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. The avidity of an antibody correlates with its binding strength— for example, the IgM pentamer with its 10 antigen-binding sites has high antigen avidity in contrast to the monomeric IgG. The affinity of an antibody for a given antigen depends on the binding capacity of a single antigen-binding site. The interaction

C. Dean-El, N. Quraishy

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 45–47

Case report | 09-October-2019

A LU:-16 individual with antibodies

Antibodies against Lutheran blood group antigens have been observed during first-time pregnancy. Samples from a woman of African descent were tested in our immunohematology laboratory on several occasions since 2001. Her samples were phenotyped as Lu(a+b−), and anti-Lub was suspected but not identified. She was asked to make autologous donations in preparation for her delivery, which she did. In 2010, two antibodies were identified: anti-Lea and -Lub. Six years later, a third

Carole Éthier, Cynthia Parent, Anne-Sophie Lemay, Nadia Baillargeon, Geneviève Laflamme, Josée Lavoie, Josée Perreault, Maryse St-Louis

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 110–113

Article | 09-November-2020

The gel test: sensitivity and specificity for unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The recently FDA-licensed anti-IgG gel test for pretransfusion antibody detection requires crossover validation before implementation. Six hundred coded samples sent for routine pretransfusion tests were used to compare GEL (ID-MTS, Ortho Diagnostic Systems Inc., Raritan, NJ) with Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline (LISS). There were 456 GEL–LISS–, 97 GEL+LISS+, 45 GEL–LISS+, and 2 GEL+LISS– tests. The 144 positive tests involved 157 antibodies; 67

W. John Judd, E. Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 132–135

Article | 03-November-2020

The gel test: use in the identification of unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

were 63 GEL+ LISS+, 2 GEL+ LISS–, and 6 GEL–LISS+ antibodies. Among the GEL+ LISS+ antibodies were 19 that yielded stronger reactions in GEL than in LISS; by virtue of their specificity, 14 of these are considered potentially significant: D, 5 E, 2 e, 2 Jka, 2 S, K, and Fya. There were 38 antibodies that yielded equivalent results by both methods, including 31 that are considered potentially significant. Of six antibodies with significantly greater reactivity in LISS, there were three

W. John Judd, E.Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf, Colleen Masters

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Case report | 14-October-2020

Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to HPA-3a antibodies: a case report

A healthy infant was born at term by elective cesarean section to a 32-year-old para 4, gravida 4, mother. Within 24 hours, the infant was noted to have fairly extensive bruising on the back and shoulders. A full blood count evaluation was remarkable for severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count of 29 × 109 /L). Other hematologic parameters were normal. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class-1 antibodies but not platelet-specific antibodies were detectable in the maternal serum using a

A. Davoren, G. Smith, G. Lucas, S. Rodgers, P. O’Donoghue, J. Crowley, C.A. Barnes, J. McKiernan

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 33–36

Article | 17-November-2020

Detection of Lewis, P1, and some MNS blood group system antibodies by a solid phase assay

Some solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assays are designed to detect IgG antibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. These assays use anti-IgG-coated red cells as the indicator. It is reported that most antibodies to Lea, Leb, P1, M, and N fail to react by solid phase (SP), presumably because they are IgM antibodies. Those detected are assumed to be IgG. In one year, during routine testing using SPRCA to screen patients for intended RBC transfusion, 28 of 59 such examples were found

Susan Rolih, Ronald Thomas, Lyle Sinor

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 78–80

Report | 06-November-2019

Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia: the last 30 years  of changes

Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is a rare condition that occurs primarily as a result of drug-induced antibodies, either drug-dependent or drug-independent. Drugdependent antibodies can be detected by testing drug-treated red blood cells (RBCs) or untreated RBCs in the presence of a solution of drug. Drug-independent antibodies react with untreated RBCs (no drug added) and cannot be distinguished from warm autoantibodies.  Many changes have occurred during the last 30 years

Patricia A. Arndt

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 44–54

Article | 14-October-2020

Murine monoclonal antibodies can be used to type RBCs with a positive DAT

Gregory R. Halverson, Paula Howard, Harry Malyska, Edith Tossas, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 83–85

Article | 10-November-2020

Detection of tube agglutination 37°C-only antibodies by solid-phase red cell adherence

There are no published data on the detection of tube agglutination (TA) 37°C-only antibodies by solid-phase (SP) red cell adherence assays using anti-IgG-coated indicator red cells. Thirteen examples of TA 37°C-onIy antibodies were tested by conventional SP methods. Four TA 37°C-only antibodies failed to react by SP. Three were anti-Lea, considered clinically insignificant, and one was anti-E, an anti­body of potential clinical significance. The remaining nine TA 37°C-only

Susan Rolih, Fern Fisher, Dolores Fiqueroa, Gwenn Lindsay

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 27–29

Report | 06-November-2019

Drug-induced immune neutropenia/ agranulocytosis

Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell in blood and play a critical role in preventing infections as part of the innate immune system. Reduction in neutrophils below an absolute count of 500 cells/μL is termed severe neutropenia or agranulocytosis. Drug-induced immune neutropenia (DIIN) occurs when drug-dependent antibodies form against neutrophil membrane glycoproteins and cause neutrophil destruction. Affected patients have fever, chills, and infections; severe infections left

Brian R. Curtis

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 95–101

Article | 20-December-2020

Vancomycin-induced neutropenia associated with anti-granulocyte antibodies

Neutropenia is a rare complication associated with vancomycin, and the cause of this adverse reaction is not well understood. We report a case of vancomycin-induced neutropenia in which we were able to demonstrate anti-granulocyte antibodies. We also report the results of a bone marrow examination along with a brief review of the literature.

Ronald E. Domen, Susan Horowitz

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 41–43

Article | 18-October-2020

Human anti-Dia monoclonal antibodies for mass screening

The use of monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to blood group antigens is constantly increasing for routine typing. Two heterohybridoma cell lines, HMR15 and HMR22, were established by Epstein-Barr virus transformation of peripheral blood lymphocytes from a blood donor with anti-Dia. HMR15 mab directly agglutinated Di(a+) red cells, and HMR22 mab agglutinated Di(a+) red cells exclusively by the indirect antiglobulin test. Reactivities of both HMR15 and HMR22 mabs were specific for Dia and had good

Toru Miyazaki, Shinichiro Sato, Toshiaki Kato, Hisami Ikeda

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 78–81

Article | 16-November-2020

The GLAM test: a flow cytometric assay for the detection of leukocyte antibodies in autoimmune neutropenia

The GLAM assay, a combined flow cytometric immunofluorescence test that simultaneously detects antibodies to granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes, was used in the investigation of autoimmune neutropenia. This method avoids the need for a succession of immunofluorescence tests, first against granulocytes and then against lymphocytes, in order to distinguish granulocyte-specific from granulocyte/lymphocyte-reactive antibodies, such as noncomplement-fixing anti-HLA sera. Samples from 18

Anatole Lubenko, Sally Rosemary Wilson

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 164–168

Article | 16-October-2019

Use of the prewarm method for detecting clinically significant alloantibodies in the presence of cold autoantibodies

The prewarm (PW) method is useful for detecting and identifying clinically significant antibodies that bind to red blood cells and complement at 37°C and for avoiding antibodies that bind at temperatures less than 37°C. Antibodies that bind at temperatures less than 37°C are often cold autoantibodies that may be present in the serum of healthy individuals and are usually not clinically significant. The PW method is useful when these cold autoantibodies have a wide thermal range and

Stephanie Dupuis

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 148–150

Article | 17-November-2020

Detection of drug-dependent platelet antibodies by use of solid-phase red cell adherence techniques

Many drugs have been reported to cause drug-dependent thrombocytopenia, either by the immune complex or by hapten mechanisms. Testing for the presence of these platelet antibodies has not been considered feasible for transfusion services because their presence was thought to be rare, and their detection involved complex and costly methods. We have developed a new technique for detection of these antibodies that can be performed without the need for specialized and expensive instrumentation. A

Miriam F. Leach, Linda K. Cooper, James P. AuBuchon

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 4, 143–149

Article | 16-February-2021

Addition of fresh serum to plasma to aid in enhancement of complement-dependent antibodies

Principle Given the right conditions, antibodies in several blood group systems will activate complement once bound to red blood cells (RBCs), with most having the ability to activate complement to the C3 stage. Examples of antibodies that can activate complement include those in the Kidd, Kell, Duffy, and Lewis blood group systems. Complement activation is of importance in immunohematology testing because it can enable the antibody to act as a hemolysin in vitro or to bind complement that may

C. Grey

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 102–104

Article | 20-December-2020

Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I (Bg) on red cells studied with monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies, capable of detecting monomorphic epitopes on HLA class I polypeptides and beta-microglobulin (ß2-M), have been used by a variety of techniques to ascertain the type of structure detected on red blood cells (RBCs). Hemagglutinatlon with class I monoclonal antibodies confirmed the reported relationship between Bg blood groups and HLA. It also established that the expression of HLA on RBCs which do not have nuclei is not normally strong, hut may be enhanced in patients

Carolyn M. Giles

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 53–58

Review | 20-March-2020

Recognition and management of antibodies to human platelet antigens in platelet transfusion–refractory patients

formation, antibodies to human platelet antigens (HPAs), an even less common immune factor, may rise proportionately. Carefully matched apheresis platelets can substantially improve platelet count increments in the setting of HLA and HPA alloantibody-mediated transfusion refractoriness. An evidence-based HPA testing strategy is described along with the incidence and specificity of HPA antibodies in platelet transfusion refractoriness. Optimal strategies to manage patients with HPA or combined HPA and

Ralph R. Vassallo

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 119–124

Article | 14-October-2020

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia with mimicking anti-c and -E specificities

An 18-month-old male was admitted to a hospital with a hemoglobin of 4.1 g/dL and a reticulocyte count of 53 percent. There was no history of prior transfusion. Serologic evaluation revealed the presence of both a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The patient’s red blood cells (RBCs) typed as group A, C–D–E–c+e+ (cde/cde). Evaluation of the IAT revealed the presence of anti-c and anti-E. All other major antibodies were ruled

Hsin-Yeh Hsieh, Diana L. Moroney, Deanne E. Naumann, D. Jane Hata, Nancy C. Vosnidou, Rovenna L. Kessinger, Nassir Shahab, Nasrollah Hakami, Daniel S. Smith

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 19–22

Article | 14-October-2020

The investigation of the significance of a positive direct antiglobulin test in blood donors

samples were not included in this study. With a tube test, most of the antibodies had titers from 4 to 8. IgG subclass studies showed that 14 of 25 samples with reactive eluates contained IgG1, one contained IgG1+IgG2, one contained IgG1+IgG4, and two contained IgG1+IgG3 weak. The frequency of donors with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was ~ 1 in 3000 and males were twice as likely to be DAT positive (8 females vs. 17 males in this study). None of the donors had hemolysis. Two donors showed

Marianna Bellia, John Georgopoulos, Vasilis Tsevrenis, Efrosini Nomikou, Niki Vgontza, I. Kontogpoulous-Griva

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 78–81

Report | 16-October-2019

Method-specific and unexplained reactivity in automated solid-phase testing and their association with specific antibodies

The inherent tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity in the detection of unexplained antibodies has been the objective of many studies, editorials, and journal articles. Many publications note that no method is capable of detecting all clinically significant antibodies while avoiding all clinically insignificant antibodies. This study describes the frequency of nonspecific reactivity and unexplained reactivity in solid-phase testing, along with the subsequent development of specific

Mary E. Harach, Joy M. Gould, Rosemary P. Brown, Tricia Sander, Jay H. Herman

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 93–97

Report | 12-March-2020

Occurrence of antibodies to low-incidence antigens among a cohort of multiply transfused patients with sickle cell disease

%) exhibited one or more antibodies to AA-LIAs, and a total of 17 antibodies to these AA-LIAs have been developed by these patients. The occurrence of antibody formation to AA-LIAs is significantly greater than that of alloantibodies to low-incidence antigens in the general population. Considering the possibility of the presence of antibodies to AA-LIAs in multiply transfused patients with SCD is warranted.

Pamela Jackson

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 4, 143–145

Article | 14-October-2020

Evaluation of a new solid-phase immunoassay for alloantibody detection using bromelin-treated and untreated red blood cells

The enzyme test is used to detect certain antibodies or facilitate antibody identification. This study compares antibody reactivity with bromelin-treated red blood cells (RBCs) and untreated RBCs using a newly developed solid-phase immunoassay. The reactivity of irregular antibodies was tested by a magnetic-mixed passive hemagglutination assay (M-MPHA). In addition, antibody reactivity was tested with dried stroma of bromelin-treated RBCs and untreated RBCs (M-MPHA-Dry). Rh antibodies were

Toyohiro Tamai, Toshio Mazda

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 17–21

Report | 06-November-2019

How we investigate drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

Drugs are a rare cause of immune hemolytic anemia, but an investigation for a drug antibody may be warranted if a patient has definitive evidence of immune hemolysis, other more common causes of hemolysis have been excluded, and there is a good temporal relationship between the administration of a drug and the hemolytic event. Drug antibodies are either drug-dependent (require drug to be in the test system) or drug-independent (reactive without drug present in the test). Drug-dependent

Regina M. Leger, Patricia A. Arndt, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 85–94

Report | 06-November-2019

Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia: incidence, clinical features, laboratory testing, and pathogenic mechanisms

Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia (DIIT) is a relatively uncommon adverse reaction caused by drug-dependent antibodies (DDAbs) that react with platelet membrane glycoproteins only when the implicated drug is present. Although more than 100 drugs have been associated with causing DIIT, recent reviews of available data show that carbamazepine, eptifibatide, ibuprofen, quinidine, quinine, oxaliplatin, rifampin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and vancomycin are probably the most frequently

Brian R. Curtis

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 55–65

Article | 14-December-2020

Indicators of clinically significant red cell antibodies produced by sensitized lymphocytes in liver transplant patients

It has been documented that transplanted livers can carry sensitized lymphocytes that subsequently produce red cell antibodies. We evaluated immunohematological variables in liver donors and recipients for indicators that might be predictive of serological red blood cell (RBC) destruction mediated by the passenger lymphocytes. Organ donor sera with antibody scores greater than ( > ) 60 correlated with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and need for increased RBC transfusion in liver

BeverIy E.W. Calhoun, M. Pothiawala, G. Musa, B. Baron

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 2, 37–39

Article | 14-October-2020

Detection of granulocyte antibodies by flow cytometry without the use of pure granulocyte isolates

Established methods used to detect serum antibodies to granulocytes require the isolation of granulocytes. Flow cytometric analysis of granulocytes with monoclonal antibodies eliminates the need for granulocyte isolation. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to evaluate reactions of antibodies to granulocytes without separating granulocytes from other leukocytes. Three screening cell samples for granulocyte antibody detection were prepared from whole-blood samples in which the red

Karen M. Kiekhaefer, Karen M. Cipolone, Jo L. Procter, Kazuhiko Matsuo, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 70–75

Article | 09-November-2020

Direct Coombs test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia and low-affinity IgG class antibodies

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, S. Jalihal, B. Paul

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 115–118

Article | 10-November-2020

Do monocyte ADCC assays accurately predict the severity of hemolytic disease of the newborn caused by antibodies to high-frequency antigens?

Monocyte ADCC assays are helpful indicators of the severity of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) due to anti-D. It would be particularly useful if the assays also accurately predicted the ability of antibodies to high-frequency antigens (HFA) to cause HDN. To investigate this possibility, 14 antenatal sera containing antibodies to HFA were tested and the results correlated with the severity of HDN. Antibody titers were determined using an indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). Eight sera 

Stephen F. Garner, Alan Devenish

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 20–26

Article | 30-November-2019

Inhibition of blood group antibodies by soluble substances

expression among individuals, such as anti-P1. Some antibodies can be inhibited by soluble substances such as sugars, proteins, and peptides; examples include ABH, Lewis, P1, Sda, Chido/Rodgers, and ID. Human saliva, hydatid cyst fluid, pigeon egg white, human or guinea pig urine, human serum, and human milk have been used as soluble substances to inhibit red blood cell (RBC) antibodies before the 1990s.1–4 Since then, recombinant blood group proteins (rBGPs) have also been shown to be effective in the

K.M. Byrne, C.M.C. Mercado, T.N. Nnabue, T.D. Paige, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 19–22

Article | 30-November-2020

A survey of management of blood donations with unexpectected red cell antibodies

A survey of 19 large blood centers, each with an average annual collection of 158,889 units, was conducted to identify current practices of management of red cell units that contain unexpected red cell antibodies. The routine antibody identification, distribution, and charge for such units varied widely among the 19 centers. In addition, although use of these units was low, costs were considerable. This survey can serve as a basis for other studies to arrive at cost-effective ways to manage

Marlene Simpson, Jana Julleis, Ram Kakaiya

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 3, 99–101

Case report | 06-December-2020

Case report: a time study of management of a chronically transfused patient with multiple antibodies

This case report describes laboratory management of a chronically transfused sickle cell anemia patient with multiple antibodies and the time involved in providing compatible red cells for transfusion. Time was evaluated using the laboratory workload record ing method of the College of American Pathologists. Red cell units were sent to the hospital within 24 to 48 hours from receipt of a referral sample, despite a workload recording time in excess of 15 hours for a typical sample.

Kirk D. Kitchen, Mary F. Corgan, Brenda L. Hillard

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 81–82

Review | 12-March-2020

Granulocyte serology: current concepts and clinical signifcance

granulocyte transfusions, and immune neutropenia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Although the intrinsically fragile nature of granulocytes contributes to the inherent challenges of granulocyte serology, several advances in laboratory procedures have improved detection of granulocyte antibodies. This review will provide a current perspective about the importance and use of granulocyte serology for detection of granulocyte antibodies that have significant medical effects.

Mary E. Clay, Randy M. Schuller, Gary J. Bachowski

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 11–21

Article | 06-December-2020

Donor origin Rh antibodies as a cause of significant hemolysis following ABO-identical orthotopic liver transplantation

A group A, D-positive patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation from a group A, D-negative (cde/cde) donor. Anti-D and -E were eluted from the recipient’s red cells and were found in the recipient’s serum 13 days later, at which time significant hemolysis developed. These Rh antibodies appear to he secondary to passive transfer of sensitized donor lymphocytes, a rare finding following liver transplantation.

Brian K. Kim, Carolyn F. Whitset, Christopher D. Hillyer

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 100–101

Article | 14-October-2020

Significance of platelet-reactive antibody screening for patients facing frequent platelet transfusions

It is not clear whether platelet-reactive antibody screening is clinically significant for patients facing frequent platelet transfusions. On the basis of data from 96 patients who had been examined for platelet-reactive antibodies by the mixed passive hemagglutination method for a variety of reasons, we investigated the following three issues retrospectively: (1) the relationship between platelet-reactive antibodies and the occurrence of problems in platelet transfusions, such as

Tetsunori Tasaki, Kieko Fujii, Kenji Gotoh, Shyukuko Satoh, Jyunko Takadate, Sakiko Sasaki, Mihoko Tachibana, Kimiko Yamamoto

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 104–108

Review | 20-March-2020

Detection and identification of platelet antibodies and antigens in the clinical laboratory

As a result of the unique functional properties of platelets, morerobust methods were required for detection of antibodies raised against them. Immunofluorescence detection by flow cytometry, solid-phase red cell adherence, and antigen capture ELISAs are some of the current tests that have been developed to meet the challenges of platelet antibody detection and identification and antigen phenotyping. Recently developed protein liquid bead arrays are becoming the next-generation platelet

Brian R. Curtis, Janice G. McFarland

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 125–135

Article | 26-October-2020

Evaluation and comparison of three human monoclonal anti-S, two human polyclonal anti-S, and one murine anti-GPB

order to determine their potential as blood group reagents and research tools. Furthermore, through inhibition experiments, we attempted to define the epitope recognized by the antibodies. Three monoclonal (MS-93; MS-94; MS-95) and two polyclonal (A1958; XI960) anti-S and a monoclonal anti-GPB (Mab 148) were tested by standard hemagglutination with RBCs of known common and rare phenotype, with S+ RBCs treated with enzymes, with dif­ferent concentrations of NaCIO, and after incubation with

Marion Reid, Gregory R. Halverson, Janet Sutherland, Malcolm Rhodes

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 4, 163–166

Article | 14-October-2020

Screening for RBC antibodies - what should we expect from antibody detection RBCs

, Kpa, and Wra.There are no data to support the considerable expense and effort involved in providing RBCs that possess low-frequency antigens such as Cw, Kpa, and Wra. The risk of clinically-significant hemolytic transfusion reactions occurring when such antibodies are not detected because antibody detection RBCs lack such antigens is about 1 in 500,000 to 1 in 1 million transfusions.

George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 71–77

Case report | 01-December-2019

Performance of an automated solid-phase  red cell adherence system compared with  that of a manual gel microcolumn assay for  the identification of antibodies eluted from  red blood cells

IgG antibodies coating red blood cells (RBCs) can be removed by elution procedures and their specificity determined by antibody identification studies. Although such testing is traditionally performed using the tube agglutination assay, prior studies have shown that the gel microcolumn (GMC) assay may also be used with comparable results. The purpose of this study was to compare an automated solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) system with a GMC assay for the detection of antibodies eluted

Rachel H. Finck, Rebecca J. Davis, Shih-Mao Teng, Dennis Goldfinger, Alyssa F. Ziman, Qun Lu, Shan Yuan

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

Article | 14-October-2020

Clinically significant autoimmune hemolytic anemia with a negative direct antiglobulin test by routine tube test and positive by column agglutination method

In two to five percent of cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA),the patient’s RBCs are negative in the direct antiglobulin test (DAT). We describe a patient with AIHA with a negative DAT when tested by the traditional tube test but with a strongly positive one when tested by column agglutination. When the DAT was repeated by tube test using 4°C saline washes, it became positive. This phenomenon has been observed when low-affinity antibodies are involved in AIHA. The patient

Marco Lai, Carlo Rumi, Giuseppe D’Onofrio, Maria Teresa Voso, Giuseppe Leone

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 109–113

Report | 20-March-2020

Characterization of three novel monoclonal anti-Oka

Anti-Oka was first described by Morel and Hamilton in 1979. The Oka antigen has a very high incidence, and only eight probands that are Ok(a–) have been found; all are of Japanese heritage. In this study, we describe the generation and characterization of three novel monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), MIMA-25, MIMA-144, and MIMA-149. The reactivity of these three Mabs was compared with the original human polyclonal anti-Oka. Mice were immunized with transfected HEK cells to induce an immune

Mary H. Tian, Gregory R. Halverson

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 174–178

Article | 26-October-2020

EDTA/glycine-acid versus chloroquine diphosphate treatment for stripping Bg antigens from red blood cells

EDTA/glycine-acid (EGA) has been reported to remove IgG-bound antibodies from red blood cells (RBCs) and to denature Kell system and Era antigens. EGA-treated RBCs were tested in parallel with chloroquine diphosphate (CDP)-treated RBCs to evaluate whether EGA would remove Bg antigens from RBCs as efficiently as CDP. Fifty-seven serum/plasma samples containing known Bg antibodies were tested with untreated Bg+ RBCs, EGA-treated Bg+ RBCs, and CDP-treated Bg+ RBCs by an indirect antiglobulin test

Kayla D. Champagne, Peggy Spruell, Jane Chen, Leslie Voll, Gloria Schlanser

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 66–68

Case report | 09-November-2020

Antibodies to low-incidence antigens and elimination of the antihuman globulin phase of the crossmatch - case report: anti-Wra

An antibody to a low-incidence antigen was identified in the serum of a nontransfused male patient. The antibody was subsequently identified as anti-Wra and was only detectable at the antihuman globulin (AHG) phase of the crossmatch. Instances of severe hemolytic transfusion reactions have been reported following the transfusion of red blood cells containing low-incidence antigens in patients with antibodies directed toward these antigens (e.g., antiWra, -Cob, -Jsa, etc.). Elimination of the

Scott C. Wise, Patricia J. Larison, Lloyd O. Cook

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 20–22

Article | 16-November-2020

A case of hydrops fetalis, probably due to antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of GP.Mur (Miltenberger class III) cells

The GP.Mur (Miltenberger class III) phenotype was found to occur in about 6.3 percent of Hong Kong (HK) Chinese blood donors. The incidence of antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of GP.Mur cells (anti-Mi) among patients was 0.34 percent, similar to that in Taiwan Chinese. A case of hydrops fetalis probably attributable to maternal anti-Mi was encountered in an HK Chinese woman during her sixth pregnancy. The anti-Mi was potent (titer 512, score 99). It fixed complement and was a

C.K. Lin, K.H. Mak, C.M.Y. Yuen, N.K. Chan, H.W. Liu, G. Cheng

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 115–118

Article | 16-November-2020

Effect of pronase on highincidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes

Cromer and Lutheran blood group systems and the JMH antigen were sensitive to pronase treatment of RBCs. Antigens in the Dombrock blood group system and Sc1 were either sensitive to or markedly weakened by pronase treatment of RBCs. The following high-incidence antigens were resistant to treatment of RBCs with pronase: AnWj, Ata, Coa, Co3, Dib, EnaFR, Era, Fy3, Jk3, Jra, k, Kpb, Jsb, K14, Lan, Oka, Rh17, U, Vel, and Wrb. Over half of the serum samples from normal blood donors contained antibodies to

Marion E. Reid, Carole A. Green, Jack Hoffer, Ragnhild Øyen

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 139–142

Article | 20-December-2020

A simple method for inhibiting ABO antibodies in sera used for platelet crossmatching

Sometimes it is necessary to crossmatch and transfuse ABO-incompatible platelets. As IgG anti-A and anti-B sometimes react with platelets from group A or B donors, these reactions can confuse the interpretation of crossmatching, which is designed to detect HLA or platelet-specific antibodies. Methods previously described to overcome this problem have been complex. Neutr-ABR, which contains A and B blood group substances from porcine and equine sources, can be used to neutralize anti-A and/or

Nina Postoway, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 68–70

Article | 26-October-2020

Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins

with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents’ antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka.

Dawn H. Rumsey, Sandra J. Nance, Mary Rubino, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 4, 159–162

original-paper | 03-September-2019

Presence of Antibodies Against Leptospira interrogans Serovar hardjo in Serum Samples from Cattle in Ukraine

agglutination test (MAT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but serological diagnosis of leptospirosis generally is based on detecting antibodies by MAT which is a referent method for this disease (Sykes et al. 2011; OIE 2018). MAT involves the serial dilutions of patient` sera that react with live Leptospira followed by an assessment of organism’s agglutination with a dark field microscopy. According to World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations, a titer 1/100 can be


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 68 , ISSUE 3, 295–302

Review | 20-March-2020


phenotype arises from homozygosity for inactivating mutations in the LU gene. The dominantly inherited Lumod phenotype, In(Lu), results from heterozygosity for inactivating mutations in KLF1, the gene for the erythroid transcription binding factor EKLF. Clinically, antibodies of the Lutheran system are relatively benign. When hemolytic, they generally cause only mild, delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn that can be treated by phototherapy. The Lutheran

Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 152–159

Article | 29-December-2020

Identification of antibodies on microplates

Mary N. Crawford, Faith E. Wolford, Patricia M. Pilkington, Janis Lugo

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 1, 10–12

Article | 26-October-2020

Monoclonal antibodies as blood grouping reagents

Malcolm L. Beck

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 1, 10–14

Book Review | 20-December-2020

BOOK REVIEW: Antibodies: A Laboratory Manual

Robert J. Eckrich

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 1, 19–20

Article | 16-February-2021


expression of these antigens is complex.6 Because these antigens are abundant on RBCs and because most adults have “naturally occurring” antibodies to the antigens that they lack, ABO antibodies are clinically significant; anti-A, -B, and -A,B cause severe intravascular hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs). Donor RBCs lacking the antigens corresponding to the antibodies in the recipient’s plasma (i.e., ABO compatible) must be selected for transfusion. The one exception is anti-A1, which is rarely

N.M. Thornton, S.P. Grimsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

Report | 16-March-2020

Development and validation of a fluorescent microsphere immunoassay for anti-IgA

Kandelaria M. Rumilla, Jeffrey L. Winters, Jessica M. Peterman, Eric A. Jedynak, Henry A. Homburger

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 24–28

Article | 26-October-2020

A comparison of a new affinity column system with a conventional tube LISS-antiglobulin test for antibody detection

A recently introduced system for antibody detection (ReACT™) consists of affinity columns (AFC) that contain protein A and protein Gcoated agarose. We compared the ReACT™ system to a conventional tube low-ionic-strength saline antiglobulin test (LISS-AGT). We selected 100 LISS-AGT positive samples with clinically important and benign antibodies of varying strengths and 130 LISS-AGT negative samples to evaluate by the AFC method. AFC tests were positive with all 84 clinically

R. Sue Shirey, Joan S. Boyd, Christine Barrasso, Karen E. King, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 75–77

Article | 17-November-2020

Analysis ofthe routine use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as an enhancement medium

) involving an anti-K that was not detected with LISS but was retrospectively found to be reactive with PEG, an additional 151 samples received for antibody screening were prospectively evaluated in parallel using PEG and LISS. PEG detected all clinically significant antibodies in the 50 previously tested samples, with mean reactivity scores greater than LISS or A-IAT. In the prospective study, PEG detected 35 clinically significant antibodies and 10 clinically insignificant antibodies, while LISS

Vicki J. Barrett, James R. Stubbs, Karen Stuardi, Angela Hollis, Leslie Clear

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 11–13

Review | 17-November-2020

Review: antibodies and antigens in immune neutropenias

Geoff Lucas

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 4, 105–111

Book Review | 31-December-2020

BOOK REVIEW: Red Cell Antigens and Antibodies

Mary H. McGinniss

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 1, 10–11

Review | 20-March-2020

Investigating the possibility of drugdependent platelet antibodies

James P. AuBuchon, Miriam F. Leach

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 136–140

Report | 06-November-2019

Drugs that have been shown to cause druginduced immune hemolytic anemia or positive direct antiglobulin tests: some interesting findings since 2007

This review updates new findings in drug-induced immunehemolytic anemia (DIIHA) since the 2007 review in Immunohematology by these authors. Twelve additional drugs  have been added to the three tables listing drugs associated with drug-dependent antibodies, drugs associated with drug-independent antibodies, and drugs associated with nonimmunologic protein adsorption. Other updated findings include (1) piperacillin is currently the most commonly encountered cause of DIIHA, (2) new data on

George Garratty, Patricia A. Arndt

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 66–79

Article | 09-November-2020

A clinically significant anti-HLA-A2 detectable by extended incubation cytotoxicity and flow cytometric techniques but not by a standard NIH lymphocytotoxicity test

A previously transfused female patient, known to have a platelet defect, was transfused with platelets prior to surgery. After the 18th unit she felt unwell, developed fever, rigor, became nauseous, and vomited. Her blood pressure decreased from 140/90 to 80/50mm Hg. Passive transfer of donor granulocytes or red cell antibodies were excluded as a cause. Therefore, a serum sample from the patient was investigated for the presence of antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) using a standard

Stephen F. Garner, John Petrochilos, Colin J. Brown, Suzette Cavanna, I. Chanarin, Cristina Navarrete

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 49–53

Case report | 20-December-2017

Adolescent with acute psychosis due to anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis: successful recovery

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a relatively new autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. We report the first case of anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis combined with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (anti-VGKC) antibodies in Lithuania in a 16-year-old girl. The patient was admitted to psychiatry unit because of an acute psychotic episode. She was unsuccessfully treated with antipsychotics, and electroconvulsive therapy was initiated because of her

Dovile Jonuskaite, Paulius Kalibatas, Ruta Praninskiene, Asta Zalubiene, Aurelija Jucaite, Rimante Cerkauskiene

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 111–115

Review | 02-May-2020

Review: the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems

After the discovery (over 50 years ago) that the IAT could be applied to the detection of antibodies to blood group antigens, there was a rapid increase in the identification of alloantibodies that caused transfusion reactions or HDN. After Rh, antibodies in the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems were the next in clinically significant antibodies to be revealed. Much of what has been learned about these blood groups since the journal Immunohematology issued its first edition has to do

Constance M. Westhoff, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 37–49

Article | 06-December-2020

Identifying blood group antibodies...can a computer help?

Glen Dietz, Nancy J. Miller

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 53–55

original-paper | 27-March-2019

Clinical Interpretation of Detection of IgM Anti-Brucella Antibody in the Absence of IgG and Vice Versa; a Diagnostic Challenge for Clinicians

examination has led to consider other diagnostic techniques more useful in the diagnostic workup of brucellosis. Serologically, ELISA is the most popular and widely used diagnostic assay. Brucella-specific IgM antibodies are produced in the first week after the disease onset, reaching a maximum after two months. On the other hand, IgG antibodies are detected after the second week of infection, attaining a peak level of six to eight weeks later. While IgG response coincides more closely with the clinical


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 68 , ISSUE 1, 51–57

Original Paper | 10-December-2018

A Special Risk Group for Hepatitis E Infection: The First Record of North Cyprus

Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted by a fecal oral route from animals to humans following exposure to the body fluids of infected animals. We investigated the seroprevalence of anti-hepatitis E (anti-HEV) antibodies by monitoring IgG and IgM virus antibodies amongst employees in the animal industry in North Cyprus through a cross-sectional study. Samples were taken from individuals without occupational exposure to animals and from those who worked with animals (doing animal


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 67 , ISSUE 4, 525–528

Article | 14-October-2020

Selecting an acceptable and safe antibody detection test can present a dilemma

The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant

Martha Rae Combs, Steven J. Bredehoeft

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 86–89

Article | 14-October-2020

A review of the Knops blood group: separating fact from fallacy

It has been more than 10 years since the topic of “high-titer, lowavidity” (HTLA) antibodies was reviewed in Immunohematology. We have learned a lot about these antibodies in the past 10 years and that knowledge has helped us to understand some of the unusual characteristics of these antibodies. Furthermore, it has helped us to name and delineate the various associated blood group systems. Although we will begin with a general review of HTLAs, this manuscript will focus on the

Joann M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 1–8

Review | 14-March-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

protein. The RBCs of people with the Cromer null phenotype, Inab, lack DAF but do not appear to demonstrate increased susceptibility to hemolysis. Antibodies to Cromer antigens are rarely encountered, although there is evidence that the antibodies may cause accelerated destruction of transfused RBCs. There is no risk of HDN associated with Cromer system antibodies because the placenta is a rich source of fetally derived DAF, which is thought to adsorb the antibodies.

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 109–117

Review | 14-October-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

DAF protein. The red blood cells (RBCs) of people with the Cromer null phenotype, Inab, lack DAF. Antibodies to Cromer antigens are rarely encountered although there is evidence that the antibodies may cause accelerated destruction of transfused RBCs. There is no risk of hemolytic disease of the newborn associated with Cromer system antibodies because the placenta is a rich source of fetally derived DAF, which is thought to adsorb the antibodies.

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 95–103

Short Communication | 15-March-2016

IgG Avidity: an Important Serologic Marker for the Diagnosis of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection

A total of 52 serum samples from patients with symptoms suggestive of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection and positive IgM and/or IgG antibodies were tested for IgG avidity. Acute/recent TBEV infection was confirmed by low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 94.8% IgM positive/IgG positive samples, while in 5.2% high AI was found indicating persisting IgM antibodies. Majority of IgM negative/IgG positive samples (78.6%) showed high AI consistent with past TBEV infection. However, in

Tatjana Vilibic-Cavlek, Ljubo Barbic, Vladimir Stevanovic, Goranka Petrovic, Gordana Mlinaric-Galinovic

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 65 , ISSUE 1, 119–121

Short Communication | 04-December-2017

Seroprevalence of Rubella and Cytomegalia in Young Women from Biała Podlaska District

The aim of this study was to analyze the seroprevalence of rubella and cytomegalia among young women. The study included 175 healthy women from the Biała Podlaska District, aged 16 to 35 years. Anti-rubella and anti-CMV IgG were determined by ELISA. 172 (98.3%) study subjects tested positive for rubella antibodies, 1 (0.6%) was seroindeterminate and 2 (1.1%) were seronegative. CMV antibodies were detected in 119 (68.0%) participants; the series included also 1 (0.6%) seroindeterminate and 55

Dorota Plewik, Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Justyna Paszkiewicz, Adam Szepeluk

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 66 , ISSUE 4, 543–545

Report | 12-March-2020

Determination of optimal method for antibody identification in a reference laboratory

Methods commonly used for antibody identification are hemagglutination (tube), column agglutination (gel), and solid-phase red cell adherence. Our AABB immunohematology reference laboratory (IRL) conducted a study to determine which antibody identification testing method was optimal for detecting all clinically significant antibodies. Patient specimens were sent to our IRL from August 2008 to September 2009. Routine testing was performed by tube method and then by manual gel and manual solid

Jennifer R. Haywood, Marilyn K. Grandstaff Moulds, Barbara J. Bryant

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 4, 146–150

Article | 10-November-2020

Evidence that the low-incidence red cell antigens R1a and Lsa are identical

Testing of Ls(a+) and R1(a+) red cells with numerous antisera containing antibodies to low-incidence antigens indicated that these antigens are identical. This conclusion was confirmed by adsorption and elution tests, and supported by immunoblotting of Ls(a+) and R1(a+) cells with antibodies to giycophorin C and glycophorin D.

Leif Kornstad, Carole Green, Pertti Sistonen, Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Report | 01-December-2019

Should blood donors be routinely screened for irregular antibodies?

Michel Andrés García, Leonardo Bautista, Fernando Palomino

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 60–66

Review | 15-May-2020

Review: platelet alloantigens and antibodies and their clinical significance

Alice Norton, David L. Allen, Michael F. Murphy

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 2, 89–102

Review | 20-December-2020

A review: antibodies with high-titer, low-avidity characteristics

Susan Rolih

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 59–67

Article | 15-April-2020

In search of the Holy Grail: comparison of antibody screening methods

Currently,the goal of testing for RBC antibodies is to use a method that will detect, if possible, all antibodies that are considered clinically significant and yet not detect antibodies of little clinical importance in transfusion or pregnancy. The focus of test method development has been on the more controllable variables of the first and second stages of agglutination. Tube test methods have been developed over the years to achieve shorter turnaround times for quicker test results and

Tony S. Casina

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 196–202

Report | 01-December-2019

Low risk of hemolysis after transfusion of uncrossmatched red blood cells

Transfusing uncrossmatched red blood cells (RBCs) can be a lifesaving bridge until crossmatched RBCs are available. The risk of using uncrossmatched RBCs is that of hemolysis from unexpected clinically significant antibodies. This study sought to quantify the risk of hemolysis after the transfusion of uncrossmatched RBCs. The records of recipients of uncrossmatched RBCs over approximately 9 months were retrieved from the regional transfusion service. Basic immunohematologic data were recorded

Lisa Radkay, Darrell J. Triulzi, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 39–44

Review | 01-December-2019

Polyethylene glycol antiglobulin test  (PEG-AGT)

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was described in 1987 as a new technique for immunohematology testing. The original paper described its use in detection and identification of weakly reactive antibodies. PEG is used as an additive to enhance reactivity and to reduce incubation time when testing for unexpected antibodies. PEG can be used as an alternative to low-ionicstrength saline and whenever weak reactions are encountered.

Larry Weldy

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 4, 158–160

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