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Article | 18-October-2020

Comparison of tube and gel techniques for antibody identification

There are several methods for antibody detection and each technique has advantages and limitations. We compared the performance of the tube (polyethylene glycol–indirect antiglobulin test [PEG-IAT]) and gel test technique for antibody identification. From January to May 1999, we performed antibody screening tests by gel and tube techniques on 10,123 random blood samples submitted to our reference laboratory. Six hundred and twentyeight (6.2%) reactive samples were tested for antibody

Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti, Eduardo Jens Silveira, Edio da Costa Filho, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac- Llacer, Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 4, 138–141

Article | 14-October-2020

Screening for RBC antibodies - what should we expect from antibody detection RBCs

In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration mandates that red blood cells (RBCs) for antibody detection possess the following antigens: C, D, E, c, e, M, N, S, s, P1, Lea , Leb , K, k, Fya, Fyb, Jka, and Jkb. Although not required, it is generally agreed that homozygosity for C, D, E, c, e, Fya, and Jka is also preferable.There is no requirement for low-frequency antigens to be present.However, manufacturers of antibody detection RBCs receive requests for these RBCs to possess Cw

George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 71–77

Article | 10-April-2021

Comparative evaluation of the conventional tube test and column agglutination technology for ABO antibody titration in healthy individuals: a report from India

ABO blood group antigens are called histo-antigens because they are known to be expressed not only on red blood cells (RBCs) but also on almost all other organs in the human body.1 ABO antibodies are naturally occurring, characterized as causing hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, and antibody-mediated rejection of solid-organ transplants. In ABO-incompatible stem cell transplants, anti-A/-B titer levels correlate with the risk of immediate or delayed

S.S. Datta, S. Basu, M. Reddy, K. Gupta, S. Sinha

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 25–32

Report | 12-March-2020

Determination of optimal method for antibody identification in a reference laboratory

Methods commonly used for antibody identification are hemagglutination (tube), column agglutination (gel), and solid-phase red cell adherence. Our AABB immunohematology reference laboratory (IRL) conducted a study to determine which antibody identification testing method was optimal for detecting all clinically significant antibodies. Patient specimens were sent to our IRL from August 2008 to September 2009. Routine testing was performed by tube method and then by manual gel and manual solid

Jennifer R. Haywood, Marilyn K. Grandstaff Moulds, Barbara J. Bryant

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 4, 146–150

Report | 01-December-2019

Performance characteristics of two automated solid-phase red cell adherence systems for pretransfusion antibody screening:  a cautionary tale

Our institution has implemented two instruments, the Galileo and the Echo, that use different solid-phase red cell adherence assays for antibody screening in pretransfusion compatibility testing. During the initial implementation of these two instruments, we noticed very different problems: falsely positive results on the Galileo, and falsely negative results and lack of reproducibility on the Echo. Comparison of falsely positive antibody screen results from approximately equivalent numbers of

Karen Quillen, James Caron, Kate Murphy

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 137–139

Article | 14-October-2020

MIMA-9, a valuable antibody for screening for rare donors

Since monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) are potentially available in an unlimited volume, they can be used to screen numerous donor blood samples to identify antigen-negative donors. We have used a Mab (MIMA-9) with characteristics that allow for the simultaneous screening of RBCs of any ABO group for high-incidence antigennegativity in the Kell and Gerbich blood group systems. MIMA-9, a murine IgG2a antibody, previously shown to facilitate the identification of K+k–, Kp(a+b–), K0

Edith Tossas, Ragnhild Øyen, Gregory R. Halverson, Harry Malyska, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 43–45

Report | 01-December-2019

Single-center comparison of gel microcolumn and solid-phase methods for antibody screening

Our facility changed antibody screening methods from a gel microcolumn–based test (ID-Micro Typing System Gel Test; Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Inc., Raritan, NJ) to an automated solid-phase test (Galileo/Capture-R Ready-Screen [I and II], Immucor, Inc., Norcross, GA). To determine whether detection rates for commonly encountered clinically significant red blood cell antibodies differed as a consequence of this change, preimplementation and postimplementation antibody identification

Anne Schmidt, Brenda J. Bendix, Eapen K. Jacob, Sandra C. Bryant, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 3, 101–104

Article | 14-October-2020

Enzyme and DTT treatment of adherent RBCs for antibody identification by a solid phase immunoassay system

Treatment of RBCs with protease enzymes or dithiothreitol (DTT) causes denaturation of several RBC antigens and is regularly used in antibody identification. In this study, we have standardized enzyme and DTT treatment of adherent RBCs in the magnetic-mixed passive hemagglutination assay (M-MPHA) for antibody identification. We have also tried drying these treated RBCs. The optimal enzyme and DTT treatment conditions for intact adherent RBCs were determined, in addition to the optimal condition

Toyohiro Tamai, Toshio Mazda

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 114–119

Article | 14-October-2020

Selecting an acceptable and safe antibody detection test can present a dilemma

The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant

Martha Rae Combs, Steven J. Bredehoeft

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 86–89

Article | 03-November-2020

Comparison of gel technology and red cell affinity column technology in antibody detection

Both column (gel) agglutination technology and red cell affinity column technology (ReACT™) have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for antibody detection and identification. Parallel studies using these two methods were performed on 100 samples to evaluate their sensitivity, advantages, and disadvantages. Sixteen significant antibodies, anti-D(2), -C(1), -E(1), -c(1), -C,D(1), -K(4), -S(1), -Fya(3), -Jka(1), and -Jkb(1), were found during the study. MTS-Gel detected one

Sauvai I. Chanfong, Sherri Hill

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 152–154

Article | 01-April-2020

Reduced red blood cell destruction by antibody fragments

Antibodies to blood group antigens can cause immune RBC destruction directly (extravascular destruction) or indirectly through subsequent complement activation (intravascular hemolysis). The Fc portion of the IgG antibody is responsible for the effector functions of immune RBC destruction. We hypothesized that sensitization of RBCs with blood group antigen–specific IgG antibodies lacking their Fc portion would escape from the recipient’s immune system, allowing for a longer survival

Amina Mqadmi, Steven Abramowitz, Xiaoying Zheng, Karina Yazdanbakhsh

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

Article | 09-November-2020

Comparison of hemagglutination and solid phase titration methods for determination of critical prenatal antibody titers

The hemagglutination (HA) tube method is the standard method for determination of antibody titer in prenatal samples. Most facilities use a titer between 8 and 32 as their definition of a critical value when amniocentesis may be considered. This study determined if there is a relationship between the results of HA tube and solid phase (SP) titers performed on the same sample. Forty-six paired samples containing known antibody were titrated by both HA tube and SP methods and the results

Brenda C. Alder, Stephanie H. Summers, Virginia Hare

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 3, 84–89

Article | 26-October-2020

A comparison of a new affinity column system with a conventional tube LISS-antiglobulin test for antibody detection

A recently introduced system for antibody detection (ReACT™) consists of affinity columns (AFC) that contain protein A and protein Gcoated agarose. We compared the ReACT™ system to a conventional tube low-ionic-strength saline antiglobulin test (LISS-AGT). We selected 100 LISS-AGT positive samples with clinically important and benign antibodies of varying strengths and 130 LISS-AGT negative samples to evaluate by the AFC method. AFC tests were positive with all 84 clinically

R. Sue Shirey, Joan S. Boyd, Christine Barrasso, Karen E. King, Paul M. Ness

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 75–77

Report | 14-March-2020

Comparison of gel test and conventional tube test for antibody detection and titration in D-negative pregnant women: study from a tertiary-care hospital in North India

Conventional tube testing was used for antibody screening and titration in D– pregnant women in our hospital until the recent introduction of the gel test. In this study we assessed the sensitivity of the gel test in our setup and tried to establish a correlation between these tests for determining antibody titer. We collected 652 blood samples from 223 antenatal D– women during a span of 1 year. The samples were tested separately by the conventional tube technique and the gel test

Manish K. Thakur, Neelam Marwaha, Praveen Kumar, Subhash C. Saha, Beenu Thakral, Ratti Ram Sharma, Karan Saluja, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Ashish Jain

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 4, 174–177

Article | 14-October-2020

Confirmation of positive antibody screens by solid-phase red cell adherence assay using a tube technique method with polyethylene glycol enhancement

manufacturers’ inserts. Of 49,084 samples, 313 (0.64%) were positive by the SPRCA assay. Of these, 99 (31.6%) samples remained positive when tested with PEG enhancement. The remaining 214 (68.4%) were negative, giving specificity for the SPRCA assay of 99.6 percent (48,985/ 49,199). We report a high specificity for antibody screening using the SPRCA assay. However, it is cost effective to perform a confirmatory tube test with PEG enhancement because 214 SPRCA assay samples were interpreted as having a

Richard R. Gammon, Michele Lake, Norberto D. Velasquez, Alicia Prichard

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 14–16

Article | 17-February-2021

A prospective, observational study for optimization of antibody screening in pretransfusion compatibility testing

Antibody screening (AS) is an important component of a pretransfusion immunohematology workup. Type and screen (TS) followed by an immediate spin test (IST) crossmatch is considered superior to type and hold followed by an antihuman globulin (AHG) crossmatch. To make blood transfusions as safe as possible, it is desirable to perform AS for patients using a reagent red blood cell (RBC) panel called an antibody screening panel, which consists of two or more phenotyped RBC reagents. If a

P. Pandey, D. Setya, R. Srivastava, M.K. Singh

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 19–28

Article | 14-October-2020

Significance of platelet-reactive antibody screening for patients facing frequent platelet transfusions

It is not clear whether platelet-reactive antibody screening is clinically significant for patients facing frequent platelet transfusions. On the basis of data from 96 patients who had been examined for platelet-reactive antibodies by the mixed passive hemagglutination method for a variety of reasons, we investigated the following three issues retrospectively: (1) the relationship between platelet-reactive antibodies and the occurrence of problems in platelet transfusions, such as

Tetsunori Tasaki, Kieko Fujii, Kenji Gotoh, Shyukuko Satoh, Jyunko Takadate, Sakiko Sasaki, Mihoko Tachibana, Kimiko Yamamoto

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 104–108

Report | 11-March-2020

Should we be screening for anti-Jsa?

We analyzed our historic patient database at North Shore University Hospital and determined both the overall frequency of anti-Jsa and the frequency at which it was detected in combination with other alloantibodies to red blood cell (RBC) antigens. Screening cells used currently are negative for Jsa. Our data suggest that anti-Jsa would not be detected in 30 to 40 percent of patients in which it is the sole antibody present. Since 1996 the antibody was only detected when other antibodies were

Nancy M. Nikolis, Fouad Boctor, William Andrew Heaton, James Martone

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 104–106

Article | 31-December-2020

Stimulation of Antibody Following 51Chromium Survival Studies

The survival of red blood cells (RBCs) radiolabeled with 51chromium (51Cr) is a reliable method for predicting transfusion compatibility. Approximately 1.0 ml of 51Cr tagged RBCs is infused into the patient and samples are drawn at predetermined intervals post infusion to determine RBC survival. Red cells used for the study are usually incompatible with the patient's antibody. This antigenic rechallenge may stimulate further antibody production, which could contribute to accelerated

Susan S. Esty, Delores Mallory, Richard J. Davey, Tracy Wahl, Julie Zswisza

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Article | 16-February-2021

Saline–indirect antiglobulin test

attraction of the antibody to its antigen.1 It is important to allow sufficient incubation time at 37°C for maximum binding of antibody to the RBCs, since no test modification is used to decrease this ionic shielding. When more antibody can be attached to RBCs, the likelihood of visible agglutination by cross-linking of the sensitized RBCs after addition of AHG increases. Assessment of direct agglutination after immediate spin, room temperature, or 37°C incubation of saline tests, and before washing for

J.R. Hamilton

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 156–158

Article | 17-November-2020

Antibody identification reports: a microcomputer program

Antibody identification involves preparation of a comprehensive report for the benefit of the referring physician. These reports require technical, supervisory, and clerical time to produce a quality report. To standardize laboratory reporting of immunohematologic test results in an increasingly cost-conscious environment, we developed computer-generated laboratory report forms. These forms permit the reference laboratory technician to produce final reports with only a few keystrokes. Use of

Mercy Kuriyan, Laurence Marsh

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 54–59

Article | 15-April-2020

In search of the Holy Grail: comparison of antibody screening methods

Tony S. Casina

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 196–202

Article | 06-December-2020

The P1H antigen and antibody

. The correspoding antibody, anti-P1H, has been made by both P1 and P2 people and is a weak cold agglutinin. It is not adsorbed by red cells carrying either strongly expressed P1 or H antigens, but is adsorbed by and eluted from P1H+ red cells sensitized by anti-P1H. The antibody is inhibited by P1 but not by H, Lewis, or Sda substances.

Phyllis P. Moores

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 7–10

Article | 15-February-2021

Albumin-indirect antiglobulin test

Principle Albumin is added to serologic tests to overcome forces keeping red blood cells (RBCs) apart and, in doing so, makes hemagglutination reactions more likely to occur. Use of albumin in antibody detection tests began as early as the 1940s before the advent of the antihuman globulin (AHG) phase of testing, when direct agglutination tests were the only available method for visualizing the antigen-antibody reaction. Initially, the reagent was used in albumin layering1,2 or albumin

J.R. Hamilton

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 63–64

Article | 14-December-2020

Procedural errors in antibody identification

In experimental studies of students and line technologists perfoming antibody identification procedures, both groups made errors. These errors included, at times, either failing to identify an antibody or misidentifying the specficity(ies). A prospective study was undertaken to identify errors made in a laboratory setting. Errors were classified as 1) failing to follow protocol (procedural error) or 2) arriving at the wrong answer (misidentification error). Over a 1-year period, 1,057 workups

Patricia L. Strohm, Philip J. Smith, Jane M. Fraser, Thomas E. Miller, Sally V. Rudmann, Jack W. Smith, Jr., John R. Svirbely, Janice F. Blazina, Melanie S. Kennedy

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 1, 20–22

Article | 17-November-2020

A comparison of two solid phase systems for antibody detection

Two solid phase methods of antibody detection, Capture-R (CR) and Capture-R Ready-Screen (RS), were compared to determine their acceptability for use in prenatal antibody screening. Ninety-six serum samples, screened using a saline antiglobulin test, were coded and tested by CR and RS at two laboratory sites using a blinded study design. Thirty of the samples were free of antibody, and 66 samples contained antibody. Parallel testing was also performed in both laboratories on 648 prenatal

Gwen M. Haslam, Margaret Persaud, Yvette Fournier, Joanne Sajur, Janice Aulph, Nancy Heddle

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Article | 14-December-2020

Antibody detection using pooled sera and a solid phase system

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of substituting the Immucor Capture™-R solid phase (SP) antibody detection system for our routine donor antibody screen. Our routine procedure (RP) used a 12-drop pool of six donor sera and one drop of pooled reagent red cells, with 37°C incubation and indirect antiglobulin test readings. The SP system was used according to the manufacturer’s directions except that one drop of the pooled sera (rather than an individual

Malcolm L. Beck, Jill T. Hardman, Alicia M. Briseño

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 73–75

Article | 06-December-2020

Antibody detection errors due to acidic or unbuffered saline

Isotonic saline solutions, buffered with potassium phosphate or sodium phosphate salts, were evaluated in parallel with unbuffered saline to determine if they improved antibody detection by solid phase red cell adherence or hemagglutination methods. Saline buffered to a pH of 7.0 to 7.5, when used to suspend red cells or to wash sensitized red cells in preparation for the antiglobulin test, produced the best positive solid phase and hemagglutination results. The pH range of commercially

Susan Rolih, Ron Thomas, Fern Fisher, Joanne Talbot

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 15–18

Article | 16-November-2020

A second example of anti-Esa, an antibody to a high-incidence Cromer antigen

A blood sample contained an antibody to a high-incidence antigen that reacted with all red blood cells (RBCs) tested by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The antibody reacted with papain-, ficin-, and trypsin-treated RBCs, but not with α-chymotrypsin-treated RBCs. This pattern of reactivity suggested the possibility that the antibody was recognizing an antigen in the Cromer blood group system. Tests against RBCs deficient in decay-accelerating factor (which carries the Cromer antigens

Marion E. Reid, Roselyn Marfoe, Anita Mueller, Patricia A. Arndt, Laima Sausais, Peggy Spruell

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 112–114

Article | 29-December-2020

Micropool procedure for routine donor antibody detection

Microplate technology was combined with manual sample pooling techniques to determine if advantages associated with each method could be realized in a single test system. Fresh serum and plasma samples collected from routine blood donors and patient samples selected from frozen storage were screened for significant, unexpected antibodies. A total of 94 samples with known antibody specificities were selected for testing. Two micropool techniques, stream-micropool and mix-micropool, were compared

Denzil Smith

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 3, 53–58

Article | 16-October-2019

Separation of multiple antibodies by adsorption with allogeneic red blood cells

Principle Antibody detection and identification are processes that are commonly performed in the transfusion service before the transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs). Antibody identification usually follows the discovery of a positive antibody detection test, or other factors such as ABO serum/cell discrepancy or incompatible crossmatch.1 Antibody identification is a necessary practice in blood banking to determine blood products that are suitable for transfusion to an individual

E.M. Ekema

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 155–158

Review | 01-December-2019

Cold acid elution (ELU Kit II)

Elution is a procedure for recovery of antibody attached to intact, immunoglobulin-coated red blood cells (RBCs) by disrupting the antigen–antibody bonds. The recovered antibody is collected in an inert diluent and is referred to as an eluate. Testing of an eluate may be desired to identify antibody(ies) coating the RBCs of patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test. Many types of elution procedures have been developed and described; however, an acid elution is suitable for

Monica Hinrichs, Monica A. Keith

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Article | 14-December-2020

The sensitivity of antibody detection testing using pooled versus unpooled reagent red cells

Because the sensitivity of antibody detection testing may be reduced when pooled reagent red blood cells (RBCs) are used, the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) prohibits the use of pooled reagent RBCs when performing pretransfusion antibody detection testing. This restriction imposed upon the use of pooled reagent RBCs is based, at least in part, on the belief that pooled reagent RBCs are less likely to detect clinically significant antibodies than are sets of unpooled reagent RBCs

Ira A. Shulman, Roland Nakayama, Cintia Calderon

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 1, 16–19

Article | 09-October-2019

Applications of selected cells in immunohematology in a developing country: case studies

When an antibody is detected, its specificity should be determined and its likely clinical significance should be assessed. When one antibody has been identified, it becomes necessary to confirm the presence of additional significant antibodies to ensure that compatible blood is provided to the patient. To perform this confirmation, specific reagent red blood cells (RBCs) are selected; these are called selected cells. Though the most common use of selected cells is for antibody confirmation

Ravi C. Dara Dara, Aseem Kumar Tiwari, Dinesh Arora, Subhasis Mitra, Geet Aggarwal, Devi Prasad Acharya, Gunjan Bhardwaj

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 27–35

Article | 14-October-2020

One thousand seventy antibodies detected only by a 2-stage papain test: wanted and unwanted positive reactions

Despite the wide use of the antibody detection test for unexpected antibodies, controversy still remains regarding the use of enzymetreated red blood cells. Over a 6-year period, 72,573 samples from 49,863 patients submitted for pretransfusion compatibility testing were examined for unexpected antibodies. The antibody detection tests included a low-ionic-strength solution (LISS) indirect antiglobulin test and a two-stage papain (2SP) test. One thousand and seventy of the 2267 (47%) antibodies

Carmen Martin-Vega, Dolores Castella, Joan Cid, Marta Panadés

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 122–124

Article | 16-February-2021

Clinical approach after identification of a rare anti-Ena in a prenatal sample

such individuals may develop a rare antibody, anti-Ena, to determinants located on GPA. Anti-Ena does not target a precise antigen on GPA but rather is an “umbrella” term for antibodies directed at external regions of GPA made by rare people who lack all or part of GPA. Three broad categories of anti-Ena have been defined according to the effect of protease enzymes on the antigenic determinants that each detects, namely anti-EnaTS, -EnaFS, and -EnaFR.3 The results from a previous study by Tanner

P.J. Howard, L. Guerra, D.K. Kuttner, M.R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 159–161

Article | 20-December-2020

Red cell antibody identification by solid phase red cell adherence utilizing dried RBC monolayers

Recent technological advances in the immobilization and drying of red cell monolayers for use in solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) assays have resulted in the development of reagent red cells for antibody screening and identification that are stable at room temperature. Panels consisting of twelve different RBC samples dried onto individual microplate wells were evaluated with 176 samples whose antibody specificities had previously been determined by conventional hemagglutination

Darryl L. Stone, Ralph A. Eatz, Susan D. Rolih, Seaborn J. Farlow, Gordon S. Hudson, Lyle T. Sinor

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 1, 12–17

Article | 14-October-2020

Equivalence of spray-dried K2EDTA,spray-dried K3EDTA, and liquid K3EDTA anticoagulated blood samples for routine blood center or transfusion service testing

We compared the results of routine blood tests for 102 blood donors’samples and 100 patients’samples collected in spray-dried K2EDTA, spray-dried K3EDTA, and liquid K3EDTA blood collection tubes to evaluate the impact of changes in formulation of the anticoagulant (K2EDTA vs.K3EDTA), its application (liquid vs.spraydried), and tube material (glass vs. plastic). Methods for ABO/D testing, antibody screening, and antibody identification included direct hemagglutination/microplate

Stacie Leathem, Nicole Dodge Zantek, Marti Kemper, Laura Korte, Al Langeberg, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 117–121

Article | 14-October-2020

Antibody screening in 37°C saline. Is it safe to omit it using the indirect antiglobulin (gel) test?

José A. Duran, Manuel Figueiredo

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 13–15

Article | 16-October-2019

Low-ionic-strength saline solution–antiglobulin test (LISS-AGT)

The use of low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) solution as an enhancement for antibody screening and crossmatching was first described by Löw and Messeter in 1974. This method allowed for a reduced incubation time while maintaining adequate specificity and sensitivity of the antiglobulin test (AGT). Since then, the LISS-AGT tube method has been widely used in antibody detection and identification, as well as compatibility testing. As initially described, the method used red blood cells

LeeAnn Walker

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 57–60

Article | 10-April-2021

An automated approach to determine antibody endpoint titers for COVID-19 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

regarding its efficacy, the goal of CP therapy is to provide plasma harvested from a COVID-19–recovered donor that contains SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.2,3 In doing so, this approach is designed to leverage the immune response of a recovered individual to enhance viral clearance in a patient with active COVID-19. Nevertheless, variability in the antibody response to infectious organisms in general, and SARS-CoV-2 in particular, among potential CP donors can make it difficult to establish the effectiveness of

A.D. Ho, H. Verkerke, J.W. Allen, B.J. Saeedi, D. Boyer, J. Owens, S. Shin, M. Horwath, K. Patel, A. Paul, S.-C. Wu, S. Chonat, P. Zerra, C. Lough, J.D. Roback, A. Neish, C.D. Josephson, C.M. Arthur, S.R. Stowell

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 33–43

Article | 01-April-2020

A confusion in antibody identification:anti-D production after anti-hrB

produced antiD. This raises the question whether anti-hrB together with anti-D is a more common antibody combination than anti-hrB with anti-E or anti-Rh34.

Christine Lomas-Francis, Rosyln Yomtovian, Claire McGrath, Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 158–160

Case report | 27-December-2020

A case report: unusual Gerbich antibody in a patient with sickle cell anemia

A patient whose red blood cells (RBCs) typed as Ge:2,3 produced an alloantibody to a high-frequency antigen in the Gerbich system. This antibody was shown to be nonreactive with Ge: -2, -3 RBCs using adsorption-elution studies. A monocyte monolayer assay (MMA) suggested that transfusion of Ge:2,3 RBCs to this patient would have reduced in vivo survival.

Michael I. Gorman, Bobbye Woody

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 2, 55–57

Article | 22-November-2020

New human monoclonal antibody reagents for detecting C, c, E, e, K1, Jka, and Jkb red cell antigens

Using routine methods, human monoclonal Rh, Kell, and Kidd antibody reagents compared favorably with licensed humansource polyclonal antibody reagents when typing random donor blood specimens. In three different clinical trials, using standard methods and both types of reagents, we tested 2,866 samples by tube, 381 samples by slide, and, using only monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 1,043 samples by microplate. No discrepant typings were found. More than 95 percent of all reactions using MAbs were

Marti Kemper, Kathleen Sazama

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 1, 8–11

Article | 20-December-2020

An example of anti-JMH with characteristics of a clinically significant antibody

The authors studied an example of red cell anti-JMH (John Milton Hagen) that exhibited several characteristics of a possible clinically significant antibody able to cause red cell destruction in vivo. Strong serological reactivity, a positive monocyte monolayer assay, and immunoglobulin subclass determination as IgG3 all indicate possible ability to destroy red cells. A 51Cr-labeled red cell survival study was not done as the patient did not require red cell transfusions but may be recommended

John R. Geisland, Mary F. Corgan, Brenda L. Hillard

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 1, 9–11

Article | 06-December-2020

Cytomegalovirus antibody screening on the Olympus PK7100

of 99.9 percent and 100 percent respectively, for the Olympus PK™ CMV system. Forty percent of 1,807 random blood donors in this region had antibodies to CMV. CMV testing can be performed simultaneously with blood grouping and red cell antibody screening on the Olympus PK7100.

LioneI A. Mohabir

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 2, 41–43

Case report | 16-October-2019

Management of pregnancy sensitized with anti-Inb with monocyte monolayer assay and maternal blood donation

Maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies can cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Although much is described about common antibodies associated with HDFN, management of a pregnancy complicated by a maternal rare antibody presents several challenges related to assessment of fetal anemia risk, availability of blood for transfusion to the mother and/or the fetus or newborn if needed, and planning for delivery in the case of maternal hemorrhage. Here we report the laboratory

Raj Shree, Kimberly K. Ma, Lay See Er, Meghan Delaney

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 1, 7–10

Article | 16-February-2021

Acidification of plasma for detection of pH-dependent antibodies

screening more than 1000 random NN donors, Kathryn M. Beattie and Wolf W. Zuelzer found an additional 23 examples of this pH-dependent anti-M. The data presented by Beattie and Zuelzer support the hypothesis that the acidification of the serum, and therefore the addition of hydrogen ions, activates or enhances the charge of the antibody molecule facilitating agglutination. Subsequent alkalization and a decrease in hydrogen ions result in the reduction of the antibody charge and the disassociation of the

K.L. Bowman, B.C. Dunlap, L.M. Hawthorne, K.L. Billingsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 116–118

Review | 09-October-2019

How to recognize and resolve reagentdependent reactivity: a review

Reagent-dependent reactivity can be described as agglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) in serologic testing that is not related to the interaction of RBC antigens and antibodies that the test system is intended to detect. In other words, reagent-dependent reactivity results in false-positive agglutination reactions in serologic testing. These false-positive reactions can cause confusion in antigen typing and RBC antibody detection and identification procedures, and may result in delays in

Gavin C. Patch, Charles F. Hutchinson, Nancy A. Lang, Ghada Khalife

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 96–99

Article | 03-November-2020

Comparison of affinity column technology and LISS tube tests

column technology and by LISS tube technique. Both methods detected antibodies directed at common RBC antigens, high-incidence and low-incidence RBC antigens, and warm-reacting autoantibodies. IgM antibodies were not detected by affinity column technology. Affinity column technology compares favorably with the LISS tube technique for IgG antibody detection and identification.

Kayla D. Champagne, Peggy Spruell, Jane Chen, Leslie Voll, Gloria Schlanser, Marilyn Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 149–151

Report | 26-October-2019

High-resolution melting analysis as an alternative method for human neutrophil antigen genotyping

Human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-typed granulocyte panels are widely used to screen for the presence of HNA antibodies and to determine antibody specificity. Many laboratories screen donors for HNA genotypes using low-throughput methods such as allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR–restriction fragment–length polymorphism, and multiplex PCR. In the present study, we used a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to determine HNA genotypes. For the HRM analysis, purified

Kazuta Yasui, Mitsunobu Tanaka, Tomoya Hayashi, Nobuki Matsuyama, Ayumu Kuroishi, Rika. A. Furuta, Yoshihiko Tani, Fumiya Hirayama

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 7–13

Article | 03-November-2020

The immunoglobulin molecule

Antibodies, or immunoglobulins, have been used for many years in immunohematology and yet the complexity of these molecules is rarely considered. This review concentrates on IgG and IgM molecules, as these are most usually found in transfusion laboratories. The basic structure and function of the immunoglobulin molecule are addressed at both the protein and the gene level, and isotypes, allotypes, and idiotypes are introduced. Although the antibody molecules secreted by each B cell have a

Janet Sutherland

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 12–18

Article | 26-October-2020

Precipitation of serum proteins by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in  pretransfusion testing

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used as a potentiator of blood group antigen-antibody interactions. Although PEG is known to precipitate immunoglobulins, we could find no reports of this reagent entrapping red blood cells (RBCs) in irreversible clumps. The patient we describe here had hyperglobulinemia with a reversed albumin: globulin ratio and a diffuse immunoglobulin peak on serum protein electrophoresis. During preparation of serologic tests, a precipitate formed that entrapped the RBCs when

Jack Hoffer, William P. Koslosky, Elizabeth S. Gloster, Therese M. Dimaio, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 105–107

Article | 09-November-2020

The gel test: sensitivity and specificity for unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The recently FDA-licensed anti-IgG gel test for pretransfusion antibody detection requires crossover validation before implementation. Six hundred coded samples sent for routine pretransfusion tests were used to compare GEL (ID-MTS, Ortho Diagnostic Systems Inc., Raritan, NJ) with Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline (LISS). There were 456 GEL–LISS–, 97 GEL+LISS+, 45 GEL–LISS+, and 2 GEL+LISS– tests. The 144 positive tests involved 157 antibodies; 67

W. John Judd, E. Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 132–135

Article | 03-November-2020

The gel test: use in the identification of unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The IgG GEL test was compared with the LISS tube test (Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline) for antibody identification. The suitability of red blood cells (RBCs) pretreated with ficin, dithiothreitol (DTT), or chloroquine diphosphate (CDP) also was assessed for use in the GEL test. In addition, time-in-motion studies were performed comparing GEL (12 panels per batch) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) tube tests (3 panels per batch). In 57 antibody identification studies, there

W. John Judd, E.Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf, Colleen Masters

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Report | 01-December-2019

Low risk of hemolysis after transfusion of uncrossmatched red blood cells

intensive care unit (23%). Seven (3.2%) recipients had clinically significant antibodies that were active on the day of the transfusion, whereas in four patients a clinically significant antibody had been previously identified but was not active on the day of the transfusion. One patient with active antibodies who received three units of uncrossmatched RBCs for a gastrointestinal bleed demonstrated a reactive eluate several days later as well as positive biochemical hemolysis markers. Thus the overall

Lisa Radkay, Darrell J. Triulzi, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 39–44

Article | 10-April-2021

Group O blood donors in Iran: evaluation of isoagglutinin titers and immunoglobulin G subclasses

, especially if they are present at high levels.11 Alloantibodies to RBC antigens have been reported in about 0.8 percent of blood donors.12 Generally, antibody formation against RBC antigens depends on many factors, including the nature of the antigen and its immunogenicity, environmental factors, and immune system variations in the individual. Antibodies can be produced at high levels in high responders.13,14 Immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies are typically clinically significant in transfusion medicine

S. Arabi, M. Moghaddam, A.A. Pourfathollah, A. Aghaie, M. Mosaed

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 5–12

Article | 13-April-2020

Problems highlighted when using anticoagulated samples in the standard tube low ionic strength antiglobulin test

Within the UK blood transfusion services, there is currently no recommendation for the use of either clotted or anticoagulated samples for antibody identification testing. This report describes three cases in which the detection of IgM antibodies was impeded by the use of anticoagulated samples. Two patient samples,referred for compatibility testing, were both identified as having IgM complement-activating anti-S and the remaining case involved an antenatal patient with IgM complement

Amanda J Sweeney

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 72–77

Article | 14-October-2020

Variations in pretransfusion practices

autocontrol, and DAT, and immediate spin and 37°C microscopic readings. Nine percent never perform an Rh control with anti-D typing on patient samples. Various antibody screening and crossmatch methods are utilized. Individual laboratory test practices should be periodically assessed to ensure that they comply with standards, represent the recognized best practice, and are cost-effective. The survey responses indicate that many laboratories perform tests that are not necessary or cost-effective. These

Beverly J. Padget, Judith L. Hannon

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Article | 22-January-2021

Routine indirect antiglobulin testing of blood donors—a further step toward blood safety: an experience from a tertiary care center in northern India

transfusions, since the presence of unexpected antibodies in the donor plasma can lead to adverse transfusion reactions, particularly in cases in which a large amount of plasma is transfused (as in massive transfusions) and in pediatric patients.3 In this scientific article, we emphasize the importance of establishing a policy for antibody screening of all blood donors as a step to further improve blood safety. The policy of routine inclusion of the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT) was adopted in our

S. Malhotra, G. Negi, D. Kaur, S.K. Meinia, A.K. Tiwari, S. Mitra

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 93–98

Article | 16-October-2019

Anti-Vel alloimmunization and severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

therapy has been noted to date. We report such a case recently encountered at our Fetal Center. Case Report The patient was a 31-year-old woman (gravida/para/abortus [GPA] = G2P1000) who was referred to our Fetal Center from a neighboring state for evaluation of Vel alloimmunization. Her past history was significant, with the finding of a positive antibody detection test and identification of anti-Vel during her previous pregnancy. Based on literature reports of only mild-to-moderate HDFN in

K.J. Moise, Y. Morales, M.F. Bertholf, S.N. Rossmann, Y. Bai

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 152–154

Case report | 01-December-2019

Performance of an automated solid-phase  red cell adherence system compared with  that of a manual gel microcolumn assay for  the identification of antibodies eluted from  red blood cells

IgG antibodies coating red blood cells (RBCs) can be removed by elution procedures and their specificity determined by antibody identification studies. Although such testing is traditionally performed using the tube agglutination assay, prior studies have shown that the gel microcolumn (GMC) assay may also be used with comparable results. The purpose of this study was to compare an automated solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) system with a GMC assay for the detection of antibodies eluted

Rachel H. Finck, Rebecca J. Davis, Shih-Mao Teng, Dennis Goldfinger, Alyssa F. Ziman, Qun Lu, Shan Yuan

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

Report | 29-October-2019

Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline–albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization

; uncrossmatched ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a LISS-albumin enhancer to intensify antigen-antibody reaction after 5 minutes of 37°C incubation and compare this performance with that of other enhancers, gel, and conventional tube testing. Second, the study evaluated the impact of this method’s implementation in the C:T ratio (crossmatched to transfused RBC units) of a transfusion laboratory. Ninety serum samples containing alloantibodies of potential clinical

Carla Luana Dinardo, Sílvia Leão Bonifácio, Alfredo Mendrone Júnior

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

Article | 14-October-2020

Detection of granulocyte antibodies by flow cytometry without the use of pure granulocyte isolates

Established methods used to detect serum antibodies to granulocytes require the isolation of granulocytes. Flow cytometric analysis of granulocytes with monoclonal antibodies eliminates the need for granulocyte isolation. The purpose of this study was to develop a method to evaluate reactions of antibodies to granulocytes without separating granulocytes from other leukocytes. Three screening cell samples for granulocyte antibody detection were prepared from whole-blood samples in which the red

Karen M. Kiekhaefer, Karen M. Cipolone, Jo L. Procter, Kazuhiko Matsuo, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 70–75

Report | 09-October-2019

Stability guidelines for dithiothreitol-treated red blood cell reagents used for antibody detection methods in patients treated with daratumumab

Daratumumab (DARA), a drug used to treat patients with multiple myeloma, causes interference in pre-transfusion testing. Samples from patients receiving DARA exhibit panreactivity in antibody detection and identification tests with red blood cells (RBCs). Many hospitals are sending these samples to reference laboratories. Dithiothreitol (DTT), a sulfhydryl chemical treatment of RBCs, negates this reactivity. This study investigated the stability of the antigens on DTT-treated RBCs to determine

Wendy L. Disbro

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 105–109

Case report | 28-April-2020

Case report: immune anti-D stimulated by transfusion of fresh frozen plasma

. Seven months later the patient’s antibody screen remained negative and he was transfused with seven units of D– RBCs and six units of FFP,four of which were D+. Two months later anti-D, -E, and -K were detected in his plasma. Although the anti-E and anti-K could have resulted from transfusion of antigen-positive RBCs, the anti-D could have resulted only from transfusion of the D+ FFP . The D status of FFP is currently not considered when selecting products for transfusion even though the

Marian Connolly, Wendy N. Erber, Dianne E. Grey

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 4, 149–151

Commentary | 09-November-2020

Commentary: testing for unexpected red cell antibodies - two or three reagent red cell samples?

W. John Judd

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 3, 90–92

Article | 22-January-2021

Anti-Ata in a renal transplant candidate: a case report

/L) and decreased total bilirubin of 0.2 mg/mL (normal 0.3–1.9 mg/dL). These abnormal chemistry results were attributed to renal failure. In her pretransplant evaluation, testing for antibodies to class I and class II human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) was performed. The results showed large amounts of HLA antibodies present, with levels of 99 and 98 percent panel reactive antibodies for class I and class II, respectively. Antibody Detection Testing and Antibody Identification Blood type and

J. Gao, S. Wise, S.H. Tinsley, J.F. Shikle

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 104–107

Article | 06-December-2020

Identifying blood group antibodies...can a computer help?

Antibody identification is one of the last areas of laboratory medicine to embrace computerization. This is due in part to the complex nature of antibody identification. Until recently, computer programs written to assist with antibody identification have been slow and cumbersome. However, technological advances in computer hardware have greatly improved the response time for these applications. Still, blood bank technologists sometimes shun assistance from the computer because they consider

Glen Dietz, Nancy J. Miller

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 2, 53–55

Article | 02-May-2020

A bicarbonate anion-dependent anti-'N' MoAb

Y.S. Iyer, K. Vasantha, S. R. Joshi, M. Patwardhan, V. Pujari, S. Jadhav, D. Mohanty

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 59–62

Article | 03-November-2020

Paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria and the elusive DonathLandsteiner antibody

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 109–112

Article | 16-November-2020

Characterization of human anti-hrB-like monoclonal antibody

Antoine P. Blancher, Marion E. Reid, Simone J. Alié-Daram, Jean Michel H. Dugoujon, Francis L. Roubinet

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 119–122

Article | 16-February-2021

Addition of fresh serum to plasma to aid in enhancement of complement-dependent antibodies

Principle Given the right conditions, antibodies in several blood group systems will activate complement once bound to red blood cells (RBCs), with most having the ability to activate complement to the C3 stage. Examples of antibodies that can activate complement include those in the Kidd, Kell, Duffy, and Lewis blood group systems. Complement activation is of importance in immunohematology testing because it can enable the antibody to act as a hemolysin in vitro or to bind complement that may

C. Grey

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 102–104

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Lewis blood group system

dehydrogenase tests were elevated. The direct antiglobulin test on the post-transfusion sample was negative, indicating the possibility that all incompatible RBCs were cleared. A case of an HTR due to anti-Leb, also in 2015, was reported.11 A pretransfusion sample from a 30-year-old African-American woman showed a negative antibody detection test in solid phase. Nine days after receipt of two computer crossmatch-compatible RBC units, her hemoglobin dropped to 7.9 g/dL. The post-transfusion sample typed as

M.R. Combs

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 65–66

Article | 01-April-2020

Warm autoantibody or drugdependent antibody? That is the question!

Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 161–164

Article | 27-April-2020

Is there a relationship between anti-HPA-1a concentration and severity of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?

had delivered babies with severe NAIT. A national HPA-1a antibody standard (NIBSC 93/710), designated as 1 arbitrary unit/mL (AU/mL),was used in each ELISA to calibrate the purified anti-HPA1a, enabling the presentation of results as AU/mL. Moreover, selected samples were also assayed by PAK 12 and their reactivity compared with quantity of antibody. The use of the purified HPA1a antibody yielded consistent sigmoid curves, enabling the measurement of HPA-1a antibody concentration in the test

Hagop Bessos, Marc L. Turner, Stanislaw J. Urbaniak

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 102–108

Article | 14-October-2020

Evaluation of a new solid-phase immunoassay for alloantibody detection using bromelin-treated and untreated red blood cells

The enzyme test is used to detect certain antibodies or facilitate antibody identification. This study compares antibody reactivity with bromelin-treated red blood cells (RBCs) and untreated RBCs using a newly developed solid-phase immunoassay. The reactivity of irregular antibodies was tested by a magnetic-mixed passive hemagglutination assay (M-MPHA). In addition, antibody reactivity was tested with dried stroma of bromelin-treated RBCs and untreated RBCs (M-MPHA-Dry). Rh antibodies were

Toyohiro Tamai, Toshio Mazda

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 17–21

Article | 03-November-2020

Implementation of gel column technology, including comparative testing of Ortho ID-MTS with standard polyethylene glycol tube tests

With the intent to increase laboratory efficiency and according to the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988 (CLIA ’88), a parallel testing program comparing traditional tube technology with the gel system technology was undertaken. Test tube indirect antiglobulin tests were performed using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as the antibody enhancement medium. Gel (GEL) column technology used the ID-Micro Typing System™, using predispensed anti-IgG and lowionic-strength saline for

Diane A. Derr, Stacy J. Dickerson, E.Ann Steiner

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 72–74

Article | 14-October-2020

Fatal hemolytic transfusion reaction due to anti-Ku in a Knull patient

A fatal transfusion reaction due to anti-Ku in a Knull (Ko) patient is reported. The patient was transfused with 34 units of incompatible RBCs during 44 days of hospitalization. Apart from the first transfusion, all subsequent transfusions failed to raise the patient’s Hb. No serum antibody was identified until he was transferred to another hospital for dialysis. A compatibility test demonstrated a weak antibody and autocontrol reacting at room temperature by a manual polybrene method

Marie Lin, Chang Lin Wang, Fu-Sen Chen, Li-Hwa Ho

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 19–21

Article | 30-November-2019

Inhibition of blood group antibodies by soluble substances

Background When performing pretransfusion testing, serologic results may indicate the presence of one or more alloantibodies. There are many methods that can be used to identify and separate specificities.1 One such method is based on the principle of inhibition. The ability to specifically inhibit one antibody may help identify that antibody and allow other antibody specificities to also be identified. Inhibition can aid in the identification of an antibody to an antigen that shows variable

K.M. Byrne, C.M.C. Mercado, T.N. Nnabue, T.D. Paige, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 19–22

Article | 09-November-2020

Anti-Jk3 with no clinical evidence of HDN

A sample was submitted to a reference lab from a 27-year-old Asian female, gravida 4 para 1, for antibody identification. Anti-Jk3 with an IgM component was identified. Subsequently, the antibody was eluted from the infant’s cord and venous red blood cells. Normal bilirubin and hematocrit levels ruled out hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Anti-Jk3 has been implicated in two cases of mild HDN. In this case, this noncomplement-binding antibody caused a positive direct Coombs test

Celeste J. Hunter, Michael D. Ziebol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 136–137

case-report | 25-June-2021

A case series highlighting a common approach to identifying anti-Jk3

Identifying an antibody against a high-prevalence antigen is a challenging aspect of transfusion medicine. To narrow the possible cause of reactivity, knowledge of the patient’s ethnicity, transfusion history, and pregnancy history are key elements.1 Moreover, known properties of the antibody such as common phase of reactivity and reactivity against chemical-and enzyme-treated red blood cells (RBCs) as well as the availability of rare RBCs are important factors used to identify the antibody.1

D.J.A.M. Talabong, W.E. Kelley

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 84–88

Letter to Editor | 14-October-2020

Letters to the Editors: Anti-cE (Rh27), a rarely occurring antibody

G. Lodi, R. Reverberi, M. Govoni

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 23–23

Case Study | 10-November-2020

Characteristics of anti-Cob in vitro and in vivo: a case study

Serologic and biologic properties of an example of anti-Cob were investigated. The antibody was of the IgG class, and it bound small amounts of complement. It reacted optimally in the albumin-antiglobulin test with little or no enhancement of its reactivity in tests using enzymes. Additional experiments indicated that the Cob antigen is resistant to treatment with chemicals known to destroy other antigens. The antibody caused shortened survival of radiola­beled Co(b+) donor red cells in our

Johannes J.M.L. Hoffmann, Marijke A.M. Overbeeke

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 11–13

Article | 14-December-2020

Indicators of clinically significant red cell antibodies produced by sensitized lymphocytes in liver transplant patients

It has been documented that transplanted livers can carry sensitized lymphocytes that subsequently produce red cell antibodies. We evaluated immunohematological variables in liver donors and recipients for indicators that might be predictive of serological red blood cell (RBC) destruction mediated by the passenger lymphocytes. Organ donor sera with antibody scores greater than ( > ) 60 correlated with a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and need for increased RBC transfusion in liver

BeverIy E.W. Calhoun, M. Pothiawala, G. Musa, B. Baron

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 2, 37–39

Case report | 06-November-2019

Diagnostic pitfalls of drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia

Abdulgabar Salama, Beate Mayer

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 80–84

Article | 01-April-2020

External quality assessment scheme in red blood cell serology: a 5-year experience in Thailand

From 2000 to 2004, 36, 58, 72, 78,and 86 laboratories participated in an external quality assessment scheme (EQAS) organized by the Department of Transfusion Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital. Each year the staff was requested to perform ABO grouping,D typing,antibody screening,antibody identification,and DATs on eight blood samples. Each participant received information on the correct test results and a coded summary. Regarding ABO grouping, the error .rate ranged from 0.3 to 1.3

Sasitorn Bejrachandra, Jariya Saipin, Oytip Nathalang, Usanee Siriboonrit, Ekaraj Rungroung, Sudjai Udee

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

Article | 10-November-2020

Anti-Holley detected in a primary immune response

Anti-Holley (Hy) has been reported as an IgG antibody occurring in previously transfused or multiparous black patients. In this case antiHy was identified in a 16-year-old black, primigravida female admitted at 32 weeks gestation because of premature rupture of the membranes. On admission, her blood type was determined to be A2B, D-positive and an antibody screen was negative. A second antibody screen, performed 4 days later, was positive in all three cells. Anti-Hy was subsequently identified

Vicki J. Barrett, M. Margaret O’Brien, John J Moulds, Peggy Spruell, Valerie Jackson, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 62–65

Report | 16-October-2019

Method-specific and unexplained reactivity in automated solid-phase testing and their association with specific antibodies

antibodies (Abs). In this study, nonspecific reactivity (NS) is defined as methodspecific panreactivity detected by solid-phase testing only, with no reactivity in other methods. Unexplained reactivity (UR) is defined as reactivity present and detectable in all test methods after all clinically significant antibodies were ruled out following a standard antibody identification algorithm using selected cell panels. This retrospective study evaluated antibody detection tests of patients at a single center

Mary E. Harach, Joy M. Gould, Rosemary P. Brown, Tricia Sander, Jay H. Herman

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 93–97

Article | 06-December-2020

Alloimmunization by blood group antigens from bone allografts

The purpose of this report is to heighten awareness of the risk of blood group antigen sensitization following bone allografting. Two Rh-negative females of childbearing age developed multiple antibodies to Rh antigens following transplantation of bone from Rh-positive donors. A previous pregnancy and/or blood transfusions were ruled out as factors influencing the antibody production. It is postulated that red cells or red cell stroma in the allografts stimulated the antibody production

C. Elizabeth Musclow, Glen Dietz, Robert S. Bell, Madeleine Beaudry-Clouatre

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 102–104

case-report | 25-June-2021

Severe perinatal hemolytic disease due to anti-e

immune response to these antigens, the resulting immunoglobulin (Ig)G class antibody can cross the placenta and attach to and facilitate hemolysis of the antigen-positive fetal RBCs. An exception to this process is ABO-HDFN, in which the maternal IgG antibodies are preformed and do not depend on paternal origin for stimulation. For this condition to occur, it is also necessary that the antigen encoded by the inherited paternal gene is fully expressed on the fetal RBCs and stimulates the formation of

G. Soler-Noda, Y. Romero-Díaz, L. Orbeal-Aldama, S. Aquino-Rojas

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 72–77

Article | 14-October-2020

Confirmation that the JAHK antigen is associated with the rG haplotype

Anti-JAHK, an antibody directed toward a low-incidence antigen in the Rh system, was detected during routine antibody identification in a male donor who had no history of transfusion. Examples of anti-JAHK have been found in sera containing multiple antibodies to low-incidence antigens. The first report of anti-JAHK was in 1995 and described the association of the JAHK antigen with the rG haplotype. Our results confirm this association.

Joanne Kosanke, Jill Storry, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 46–47

Case Study | 31-December-2020

A Case Study: An ABO Discrepancy Due to an Antibody to EDTA

Monica Tobar

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 3, 40–41

Article | 16-October-2019

Cold autoadsorption

Cold-reactive autoantibodies can mask the presence of underlying clinically significant alloantibodies in a patient’s plasma or serum. These autoantibodies are problematic when performing laboratory procedures such as ABO typing, red blood cell (RBC) crossmatching, antibody detection testing, and antibody identification. To avert the masking of clinically significant alloantibodies in a patient’s plasma or serum, adsorption studies can be performed at 4°C using autologous RBCs

Ernest M. Ekema

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 158–160

Article | 18-October-2020

Large-scale use of red blood cell units containing alloantibodies

Many transfusion services are reluctant to accept red blood cell (RBC) units containing antibodies. We evaluated the impact of accepting routine shipments of our region’s inventory of alloantibody-positive RBC units over a 4-month period. All patients’ samples received up to 30 days after transfusion of such units were evaluated for the presence of passively acquired antibody, and labor and reagent costs were determined. During the study period, we received 259 alloantibody

Martha R. Combs, Donald H. Bennett, Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 3, 120–123

Report | 01-December-2019

Seroprevalence of unexpected red blood cell antibodies among pregnant women in Uganda

We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study among pregnant women in Kampala, Uganda, to determine ABO and D blood types and to determine the percentage who have unexpected red blood cell (RBC) antibodies and their specificities. Deidentified blood samples from routine testing of 1001 pregnant women at the Mulago Hospital antenatal clinics in Kampala were typed for ABO and D and screened for the presence of unexpected RBC antibodies with confirmation and subsequent antibody

Kristina Eipl, Clemensia Nakabiito, Kabali Bwogi, Mahnaz Motevalli, Angela Roots, Lorraine Blagg, J. Brooks Jackson

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 115–117

Article | 01-April-2020

An alloantibody to a highprevalence MNS antigen in a person with a GP.JL/Mk phenotype

The low-prevalence MNS blood group antigenTSEN is located at the junction of glycophorinA (GPA) to glycophorin B (GPB) in several hybrid glycophorin molecules. Extremely rare people have RBCs with a double dose of theTSEN antigen and have made an antibody to a high-prevalence MNS antigen. We report the first patient who is heterozygous for GYP.JL and Mk. During prenatal tests,an alloantibody to a high-prevalence antigen was detected in the serum of a 21-year-old Hispanic woman. The antibody

John Ratliff, Susan Veneman, Joan Ward, Christine Lomas-Francis, Kim Hue-Roye, Randall W. Velliquette, Laima Sausais, Twilla Maldonado, Janet Miyamoto, Yolanda Martin, David Slater, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 146–149

Article | 16-May-2020

Maternal alloanti-hrS - an absence of HDN

A 24-year old female,gravida III,para III,delivered a full-term infant by cesarean section. A maternal blood sample at the time of admission showed antibody in her serum that had apparent anti-e specificity and that her RBCs were e+. Further studies determined that the antibody was anti-hrS. Cord RBCs had a negative DAT and a normal Hb level. There was no clinical evidence for increased hemolysis in the infant. We describe an hrS+ infant with no evidence of HDN due to anti-hrS.

Ram Kakaiya, Jill Cseri, Beth Jochum, Laurie Gillard, Simone Silberman

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 3, 187–189

Case report | 01-December-2019

Possible suppression of fetal erythropoiesis by the Kell blood group antibody anti-Kpa

Michelle Tuson, Kim Hue-Roye, Karen Koval, Sherwin Imlay, Rajendra Desai, Gayatri Garg, Esam Kazem, Diane Stockman, Janis S. Hamilton, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 2, 58–60

Article | 16-October-2019

Clinical and laboratory profile of anti-M

an ABO group discrepancy. If the antibody is active at 37°C, then M–, compatible RBCs must be transfused.7 We report here anti-M cases with varied presentations detected in our laboratory. Materials and Methods This report is from a tertiary care hemato-oncology center in eastern India treating patients with hematologic malignancies and solid tumors (i.e., gynecologic, gastrointestinal, head and neck, and soft tissue tumors). Pretransfusion antibody detection testing and crossmatch is performed

D. Basu, S. Basu, M. Reddy, K. Gupta, M. Chandy

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 165–169

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