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Article | 14-October-2020

Confirmation that the JAHK antigen is associated with the rG haplotype

Anti-JAHK, an antibody directed toward a low-incidence antigen in the Rh system, was detected during routine antibody identification in a male donor who had no history of transfusion. Examples of anti-JAHK have been found in sera containing multiple antibodies to low-incidence antigens. The first report of anti-JAHK was in 1995 and described the association of the JAHK antigen with the rG haplotype. Our results confirm this association.

Joanne Kosanke, Jill Storry, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 46–47

Article | 18-May-2020

The gene encoding the I blood group antigen: review of an I for an eye

Unlike most blood group antigen pairs, the I and i antigens are not antithetical (produced by allelic pairs) but, rather, they are reciprocal. The I antigen is formed by the action of an enzyme (a glycosyltransferase), which adds branches onto the i antigen. Thus, branched I antigen is formed at the expense of its precursor, the linear i antigen. The antigens are present on all blood cells and have a wide tissue distribution. Soluble I antigen is found in milk, saliva, and amniotic fluid, and a

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 4, 249–252

Article | 13-April-2020

The Redelberger antigen: a family study, a family story

The Redelberger antigen (Rba) was first discovered in 1974 on the RBCs of a blood donor who was an employee of the Community Blood Center in Dayton, Ohio. The discovery was made as a result of the investigation of a reagent contamination problem. Two examples of the Rba antigen were subsequently identified in the United Kingdom,but no “new”examples have been identified in the United States or Europe. Anti-Rba is a commonly occurring antibody, often found in combination with other

Nancy A. Lang, Marilyn K. Moulds, Gail E. Coghlan

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 48–51

Article | 01-April-2020

An alloantibody to a highprevalence MNS antigen in a person with a GP.JL/Mk phenotype

The low-prevalence MNS blood group antigenTSEN is located at the junction of glycophorinA (GPA) to glycophorin B (GPB) in several hybrid glycophorin molecules. Extremely rare people have RBCs with a double dose of theTSEN antigen and have made an antibody to a high-prevalence MNS antigen. We report the first patient who is heterozygous for GYP.JL and Mk. During prenatal tests,an alloantibody to a high-prevalence antigen was detected in the serum of a 21-year-old Hispanic woman. The antibody

John Ratliff, Susan Veneman, Joan Ward, Christine Lomas-Francis, Kim Hue-Roye, Randall W. Velliquette, Laima Sausais, Twilla Maldonado, Janet Miyamoto, Yolanda Martin, David Slater, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 146–149

Article | 14-October-2020

Nondetection of the S antigen due to the presence of sodium hypochlorite

Low concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (chlorine bleach) are known to destroy S antigen on intact fresh red blood cells (RBCs). Sodium hypochlorite is commonly used as a disinfectant. We report nondetection of the S antigen in tube and microplate saline indirect antiglobulin testing (SIAT) with a lot of commercial saline utilized in our donor screening and reference laboratories. Known S+s+ RBCs were found to be nonreactive with anti-S by SIAT in our reference laboratory. Our investigation

Anne Long, Lyne Tremblay, Lucie Richard, Réal Lemieux, Mindy Goldman

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 120–122

Report | 16-October-2019

Rh and Kell blood group antigen prevalence in a multi-ethnic cohort in Nigeria: implications for local transfusion service

Kell (K) system antigens in Nigeria with the goal of understanding alloimmunization risk in transfusion recipients and improving transfusion safety through the availability of resources, such as antisera for extended RBC typing and antigen panels for alloantibody detection. A multi-ethnic cohort of 302 healthy Nigerian individuals was created to study RBC antigen prevalence. The antigen status of these individuals for Rh and K antigens was determined using commercially prepared antisera and

Ademola Samson Adewoyin, Grace Ming Lee, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo, Omolade Augustina Awodu

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 61–65

Report | 12-March-2020

RHCE*ceAR encodes a partial c (RH4) antigen

procedures. RBCs from the patient typed C+c+ but his plasma contained alloanti-c. DNA analyses showed the presence of RHCE*Ce in trans to RHCE*ceAR with RHD*D and RHD*Weak D Type 4.2.2. The amino acid changes on RhceAR are such that a C+c+ patient made alloanti-c. This case shows that RhceAR carries a partial c antigen and illustrates the value of DNA testing as an adjunct to hemagglutination to aid in antibody identification in unusual cases.

Marion E. Reid, Christine Halter Hipsky, Christine Lomas-Francis, Akiko Fuchisawa

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 57–59

Article | 16-October-2019

Assessment of common red blood cell pretreatments to yield an accurate serologic antigen phenotype compared with genotype-predicted phenotype

disease, or microhematocrit centrifugation to isolate reticulocytes—are often used in an attempt to obtain a phenotype.6 The effectiveness of removing IgG from RBCs to obtain DAT-negative RBCs can vary between methods.7 With the increasing availability of RBC genotyping, more blood banks are using this testing to obtain a predicted RBC phenotype as an alternative to RBC pretreatments followed by serologic antigen typing.8 A RBC genotyping panel such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA

T. Horn, J. Hamilton, J. Kosanke, V.W. Hare, W. Kluver, W. Beres, S. Nance, M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 147–151

Article | 17-February-2021

Clinical impacts of DNA-based typing and provision of antigen-matched red blood cell units for chronically transfused patients with thalassemia

Chronic transfusion in patients with thalassemia is often complicated by red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies to the lacking antigens on the patients’ RBCs. The prevalence of alloantibodies ranges from 4.25 to 37 percent in patients with thalassemia.1–6 Clinically significant alloantibodies can shorten transfused erythrocyte survival due to hemolytic transfusion reactions. To reduce the alloantibody risk, RBC antigen serotyping for Rh (C, c, E, e) and MNS hybrid glycophorins, especially for MNS7

P. Watanaboonyongcharoen, S. Onspun, P. Rojnuckarin

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 137–145

Report | 17-March-2020

Southeast Asian ovalocytosis is associated with increased expression of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC)

The Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC or Fy glycoprotein) carries antigens that are important in blood transfusion and is the main receptor used by Plasmodium vivax to invade reticulocytes. Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO) results from an alteration in RBC membrane protein band 3 and is thought to mitigate susceptibility to falciparum malaria. Expression of some RBC antigens is suppressed by SAO, and we hypothesized that SAO may also reduce Fy expression, potentially leading to

Ian J. Woolley, Paul Hutchinson, John C. Reeder, James W. Kazura, Alfred Cortés

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 63–66

Article | 06-December-2020

The P1H antigen and antibody

P1H, a newly discovered compound antigen associated with both the ABO and P systems, occurs in approximately 7 percent of Natal (South African) blacks. The compound antigen, is evident only when the red cells have exceptionally strong expression of both P1 and H antigens, and it is apparentIy a dominant character. The antigen is thought to originate by steric rearrangement in the molecule, or to he the product of competition between P1 and H gene transferases for the available paragloboside

Phyllis P. Moores

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 7–10

Article | 20-December-2020

Microcomputer-generated antigen panel worksheets

Many antibody identifications require testing with cells of rare or uncommon phenotypes. To expedite the resolution of these identifications, we developed a microcomputer database using Lotus 123TM to enter antigen phenotypes from our frozen cell inventory. Data is entered into a customized screen input form and automatically copied to the database. The use of an input form pro­tects the database from inadvertent errors made while entering data. The database can be searched for any

Rebecca R. Rose, Kathy J. Skradski, Margaret A. Helgeson, Herbert F. Polesky

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 37–40

Case report | 14-October-2020

Red blood cell antigen changes in malignancy: case report and review

are reviewed for a number of antigens, antigen systems, and antigen collections. Previous case reports of RBC antigen changes due to malignancy are summarized.

Jeffrey L. Winters, Dianna S. Howard

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 1, 1–9

Article | 06-December-2020

Red cell antigen stability in K3EDTA

strength to be 2+ (score 8). As expected, the A, B, and D reactions were very stable with red cells stored for 60 days. All antigens except Lea exhibited 2+ (score 8) or greater reactions at day 14, and at day 21 only the Lea, Fyb, and e antigens were less than 2+. On day 60, twelve of twenty-one antigens tested still exhibited 2+ or greater reactions. This study shows that antigen reactivity for red cells collected and stored in EDTA is at least equal to that for clotted specimens. These red

Connie M. Westhoff, Belva D. Sipherd, Larry D. Toalson

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 109–111

Article | 26-October-2020

Mta: review and case report

Anti-Mta, which recognizes an antigen in the MNS blood group system, was detected during prenatal testing of a para 6, gravida 1 woman with no history of transfusions. Her husband was apparently Mt(a–). Anti-Mta was first reported in 1962 as a naturally occurring antibody directed against a new antigen in the MNS system. The last report in the literature of detection of anti-Mta was in 1972.

Lisa Bakowski, Joanne Kosanke

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 78–79

Review | 01-December-2019

GIL: a blood group system review

The GIL blood group system was added to the list of systems already recognized by the International Society for Blood Transfusion in 2002. It was designated as system 29 after the antigen was located on the aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3) protein and the gene encoding the protein was identified in 2002. There is only one antigen in the system, GIL, and the antigen, as well as the system, was named after the antigen-negative proband identified in the United States who had made anti-GIL. It was later

Dawn M. Rumsey, Delores A. Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 141–144

Article | 30-November-2020

Loss and reappearance of RhO(D) antigen on the red blood cells of an individual with acute myelogenous leukemia

Complete loss of Rho(D) antigen from red blood cells (RBCs) of individuals with hematologic disorders, though not frequent, has been reported. This case reports the loss of D antigen on the RBCs of a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia and its reappearance when he was in remission. Loss of D antigen expression coincided with worsening clinical and cytogenetic disease. At the time of D antigen loss, the patient also had cytogenetic abnormalities in the bone marrow cells. When he was in

Kala Mohandas, Vesna Najfeld, Harriet Gilbert, Penny Azar, Donna Skerrett

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 134–135

Report | 09-October-2019

Human platelet antigen allelic diversity in Peninsular Malaysia

Wan Ubaidillah Wan Syafawati, Zulkafli Zefarina, Zafarina Zafarina, Mohd Nazri Hassan, Mohd Nor Norazmi, Sundararajulu Panneerchelvam, Geoffrey Keith Chambers, Hisham Atan Edinur

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 143–160

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the H blood group system

E.A. Scharberg, C. Olsen, P. Bugert

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 67–68

short-communication | 30-November-2018

Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Isolated from Honeybee Gut as a Potential Live Oral Vaccine Against Lethal Infection of Salmonella Typhimurium

been approved (Ortiz et al. 2014). However, various vaccines (live, attenuated, subunit) are under the process of development, these vaccines may have the ability to induce a long-term cross-protective prophylaxis against non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (Sanapala et al. 2017). The aim of this study was to search out a Salmonella species that could be used as a potential live cross-reactive antigen against infection of S. Typhimurium in a rabbit model and could have the potential to be used as a


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 68 , ISSUE 2, 173–183

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Lewis blood group system

Lewis Antigens Lewis antigen fucosyltransferases are encoded by the FUT3 gene located on chromosome 19p13.3.1 The presence or absence of Lewis antigens in an individual can be associated with the individual’s susceptibility to certain diseases and infections. As described in a recent review,2 non-secretors are more likely than secretors [Le(b+)] to be susceptible to symptomatic cholera,3 bacterial meningitis,4 type 2 diabetes mellitus,5 and type 1 diabetes mellitus.6 In addition, increased

M.R. Combs

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 65–66

Article | 17-February-2021

An update on the RAPH blood group system

of nephropathy with proteinuria.7 Because MER2 phenotyping of the patient’s red blood cells (RBCs) was not performed, there is insufficient evidence to assign an allele; it is likely, however, that this defect eliminates MER2 expression. Table 1 RAPH alleles with ethnicity and single nucleotide variant frequency information Allele name Ethnicity Antigen phenotype rs number Minor allele frequency[GnomAD][TOPMED] Nucleotide changes Amino acid changes Reference34 RAPH*01N.01

M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 58–59

Report | 01-December-2019

Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors

systems including ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego. The results show similar antigen prevalence to that among Northeast Thais for ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems. In the ABO system, O was the highest at 37.72 percent, followed by 35.56 percent B, 19.83 percent A1, 6.47 percent A1B, and 0.43 percent A2B. The common phenotypes were D+C+E–c– e+ at 60.43 percent, M+N–S–s+ at 46.55 percent, Fy(a+b–) at 80.82 percent, Jk(a+b+) at 39.44 percent

Chirapha Keokhamphoui, Yupa Urwijitaroon, Douangchanh Kongphaly, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 132–136

Article | 16-November-2020

A second example of anti-Esa, an antibody to a high-incidence Cromer antigen

A blood sample contained an antibody to a high-incidence antigen that reacted with all red blood cells (RBCs) tested by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The antibody reacted with papain-, ficin-, and trypsin-treated RBCs, but not with α-chymotrypsin-treated RBCs. This pattern of reactivity suggested the possibility that the antibody was recognizing an antigen in the Cromer blood group system. Tests against RBCs deficient in decay-accelerating factor (which carries the Cromer antigens

Marion E. Reid, Roselyn Marfoe, Anita Mueller, Patricia A. Arndt, Laima Sausais, Peggy Spruell

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 112–114

Article | 03-November-2020

GIL: a red cell antigen of very high frequency

A new high-frequency red cell antigen has been identified and named GIL. GIL differs from all high-frequency antigens included in the International Society of Blood Transfusion classification. There is very little family information and GIL has not been shown to be an inherited character. Five women with anti-GIL have been found. All had been pregnant at least twice. Red blood cells of two of the babies gave positive direct antiglobulin tests, but there were no clinical signs of hemolytic

Geoff Daniels, E. Nicole DeLong, Virginia Hare, Susan T. Johnson, Pierre-Yves LePennec, Delores Mallory, M. Jane Marshall, Cindy Oliver, Peggy Spruell

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 49–52

Review | 01-December-2019

A review of the JR blood group system

The JR blood group system (ISBT 032) consists of one antigen, Jra, which is of high prevalence in all populations. The rare Jr(a–) phenotype has been found mostly in Japanese and other Asian populations, but also in people of northern European ancestry, in Bedouin Arabs, and in one Mexican. Anti-Jra has caused transfusion reactions and is involved in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Jra antigen is located on ABCG2 transporter, a multipass membrane glycoprotein (also known

Lilian Castilho, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 63–68

Article | 18-October-2020

Comparison of human platelet antigen (HPA)-1a typing by solid phase red cell adherence to HPA-1 allotypes determined by allelespecific restriction enzyme analysis

Phenotype results for human platelet antigen (HPA)-1 by CaptureP®‚ (Immucor, Inc., Norcross, GA) solid phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) were compared to results of allele-specific restriction enzyme analysis (ASRA) for the determination of HPA-1 allotype. Because the expression of HPA-1a and HPA-1b is determined by a single nucleotide substitution of thymine‘cytosine at position 196 of the gene encoding membrane glycoprotein (GP)-IIIa, it is possible to distinguish the alternate

Michael J. McGann, Jo L. Procter, Junichi Honda, Kazuhiko Matsuo, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 68–73

Article | 06-December-2020

A weak B antigen with serologic reactivity between B1 and B2 red blood cells found in a Chinese family

During a serologic study on red cell samples from individuals representing three generations of a Chinese family, an unusual pattern of reactivity was noted in a sample from a daughter of an A1B2 individual. The results of direct ABO grouping, titration, and adsorption studies demonstrated that the red blood cells (RBCs) from the proposita and two of the proposita's uncles (1) expressed more B antigen than group B2 RBCs but less than group B1 RBCs; (2) expressed the B1 antigen but at a

Gongliang Zhang, Yiging Wang, Jie Zheng, Alice Lee, Robert J. Eckrich, Delores M. Mallory, Tsung Dao Lee

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 1, 11–14

Article | 26-October-2020

Anti-Lu9: the finding of the second example after 25 years

The first and only reported exanipie of anti-Lu9 (an antibody directed at a low-incidence antigen in the Lutheran blood group system and allelic to the high-incidence antigen Lu6) was described in 1973 in the serum of a white female, Mrs. Mull. Her serum also contained anti-Lul1 (-Lua), and subsequently, an anti-HLA-B7 (-Bga) was identified. We report the second example of anti-Lu9 in a white male (GR), found 25 years later. The GR serum was reactive in the indirect antiglobulin test with Lu

Kayla D. Champagne, Marilyn Moulds, Jo Schmidt

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Review | 09-October-2019

The FORS awakens: review of a blood group system reborn

The presence of the FORS1 antigen on red blood cells was discovered relatively recently, and in 2012, the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) acknowledged FORS as blood group system number 031. This rare antigen is carried by a glycosphingolipid and formed by elongation of the P antigen. Most people have naturally occurring anti-FORS1 in their plasma. The clinical significance of these antibodies is unknown in the transfusion setting, but they can hemolyze FORS1+ erythrocytes in

Annika K. Hult, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 64–72

Case report | 29-October-2019

Evans syndrome in a pediatric liver transplant recipient with an autoantibody with apparent specificity for the KEL4 (Kpb) antigen  

Although most warm red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies react broadly with panel cells in addition to the patient’s own RBCs, occasionally an autoantibody with specificity for a specific blood group antigen is encountered. Rare cases of warm autoantibodies with specificity for the Kpb antigen of the Kell blood group system have been described. We report a pediatric transplant recipient with anemia, immune-mediated hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and a warm autoantibody with apparent anti-Kpb

Scott A. Koepsell, Kerry Burright-Hittner, James D. Landmark

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 14–17

Review | 09-October-2019

The Vel blood group system: a review

The blood group antigen Vel has been one of immunohematology’s greatest enigmas: the variation in antigen strength from one individual to another, the property of anti-Vel to readily hemolyze Vel+ red blood cells (RBCs), and the difficulty to screen for sufficient numbers of Vel– blood donors had made Vel a tough nut to crack. In 2013, a small, previously unknown protein called small integral membrane protein 1 (SMIM1) was identified on the RBC by three independent research groups

Jill R. Storry, Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 56–59

Report | 26-October-2019

A simple approach to screen rare donors in Brazil

Providing blood units for patients with an antibody to a highprevalence antigen or with multiple common antibodies is a constant challenge to the blood banks. Finding a compatible donor requires extensive screening, which incurs a large amount of investment. In this article, we share our experience of organizing a rare donor inventory with limited resources, we include the strategy used for finding rare donors, and we share the difficulties found during the implementation of the approach and

Carine Prisco Arnoni, Flavia R.M. Latini, Janaína Guilhem Muniz, Rosangela Duarte de Medeiros Person, Tatiane Aparecida de Paula Vendrame, Diana Gazito, Lilian Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 20–23

Original Paper | 09-October-2019

Modeling alloantibody formation to highincidence red blood cell antigens in immune responders using genotypic data  

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is unpredictable and poorly understood. Patients who are negative for highincidence antigens (HIAs) are at risk for developing the corresponding antibodies. Molecular methods can easily predict the lack of an antigen and thus, the risk of an individual to become immunized. We examined the prevalence and risk factors for HIA alloimmunization in patients at risk based on genotyping results. Genotyping using a molecular method (HEA BeadChip&trade

Patricia A.R. Brunker, Keerthana Ravindran, R. Sue Shirey

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 9–14

Article | 20-April-2020

Expression of Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines during reticulocyte maturation:using a CD71 flow cytometric technique to identify reticulocytes

Flow cytometric methods commonly used to identify reticulocytes are of limited usefulness in malarious areas,since RNA staining also detects plasmodia. An important antigen expressed on reticulocytes is Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC,also known as Fy), the receptor for Plasmodium vivax. An early marker for reticulocytes is CD71 (transferrin receptor). We have been interested in CD71 as an alternative marker for reticulocytes in the context of Fy expression. Flow cytometry was used

Ian J. Woolley, Erica M. Wood, R. Michael Sramkoski, Peter A. Zimmerman, John P. Miller, James W. Kazura

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 15–20

Case report | 12-March-2020

Alloimmunization to the D antigen by a patient with weak D type 21

those with type 21, can produce antibodies to nonself epitopes of the wild-type D antigen.

Heather McGann, Robert E. Wenk

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 27–29

Report | 09-October-2019

Stability guidelines for dithiothreitol-treated red blood cell reagents used for antibody detection methods in patients treated with daratumumab

if large quantities of RBCs could be treated at one time, stored, and used for testing at a later time. Panel cells were treated with DTT and then stored as three sets. Set 1 DTT-treated RBCs were stored in Alsever’s solution at 2°C to 8°C, washed daily, and suspended in pH 7.3 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) prior to antigen typing. Set 2 DTT-treated RBCs were stored in pH 7.3 PBS. Set 3 DTT-treated RBCs were stored in Alsever’s solution. Sets 2 and 3 were inspected daily for

Wendy L. Disbro

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 105–109

Article | 10-April-2021

A fatal case of acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Wra: case report and review of the literature

Wra is the most common low-prevalence antigen (LPA) in the white population, and anti-Wra is the most common naturally occurring antibody.1 The first case of anti-Wra was described by Holman2 in 1953 in a child with severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), requiring exchange transfusion. Anti-Wra is often identified when Wr(a+) red blood cells (RBCs) are available on the screening or identification panel RBCs, but the antibody is otherwise rarely involved in serious hemolytic

A. Espinosa, L.J. Garvik, N. Trung Nguyen, B. Jacobsen

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 20–24

Article | 03-November-2020

Evaluation of the GTI-ASP-1 platelet antigen genotyping kit for the determination of the HPA-1 genotype

The human platelet antigen system HPA-1 is involved in most cases of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia and posttransfusion purpura, and occasionally causes refractoriness to platelet transfusions. Complete concordance was obtained in genotyping for HPA-1 in all samples tested with the HPA-1 genotyping kit and a ligation-based typing method. However, the genotyping kit is less sensitive than ligation-based typing, which could be of importance when testing cells from amnionic fluid or from

Tobias J. Legler, Christopher Hagner, Michael Köhler

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 19–21

Report | 26-October-2019

High-resolution melting analysis as an alternative method for human neutrophil antigen genotyping

Human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-typed granulocyte panels are widely used to screen for the presence of HNA antibodies and to determine antibody specificity. Many laboratories screen donors for HNA genotypes using low-throughput methods such as allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR–restriction fragment–length polymorphism, and multiplex PCR. In the present study, we used a high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to determine HNA genotypes. For the HRM analysis, purified

Kazuta Yasui, Mitsunobu Tanaka, Tomoya Hayashi, Nobuki Matsuyama, Ayumu Kuroishi, Rika. A. Furuta, Yoshihiko Tani, Fumiya Hirayama

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 7–13

Report | 01-December-2019

Detection and identification of plateletassociated alloantibodies by a solidphase modified antigen capture enzymelinked immunosorbent assay method and its correlation to platelet refractoriness in multiplatelet concentrate–transfused patients

Platelets express a variety of polymorphic glycoproteins (GPs), such as GPIIb/IIIa, GPIb/IX, GPIa/IIa, GPIV, and class I human leukocyte antigen. In the platelet transfusion setting, alloimmunization involves the production of antibodies against these glycoproteins. Patients transfused with multiple units of platelet concentrates for longer periods are the main individuals with platelet alloimmunization. This study was performed to detect the development of platelet antibodies in patients who

Neelesh Jain, Ravi Shankar Sarkar, Joseph Philip

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 3, 123–125

Case report | 09-October-2019

A LU:-16 individual with antibodies

investigation was requested. This time, an antibody directed at a high-prevalence Lutheran antigen was found in addition to the anti-Lea and -Lub previously observed. Her serum was compatible with three out of five Lu(a−b−) reagent red blood cells (RBCs). One of the incompatible Lu(a−b−) reagent RBCs was known to be In(Lu) (KLF1 mutation). The genetic background of the other reagent RBC was unknown. The LU cDNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of the c.230G>A (Lua), c.679C

Carole Éthier, Cynthia Parent, Anne-Sophie Lemay, Nadia Baillargeon, Geneviève Laflamme, Josée Lavoie, Josée Perreault, Maryse St-Louis

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 110–113

Case report | 06-December-2020

Case report: mixed-field agglutination in a patient with a weak D antigen presenting as a possible fetal-maternal hemorrhage

hemorrhage. Thus, the finding of a mixed-field D typing could be explained best by a weak D antigen.

Phyllis J. Unger

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 77–78

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of the MAIEA assay to demonstrate that Fy3 is on the same glycoprotein as Fy6, Fya, and Fyb

The monoclonal-antibody immobilization of erythrocyte antigens (MAIEA) assay is a technique that detects trimolecular complexes formed by a human antibody and a mouse monoclonal antibody with specific red cell epitopes. This enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay test gives a positive reaction when two different epitopes on the same membrane protein are separately recognized by human and mouse antibodies. In this study, the MAIEA test was used to determine if the Duffy system antigen Fy3 is on the

Jaw-Lin Tzeng, Roger Dodd, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Case report | 12-March-2020

Role for serial prenatal anti-Vel quantitative serologic monitoring with 2-ME serum treatment during pregnancy: case report

Anti-Vel is an uncommon antibody to a high-prevalence antigen. Its clinical significance and management in the prenatal setting are not well characterized. We present a case that demonstrates the utility of serial prenatal anti-Vel quantitative serologic monitoring with 2-ME serum treatment during pregnancy. The patient is a 23-year-old Hispanic woman with history of prior pregnancy and prior transfusion who was discovered to have an antibody to the high-prevalence Vel antigen in the first

Walter J. Linz, Judith T. Fueger, Steven Allen, Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Review | 01-December-2019

Immunosuppressive protocols for transplantation and certain hematologic malignancies can prevent the primary immune response to the D blood group antigen

anti-D. The observation that immunosuppressive protocols developed to prevent rejection of tissue and organ transplants also prevented alloimmunization to the D blood group antigen raises the possibility of practical applications in blood transfusion practice.

Adair Seager, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 3, 110–114

Article | 14-December-2020

Decreased ABH blood group antigen expression associated with preleukemic conditions and acute leukemia: loss of detectable B, then A antigens in a group AB patient progressing from a myelodysplastic syndrome to leukemia

Decreased or absent expression of blood group antigens is well known to occur in acute leukemia. In some carcinomas, the malignant solid tumor cells have also been shown to lose normal blood group antigen expression. In both carcinoma and hematologic malignancies, these findings have been associated with a more aggressive behavior of the neoplasm. A 34-year-old, group AB, Rh positive woman was diagnosed with a preleukemic condition, myelodysplastic syndrome, in December 1988. In April 1989 B

Kaaron Benson

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 4, 89–93

Review | 12-March-2020

The Duffy blood group system: a review

mutation upstream of the FY allele. This mutation prevents expression of Duffy glycoprotein on erythrocytes only, while permitting expression on nonerythroid cells. Other antigens include Fy3, Fy5, and Fy6. Antibodies to Duffy antigens are usually clinically signifi cant and have been reported to cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. This review provides a general overview of the Duffy blood group system, including the role of the Duffy glycoprotein as a chemokine receptor (Duffy antigen

Geralyn M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 51–56

Review | 09-October-2019

The H blood group system

The H blood group system, ISBT symbol H (018), consists of a single antigen (H) defined by a terminal fucose residue found on red blood cells and in secretions formed by the action of α-1,2-fucosyltransferases 1 (α2FucT1) and 2 (α2FucT2), respectively. Mutant alleles of the corresponding FUT1 and FUT2 genes result in either a H– phenotype (Bombay phenotype, Oh) or a weak H phenotype (para-Bombay, H+w). In addition, the FUT2 gene is the molecular basis of the secretor (Se

Erwin Andreas Scharberg, Coral Olsen, Peter Bugert

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 112–118

minireview | 24-February-2021

The Pathogenesis of Aspergillus fumigatus, Host Defense Mechanisms, and the Development of AFMP4 Antigen as a Vaccine

proposed. Recently, A. fumigatus mannoprotein 4 (AFMP4) has been recognized as a virulence factor of A. fumigatus and expected to serve as an antigen for the development of anti-A. fumigatus vaccines. In this article, we systemically review the biological characters of Aspergillus spp. and the pathogenic and defense mechanisms of A. fumigatus to provide new strategies for the treatment of A. fumigatus. Pathogenicity Disease caused by A. fumigatus A. fumigatus can cause a broad spectrum of


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 70 , ISSUE 1, 3–11

Article | 14-October-2020

Rh antigen and phenotype frequencies and probable genotypes for the four main ethnic groups in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

, and e antigens according to standard serologic methods. The most frequently occurring antigen was found to be c (99.8%),followed by e (98.7%), then D (95.0%), E (20.5%), and finally C (17.7%). The antigens occurred independently of the ethnic groups (p > 0.05) except the antithetical antigens Ee, which were found to be statistically significant in the Ijaw ethnic group when subjected to Pearson chisquare test (χ2 = 9.890, p < 0.02). One (0.2%) of the study population was found to be c

Zac Awortu Jeremiah, F.I. Buseri

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 86–88

Report | 26-October-2019

First example of an FY*01 allele associated with weakened expression of Fya on red blood cells

from the proband’s parents indicated that the father had the same FY genotype as the fetus. Flow cytometry, which has been previously demonstrated as a useful method to study antigen strength on cells, was used to determine if this new FY*01 allele was associated with reduced Fya expression on the father’s RBCs. Median fluorescence intensity of the father’s RBCs (after incubation with anti-Fya and fluorescein-labeled anti-IgG) was similar to known FY*01 heterozygotes and

Patricia A. Arndt, Trina Horn, Jessica A Keller, Rochelle Young, Suzanne M. Heri, Margaret A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 103–107

Article | 20-April-2020

Gene frequencies of the HPA-1 to 6 and Gov human platelet antigens in Thai blood donors

Human platelet alloantigens (HPA) are important in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), posttransfusion purpura (PTP), platelet transfusion refractoriness, passive alloimmune thrombocytopenia, and transplantation-associated alloimmune thrombocytopenia. Thus, HPA genotyping is essential in diagnosis and treatment. We analyzed HPA-1 to 6 and Gov alleles, using PCR with sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) in 500 Thai blood donors who had been HLA class I antigen typed. HPA-4a was present

Pawinee Kupatawintu, Oytip Nathalang, Rachanee O-Charoen, Pimpicha Patmasiriwat

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 5–9

Article | 17-February-2021

Identifying obstetrics patients in whom RHD genotyping can be used to assess risk of D alloimmunization

The D antigen is different from many other blood group antigens in that the antigen is not derived from one or a few amino acids, but rather from the presence of the entire protein; thus it contains many epitopes. Genetic variation within the RHD gene can alter expression of the antigen both qualitatively and quantitatively. A D protein that lacks one or more of the epitopes is referred to as a partial D antigen, and loss of epitopes is associated with risk of alloimmunization from exposure to

T.N. Horn, J. Keller, M.A. Keller, L. Klinger

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 146–151

Article | 14-October-2020

Comparative testing for weak expression of D antigen: manual tube testing vs. a semiautomated IgG gel system

Donor RBCs nonreactive in initial tests for D must be tested further for evidence of weak expression of D antigen. Performing this test in test tubes is labor intensive and prone to inconsistencies in readings (relative strength of agglutination) and interpretation (positive versus negative). These inconsistencies can lead to repeat testing, additional documentation, and delay in releasing units. We evaluated use of the Tecan MEGAFlex-ID™ pipettor to perform this test in anti-IgG gel

Bill A. Martinez, Liz A. Crews, Arlene M. Dowd, Melissa McMahan

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 7–9

Article | 17-February-2021

A resource-conserving serologic and high-throughput molecular approach to screen for blood donors with an IN:−5 phenotype

The Indian blood group antigen Ina was recognized in the early 1970s when an antibody to a low-prevalence antigen was assigned the symbol after the name of the country where it was first found.1 It received blood group system status after its antithetical antibody, called Salis, directed to a high-prevalence antigen (HPA) was reviewed and renamed as Inb.2 The system was further expanded when four more HPAs, namely, INFI, INJA, INRA, and INSL, were found befitting to the system.3–5 Although Ina

S.R. Joshi, S.B. Senjaliya, K. Srivastava, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 129–132

Review | 29-October-2019

JMH blood group system: a review

The JMH blood group system consists of six high-prevalence antigens. These antigens are located on the Sema7A protein. The molecular basis of the JMH1– phenotype is not known; however, single nucleotide changes in the SEMA7A gene on chromosome 15 account for the other JMH antigens. JMH1, commonly known as JMH, is most notable because transient depression of the antigen occurs and anti-JMH may develop. These antibodies are most commonly observed and are not significant in transfusion

Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 18–23

Article | 21-April-2020

Analysis of SERF in Thai blood donors

The Cromer blood group system consists of nine high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). We recently described one of these Cromer highprevalence antigens,SERF,the absence of which was found in a Thai woman.The lack of SERF antigen in this proband was associated with a substitution of nucleotide 647C>T in exon 5 of DAF, which is predicted to be a change of proline to leucine at amino acid position 182 in short consensus repeat (SCR) 3 of

Poonsub Palacajornsuk, Kim Hue-Roye, Oytip Nathalang, Srisurang Tantimavanich, Sasitorn Bejrachandra, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 66–69

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of LOR-15C9 monoclonal anti-D to differentiate erythrocytes with the partial DVI antigen from those with other partial D antigens or weak D antigens

Marion E. Reid, Gregory R. Halverson, Francis Roubinet, P.A. Apoil, Antoine Blancher

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 89–93

Research paper | 22-August-2018

Changes in neurogenesis with post-hatching age in the male Japanese quail (Cortunix japonica) brain

Most avian neurogenesis studies have previously focused on the song control system and little attention has been given to non-song birds. The objective of this study was to assess changes in neurogenesis associated with post-hatching age (3-12 weeks) in the Japanese quail brain using proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. PCNA-immunoreactive (ir) cells were observed mainly in the olfactory bulb ventricular zone, telencephalic ventricular zones and

Pilani Nkomozepi, Pedzisai Mazengenya, Amadi O. Ihunwo

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 78 , ISSUE 2, 173–186

Article | 18-October-2020

Large-scale use of red blood cell units containing alloantibodies

-containing RBC units, and 253 of these were transfused to 187 patients. Follow-up samples were received on 99 of these187 patients, and 10 of these patients had detectable passive antibody in posttransfusion antibody screening tests. Two patients had anti-C and -D and eight patients had anti-D. Due to our negotiation of a small discount for antibody-containing units and the use of 20 units based on labeled phenotype rather than antigen typing in our laboratory, we experienced a net savings of $3814 over

Martha R. Combs, Donald H. Bennett, Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 3, 120–123

Case report | 01-December-2019

Molecular RH blood group typing of serologically D–/CE+ donors: the use of a polymerase chain reaction–sequence-specific primer test kit with pooled samples

affiliated with the Transfusion Department of Udine (Northern Italy) led to the use of molecular genetic RH blood group typing with PCR-SSP test kits and DNA samples mixed in pools. From a population of 35,000 blood donors screened for D antigen by serologic typing, a total of 235 samples, distributed in pools of 5 DNA samples, were investigated. Positive results were reevaluated by opening the pools and retesting single samples. Validation of DNA-pool typing with commercial kits was done. Among 235

Donatella Londero, Mauro Fiorino, Valeria Miotti, Vincenzo de Angelis

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 25–28

Article | 10-April-2021

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Yta

The Yta antigen is part of the Cartwright blood group system (YT). The YT system is the 11th human blood group system recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT 011), which now includes five antigens: one pair of antithetical antigens, Yta and Ytb, and three additional high-prevalence antigens (HPAs): YTEG, YTLI, and YTOT.1 YT antigens are found on the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked red blood cell (RBC) glycoprotein acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which plays an

M. Raos, N. Thornton, M. Lukic, B. Golubic Cepulic

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 13–17

Case report | 01-December-2019

Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups

Patients requiring chronic transfusion support are at risk of alloimmunization after red blood cell (RBC) transfusion because of a disparity between donor and recipient antigen profiles. This research explored the probability of obtaining an exact extended phenotype match between blood donors randomly selected from our institution and patients randomly selected from particular ethnic groups. Blood samples from 1,000 blood donors tested by molecular method were evaluated for the predicted

Karafa S.W. Badjie, Craig D. Tauscher, Camille M. van Buskirk, Clare Wong, Sarah M. Jenkins, Carin Y. Smith, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 12–19

Article | 14-October-2020

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Coa

Coa is a high-frequency blood group antigen in the Colton blood group system expressed on red blood cells (RBCs) of approximately 99.8 percent of random persons. Anti-Coa has been reported to cause delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the newborn, and accelerated clearance of RBCs in vivo. Acute hemolytic transfusion reactions (AHTRs) have not previously been reported. A 58-year-old man was hospitalized for vascular surgery. Initial blood bank evaluation revealed anti

Randal B. Covin, Karen S. Evans, Richard Olshock, Hannis W. Thompson

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 45–49

Book Review | 09-November-2020

BOOK REVIEW: The Blood Group Antigen FactsBook

Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 63–63

Article | 06-December-2020

Six monoclonal antibodies to the CD59 antigen

Jennifer A. Bryant, Anne Fletcher, Fang Fang Yuan

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 3, 68–73

Article | 14-October-2020

Assessment of the relative number of copies of the gene encoding human neutrophil antigen-2a (HNA-2a), CD177, and a homologous pseudogene by quantitative real-time PCR

Human neutrophil antigen-2a (HNA-2a; NB1) is located on the 58–64 kD NB1 glycoprotein (GP) and is encoded by the gene CD177. Searches of human genome databases have revealed that a pseudogene highly homologous to exons 4–9 of CD177 is located adjacent to CD177 on chromosome 19. The purpose of this study was to document the presence of the pseudogene and determine whether the polymorphic expression of NB1 GP is due to CD177 gene deletions and duplications. Genomic DNA was isolated

Kristin Dittmar, Jong-Baeck Lim, Lorraine Caruccio, Maria Bettinotti, David Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 122–126

Case report | 09-October-2019

A suspected delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction mediated by anti-Joa

-Joa and anti-Jkb. Fortunately, the transfused RBC unit was Jk(b–). Therefore, the crossmatch incompatibility was attributed to anti-Joa, which targets a highprevalence antigen found in 100 percent of most populations. Two weeks after discharge, the patient returned in sickle vasoocclusive pain crisis. The patient was clinically stable, but her Hb was 6.7 g/dL.  One unit of Fy(a–), Jk(b–), C–, E–, K–, HbS– RBCs, which was weakly crossmatch-incompatible

Ryan P. Jajosky, Wendy C. Lumm, Scott C. Wise, Roni J. Bollag, James F. Shikle

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 73–75

Article | 20-December-2020

Tech tip: procedure for rapid antigen screening with LIM reagent

Irene E. Stocker

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 4, 97–98

Article | 14-December-2020

Determining the significance of anti-K1 in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

Anti-K1 is capable of causing severe hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), but few cases are seen due to the low frequency of the antigen. A total of 1,215 pregnancies from 1962 to 1989 were reviewed. There were 404 non-anti-D clinically significant antibodies, of which 103 (25%) were anti-K1. Anti-K1 was detected in nine of the women at delivery, of whom two had antigen-positive infants who were clinically unaffected. Antigen typing was done on 64 of the 85 fathers. Forty-seven were K: - 1

Patricia L. Strohm, Janice F. Blazina, Richard W. O'Shaughnessy, Melanie S. Kennedy, Jane M. Moore

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 2, 40–42

Case report | 01-April-2020

Red blood cell transfusion in a patient with anti-AnWj: a case report

Anti-AnWj (Anton) has been associated with clinically significant hemolytic transfusion reactions. More than 99 percent of studied populations have RBCs that express the antigen. Reported here is a patient with anti-AnWj who was transfused with antigen-positive RBCs without adverse reaction.

Robert E. Stowers, Elie M. Richa, James R. Stubbs, S. Breanndan Moore

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 55–58

Report | 25-March-2020

From DNA to blood groups

A blood group antigen is a protein or carbohydrate on the outer surface of a RBC.  Portions of DNA are transcribed and translated into proteins.  A protein-based blood group antigen is the direct product of a gene whereas a carbohydrate-based blood group antigen is an indirect product of a gene; the gene product is a glycosyltransferase that transfers a carbohydrate moiety to a protein, or to another carbohydrate to form a chain of sugars.  This report gives a brief description

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 166–169

Article | 14-December-2020

The incidence of WESa in 3,072 donors in the United States

The rare red cell antigen, WESa, which is controlled by an autosomal dominant gene, was reported by Sistonen et al.1 to have an incidence in the Finnish population of 0.56 percent. A study was undertaken to determine the incidence of the WESa antigen within the United States. A total of 3,072 donor samples were obtained for testing from eight different geographical locations. It was determined that the incidence of the WESa antigen in the white donor population tested was 2 per 1,610 or 0.12

Tama R. Copeland, Jenny H. Smith, Rhonda M. Wheeling, Marianne G. Rudolph

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 76–77

Report | 25-March-2020

Rapid, single-subject genotyping to predict red blood cell antigen expression

Stefanie L. Slezak, Sharon Adams, Hallie Lee-Stroka, Joshua E. Martin, Lorraine Caruccio, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 154–159

Review | 01-May-2020

Review: the Rh blood group D antigen ...dominant, diverse, and difficult

Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 4, 155–163

Article | 09-November-2020

Frequency of neutrophil-specific antigens among Koreans using the granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test (GIFT)

NA1, NA2, NB1, NB2, NC1, and NE1 are a group of antigens specifically expressed on neutrophils. Antibodies against neutrophil-specific antigens are involved in alloimmune neonatal neutropenia (ANN), autoimmune neutropenia (AIN), and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI). We investigated the frequencies of NA1, NA2, NB1, and Mart antigens in 105 healthy Korean blood donors (65 males, 40 females) by the granulocyte indirect immunofluorescence test (GIFT) employing flow cytometry. Antigen

Kyou S. Han, Tae H. Um

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 15–16

Article | 17-November-2020

Detection of Lewis, P1, and some MNS blood group system antibodies by a solid phase assay

to react: anti-Lea(9), -Leb(1), -M(14), -N(1), and -P1(3). A study was undertaken to determine if reactivity was due to crosslinking by IgM antibodies of antigen-positive indicator RBCs to antigen-positive reagent RBC monolayers, or due to detection of IgG antibodies. Antibodies were tested according to standard SP protocols, except where IgG-neutralized indicator RBCs were substituted for anti-IgG-active indicator cells. The 59 samples were retested with antigen-positive and antigen-negative

Susan Rolih, Ronald Thomas, Lyle Sinor

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 78–80

Article | 14-October-2020

Anti-Mta associated with three cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn

The Mta antigen is a low-frequency red blood cell (RBC) surface antigen and is an established antigen of the MNSs blood group system. There has been one report of anti-Mta –induced hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the literature to date. We describe a family in which three children were affected by neonatal anemia. The clinical and hematologic findings were consistent with HDN, despite repeatedly negative direct antiglobulin tests (DAT) on cord RBCs. Serologic investigations

Carol C. Cheung, Daniel Challis, George Fisher, Susan J. Russell, Andrew Davis, Hayley Bruce, Julie Watt, Beng H. Chong

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 37–39

Review | 17-March-2020

The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update

Jill R. Storry, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 48–59

Report | 09-October-2019

Distribution of blood groups in the Iranian general population

We report the first study of antigen and phenotype prevalence within various blood group systems in the Iranian general population. In this retrospective study, samples from 3475 individuals referred to the Immunohematology Reference Laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, Iran, for paternity testing from 1998 to 2008 were additionally tested for red blood cell (RBC) antigens in the Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, Lutheran, P1PK, and Xg blood group systems. The antigen

Ehsan Shahverdi, Mostafa Moghaddam, Ali Talebian, Hassan Abolghasemi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 135–139

Review | 20-March-2020

Detection and identification of platelet antibodies and antigens in the clinical laboratory

As a result of the unique functional properties of platelets, morerobust methods were required for detection of antibodies raised against them. Immunofluorescence detection by flow cytometry, solid-phase red cell adherence, and antigen capture ELISAs are some of the current tests that have been developed to meet the challenges of platelet antibody detection and identification and antigen phenotyping. Recently developed protein liquid bead arrays are becoming the next-generation platelet

Brian R. Curtis, Janice G. McFarland

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 125–135

Review | 15-April-2020

Review: molecular basis of MNS blood group variants

The MNS blood group antigens are expressed in the RBC membrane on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or combinations of both. GPA expresses the M or N antigen,whereas GPB expresses the S or s antigen and the N antigen (′N′). Both glycophorin genes (GYPA and GYPB) are located on the long arm of chromosome 4 and share 95 percent sequence identity. This high degree of sequence identity, together with the rare involvement of a third homologous gene (GYPE), provides an increased

P. Palacajornsuk

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 171–182

Article | 10-November-2020

Detection of tube agglutination 37°C-only antibodies by solid-phase red cell adherence

antibodies reacted by SP, including three anti-c, two anti-D, two anti-E, one anti-N, and one anti-M. The anti-M reacted with indicator red cells that lacked the red cell antigen and failed to react with IgG-coated indicator red cells whose anti-IgG component had been neutralized, indicating the antibody contained an IgG component. Two anti-D and one anti-c continued to react in an SP test using neutralized anti-IgG antigen-positive indicator red cells, i.e., indica­tor binding independent of

Susan Rolih, Fern Fisher, Dolores Fiqueroa, Gwenn Lindsay

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 1, 27–29

Article | 14-December-2020

Paternity evaluation in the presence of splits and crossreactive antigens

Evaluation of paternity (alleged father, mother, and child) can range from a strightforward resolution to a complex problem that cannot be resolved without family studies. We present a case of disputed paternity in which tests for crossreactive groups (CREGs) and antigen subtypes (splits) within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system could not be used confidently to prove or disprove paternity. Further analysis, red cell enzyme tests, enabled a final verdict and confirmed the current

Robert W. Gutendorf, Kamala Balakrishnan, David L. Taylor, Kelly Cox

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 2, 43–45

Article | 26-October-2019

Mass-scale donor red cell genotyping using real-time array technology

Blood centers are in the unique position to evaluate large numbers of blood donations for antigen-negative blood types. The limitations with the use of hemagglutination, however, can be circumvented with red cell genotyping. The reagents used for genotyping are synthesized and can be designed for any of the known blood group antigen single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with blood group antigen expression. There is interest in the application of mass-scale red cell genotyping of

Gregory A. Denomme, Michael J. Schanen

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 69–74

Review | 01-December-2019

Cartwright blood group system review

The Cartwright (Yt) blood group system consists of two antigens, Yta and Ytb, that result from point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene on chromosome 7q. Yta is a highincidence antigen, whereas its antithetical antigen, Ytb, shows much lower incidence. Anti-Yta and anti-Ytb are relatively rare. Anti-Yta is more commonly found in individuals of Jewish descent. Cartwright antibodies are rarely clinically significant; however, cases of in vivo hemolysis have been reported, suggesting that

Melissa R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 49–54

Article | 17-February-2021

K antigens on neonatal red blood cells blocked by anti-K with titer of 32

Kell blood group system is very polymorphic, with 35 antigens assigned to the system,1 encoded by the KEL gene, with K and k being the most common antigens. K is completely expressed on fetal RBCs by the 10th gestational week. The total number of K antigen sites per RBC is quite low, but despite its lower quantity, K is very immunogenic.2 Anti-K is the third most common specificity of RBC alloantibody involved in causing HDFN, with the first being naturally occurring ABO, followed by immune anti-D

J. Novoselac, M. Raos, G. Tomac, M. Lukić, B. Golubić Ćepulić

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 54–57

Review | 01-December-2019

EDTA glycine acid treatment of red blood cells

IgG dissociation is necessary when a sample is direct antiglobulin test (DAT) positive and antigen testing using blood grouping serum reactive by the antiglobulin test is performed. Exposure of IgG-coated red blood cells (RBCs) to a low pH of 3.0 with EDTA glycine acid successfully dissociates the IgG, rendering the RBCs DAT negative 82 to 85 percent of the time. The procedure takes one minute or less and leaves RBC antigens intact and able to be typed except for those antigens in the Kell

Joanne Kosanke

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 95–96

Report | 01-December-2019

Red blood cell phenotyping after transfusion: an in vitro model

Recipient red blood cell (RBC) phenotyping using serologic techniques, within 3 months of a transfusion, is considered unreliable. We conducted in vitro experiments to determine how long recipient RBC phenotyping results would be compromised after an allogeneic transfusion. In vitro models were created to mimic in vivo posttransfusion ratios of “transfused” RBCs with either a single or a double dose of an antigen and “autologous” RBCs negative for the corresponding

Kumudini Gonsalkorale, Charlotte Vanhecke, Krishna G. Badami

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 3, 93–96

Report | 11-March-2020

The Indian blood group system

The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: Ina (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen Inb (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane

Qun Xu

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 89–93

Report | 01-December-2019

Should blood donors be routinely screened for irregular antibodies?

Alloantibody reactivity is approximately 0.3 percent in blood donors worldwide. The present study established total alloantibody and clinically significant alloantibody (CSAA) frequencies in all Colombian Red Cross National Blood Bank donors (almost all donors were Colombian). The probability of these alloantibodies reacting with a specific antigen in the general population was also determined, focusing on male CSAA data because routine practice in this blood bank is to discard female plasma

Michel Andrés García, Leonardo Bautista, Fernando Palomino

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 60–66

Review | 16-October-2019

An update on the GLOB blood group system (and former GLOB collection)

The main change that has occurred in the GLOB blood group system since the GLOB review published in this journal in 2013 is the addition of an antigen. The high-prevalence PX2 antigen, originally recognized as the x2 glycosphingolipid, is expressed on red blood cells of most individuals and is elevated in the rare PP1Pk-negative p blood group phenotype. P synthase, encoded by B3GALNT1, was found to elongate paragloboside to PX2 by adding the terminal β3GalNAc moiety. Hence, PX2 was moved

Jennifer Ricci Hagman, Julia S. Westman, Åsa Hellberg, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 161–163

Review | 16-October-2019

Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the Scianna, Dombrock, Colton, LandsteinerWeiner, Chido/Rodgers, H, Kx, Cromer, Gerbich, Knops, Indian, and Ok blood group systems

survival of transfused antigen-positive red blood cells or a transfusion reaction (e.g., anti-Ge2, anti-H) and/or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (e.g., anti-Coa , anti-Ge3)— has been documented. Some of these antibodies are not always clinically significant, and because of the high prevalence of the antigen, antigen-negative blood may be extremely difficult to find (e.g., anti-LW, anti-Inb). The use of a monocyte monolayer assay may be helpful when making transfusion decisions for

Sofia Lejon Crottet

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 3, 103–108

Report | 25-March-2020

Value of DNA-based  assays for donor screening and  regulatory issues

antibody is not always commercially available, and that it may be limited in volume, weakly reactive, or costly.  These scenarios can make it difficult to screen for large numbers of antigen-negative blood donors.  The knowledge of the molecular bases of blood group antigens makes it possible to screen donors to predict their antigen status.  High-throughput platforms provide a means to test relatively large numbers of donors, thereby opening the door to change the way antigen-negative

Donna Strauss, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 175–179

Review | 29-October-2019

Raph blood group system

This review describes the current state of knowledge of the Raph blood group system, which consists of a single antigen, MER2. MER2 was initially classified as a high-incidence antigen in the 901 series of blood groups, formerly known as 901011, but was reclassified as an antigen in the Raph blood group system in 2004. There have been six reports of human alloantibodies to MER2. Three of the subjects were found to have a stop codon in the CD151 gene, which encodes a member of the tetraspanin

Michele Hayes

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 6–10

Case report | 09-October-2019

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction attributed to anti-Ata

Jay S. Raval, Sarah K. Harm, Bethann Wagner, Darrell J. Triulzi, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 140–142

Report | 11-March-2020

Should we be screening for anti-Jsa?

Nancy M. Nikolis, Fouad Boctor, William Andrew Heaton, James Martone

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 104–106

Review | 06-December-2020

Review: the LW blood group system

The LW blood group system had its origin in the early Rh experiments of the 1940s and played an important role in our understanding of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Considered for a number of years to be the animal equivalent of the human Rh(D) antigen, LWa has been shown to be unique. Biochemical studies have located the antigen on a different protrein from proteins of the Rh antigens; however, the interdependence of LW and D still exists. The disappearance of LW antigens in various

Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 87–93

Review | 01-December-2019

The LAN blood group system: a review

LAN (Langereis) was officially recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2012 as being the 33rd human blood group system. It consists of one single high-prevalence antigen, Lan (LAN1). The ABCB6 protein is the carrier of the Lan blood group antigen. The ABCB6 gene (chromosome 2q36, 19 exons) encodes the ABCB6 polypeptide (ATP-binding cassette protein, subfamily B, member 6), known as a porphyrin transporter. The exceptional Lan– people do not express ABCB6 (Lan null

Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 131–135

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