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  • Immunohematology

 

Case report | 16-March-2020

Autoantibody formation after alloimmunization inducing bystander immune hemolysis

pregnancies 40 years before, but no history of RBC transfusion, and her antibody screen was negative. On the tenth day after transfusion her hemoglobin dropped, and alloanti-c was identified in her serum and eluate. At this time she received another two units of compatible blood according to her phenotype (group O, R1R1, K:-1). After 48 hours, she developed joint pain, pyrexia, and hemoglobinuria, and her Hb dropped from 9.2 g/dL to 5.3 g/ dL. The direct antiglobulin test was positive, an IgG autoantibody

Mariza Mota, C. Bley, M.G. Aravechia, N. Hamerschlak, A. Sakashita, J.M. Kutner, L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1, 9–12

Review | 01-December-2019

Allogeneic red blood cell adsorption for removal of warm autoantibody

Adsorption studies are usually required to confirm or rule out the presence of underlying alloantibodies in samples containing warm autoantibody. Allogeneic adsorptions are necessary if the patient has been recently transfused. Most commonly, allogeneic adsorptions are performed using a trio of phenotyped reagent red blood cells to rule out clinically significant alloantibodies to common antigens. The adsorbing cells may be used untreated or treated with enzymes or with ZZAP before adsorption

Christina Barron

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 4, 153–155

Article | 27-December-2020

The elucidation of a Kell-related autoantibody using ZZAP-treated red cells

A 61-year-old, nontransfused, Caucasian male was found to have a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) and an autoantibody in his serum prior to total hip replacement. Autoabsorption with the patient's ZZAP-treated red cells failed to absorb the autoantibody, giving a clue to its possible specificity, which was subsequently found to be Kell-system related. In addition, his red cells were found to have a slightly weakened expression of Kell system antigens. The patient was fit and healthy

Graham P. Rowe, Guiseppe G. Tozzo, Joyce Poole, Yew Wah Liew

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 79–82

Article | 15-February-2021

Donath-Landsteiner test

The Donath-Landsteiner (DL) test is a serologic test used to detect the presence of a biphasic hemolysin, seen in patients with paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria (PCH). The test relies on the characteristic cold binding of an IgG autoantibody with specificity to the P blood group antigen, which causes complement-mediated red blood cell (RBC) lysis when warmed to body temperature. Julius Donath and Karl Landsteiner first described the antibody responsible for this hemolysis in 1904.1 DL antibodies

M. Kilty, T.S. Ipe

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 3–6

Case report | 29-October-2019

Evans syndrome in a pediatric liver transplant recipient with an autoantibody with apparent specificity for the KEL4 (Kpb) antigen  

Although most warm red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies react broadly with panel cells in addition to the patient’s own RBCs, occasionally an autoantibody with specificity for a specific blood group antigen is encountered. Rare cases of warm autoantibodies with specificity for the Kpb antigen of the Kell blood group system have been described. We report a pediatric transplant recipient with anemia, immune-mediated hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and a warm autoantibody with apparent anti-Kpb

Scott A. Koepsell, Kerry Burright-Hittner, James D. Landmark

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 14–17

Article | 09-November-2020

A maternal warm-reactive autoantibody presenting as a positive direct antiglobulin test in a neonate

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in pregnancy is a rare cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn. This report describes a neonate with a mild hemolytic process and a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) presenting as the first manifestations of a maternal warm-reactive autoantibody. A full-term male neonate, blood group O, had a strongly positive DAT and laboratory evidence suggestive of a mild hemolytic process. The neonate’s mother was also group O and had a negative antibody screen

Terry D. Williamson, Linda H. Liles, Douglas P. Blackall

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Case report | 20-March-2020

New serologic findings in a patient with ulcerative colitis and a warm autoantibody

of ulcerative colitis but no signs of hemolytic anemia. A case of IgG-RBC sensitization associated with serine proteases and a warm autoantibody in a 14-yearold Hispanic girl with ulcerative colitis is reported. The patient was admitted for severe anemia (Hb, 6.9 g/dL). On admission, pretransfusion testing of the patient’s serum and RBCs showed an ABO/Rh discrepancy between the forward typing and reverse grouping. The phenomenon of IgG-RBC sensitization associated with serine proteases was

Thomas G. Lightfoot, Laurie Delia VanThof

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 160–164

Review | 01-December-2019

Thermal amplitude test

The thermal amplitude test is performed to determine the reactivity of a cold autoantibody at varying temperatures: 4°C, 22°C, 30°C, and 37°C. Cold autoantibodies that are reactive at temperatures greater than 30°C have the potential to be clinically significant regardless of the antibody titer. Cold autoantibodies that are reactive at temperatures less than 30°C are not considered to be clinically significant.

Courtney Hopkins, Tiffany K. Walters

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 49–50

Case report | 09-October-2019

Autoanti-C in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a rare presentation

presents with a panreactive pattern, and it is difficult to find compatible blood. In this rare case, we could determine the specific antibody; efforts should always be made in cases of AIHA to identify the specificity of autoantibody.

Meenu Bajpai, Ashish Maheshwari, Shruti Gupta, Chhagan Bihari

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 104–107

Article | 14-October-2020

PEG adsorption of autoantibodies causes loss of concomitant alloantibody

Use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote adsorption of autoantibodies is reported to give good recovery of concomitant alloantibodies. In initial experiments, PEG and ZZAP (Ficin and DTT) adsorption procedures were compared for removal of autoantibody and recovery of alloantibody. Postadsorption studies (n = 11) were performed and hemagglutination scores compared. In subsequent studies, equal volumes of alloantibody containing sera, PEG, and antigen-negative red blood cells (RBCs) were used

W. John Judd, Louann Dake

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 82–85

Case report | 14-October-2020

Autoanti-D in a patient after cladribine treatment for lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma

phenotype of the patient as ccDEe. No hemolysis was evident, as judged by the absence of anemia, a bilirubin of 15.7 μmol/L, and lactic dehydrogenase of 412 IU/L. When an anti-D is identified in a D+ blood recipient, a passive transfer of anti-D, and an alloimmunization in a recipient with a weak D phenotype, should be ruled out. Finally, as in our case, an autoantibody is an additional possibility.

Joan Cid, Victor Beltran, L. Escoda, Enric Elies, Carmen Martin-Vega

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 01-April-2020

Application of gel technology in the serologic characterization of autoantibody in DAT-positive autoimmune diseases

Gel tests are now available for the determination of immunoglobulin classes and subclasses and complement fractions coating RBCs. These tests simplified serologic characterization of autoantibodies in various autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of gel cards in the serologic characterization of autoantibody with regard to the immunoglobulin classes, complement fractions, and IgG subclasses, and the influence of these characteristics on hemolysis. Gel cards were

Sudipta Sekhar Das, Rajendra K. Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Review | 01-December-2019

Warm autoadsorption with enzyme-treated red blood cells

Patients demonstrating warm autoantibody specificity present serologic challenges for laboratory staff performing antibody identification in the blood bank. Autoantibody can be removed from plasma or serum by adsorption onto autologous red blood cells (RBCs) provided the patient has not been transfused in the previous 3 months. The adsorption process can be enhanced by enzyme pretreatment of autologous RBCs.

Farai Tsimba-Chitsva, Susanne Bishop, Kelly Kezeor

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 88–90

Article | 06-December-2020

Clinical correlation of positive direct antiglobulin tests in patients with sickle cell disease

Serologic findings of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (autoimmune hemolytic anemia and cold agglutinin disease) are not infrequent in patients with sickle cell disease and can be clinically significant. Features of sickle cell disease that may affect the emergence and intensity of immune-mediated hemolysis include the antigenic stimulation of chronic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, increased autoantibody production, RBC membrane defects, and functional asplenism. We describe two patients

Raymond L. Comenzo, Marie E. Malachowski, Eugene M. Berkman

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 1, 13–16

Article | 16-October-2019

Warm autoadsorption using ZZAP

The masking of clinically significant alloantibodies by warm autoantibodies presents challenges in pretransfusion testing. The adoption of transfusion practices such as the issuing of “least incompatible” red blood cells (RBCs) without a complete antibody workup is potentially unsafe for patients. Several autoadsorption methods can be used to remove autoantibody reactivity. ZZAP treatment of autologous RBCs is an efficient way to prepare the cells for autoadsorption. Autoadsorbed

Farai M. Tsimba-Chitsva, Amy Caballero, Becky Svatora

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 1, 1–3

Article | 14-October-2020

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia with mimicking anti-c and -E specificities

out. Upon adsorption of the patient’s serum with ficin-treated Cde/Cde RBCs, both antibody specificities were adsorbed; however, the antibodies were not adsorbed with native (untreated) Cde/Cde RBCs. Furthermore, the autoantibody was not adsorbed by Rhnull cells, thereby suggesting Rh specificity. The serum was incompatible with cde/cde RBCs and compatible with Cde/Cde RBCs. The patient was successfully transfused with Cde/Cde RBCs followed by resolution of his anemia, as evidenced by an

Hsin-Yeh Hsieh, Diana L. Moroney, Deanne E. Naumann, D. Jane Hata, Nancy C. Vosnidou, Rovenna L. Kessinger, Nassir Shahab, Nasrollah Hakami, Daniel S. Smith

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 19–22

Article | 09-November-2020

The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the adsorption of autoantibodies

The use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to enhance the adsorption of warm autoantibodies on red blood cells (RBCs) was evaluated in our laboratory in an effort to reduce the time and cost associated with routine differential adsorptions. Sera from 19 patients with warm autoantibodies were tested. Fourteen of these sera contained alloantibodies or additional autoantibody specificities underlying the dominant autoantibody. The sera were differentially adsorbed using equal volumes of serum, reagent

Christina L. Barron, Mary Beth Brown

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 119–122

Article | 17-November-2020

LISS-dependent autoantibody with apparent anti-U specificity

J.T. Chiofolo, M.E. Reid, D. Charles-Pierre

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 18–21

Report | 01-December-2019

Warm autoantibodies: time for a change

J. Ryan Nobles, Clare Wong

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 5–10

Article | 28-April-2020

The incidence of red cell alloantibodies underlying panreactive warm autoantibodies

Martin Maley, David G. Bruce, Roderick G. Babb, Angus W. Wells, Mark Williams

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 122–125

Case report | 01-December-2019

A case of masquerading alloantibodies:  the value of a multitechnique approach

, D+ blood type showing strong reactivity with all cells tested  in the forward and reverse ABO, in the D testing as well as in a three-cell antibody screen. The initial assumption was that the plasma contained a cold autoantibody. Subsequent testing, including the use of gel column technology, ficin-treated cells, and antisera for phenotyping, showed the apparent cold autoantibody to be a red herring. Additional tube testing at immediate spin, 37°C, and indirect antiglobulin test (IAT

Paula M.S. Wennersten, Laurie J. Sutor

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 3, 117–120

Letter to Editor | 14-March-2020

To the Editors: Anti-Vel and cold-reactive autoantibody

Joan L Maurer, Sandra Taddie Nance

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 4, 187–187

Article | 01-April-2020

Warm autoantibody or drugdependent antibody? That is the question!

Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 161–164

Letter to Editor | 14-December-2020

Letter to the Editor: Is It Alloantibody or Autoantibody?

Susan Rolih, Peter D. Issitt

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 83–84

Article | 10-November-2020

Severe intravascular hemolysis due to autoantibodies stimulated by blood transfusion

Autoantibodies may cause severe hemolytic anemia, but only rarely are they the cause of a hemolytic transfusion reaction due to the destruction of transfused allogeneic blood. In two patients, autoantibody was detected shortly after blood transfusion. The first case was a D-negative patient who produced an autoanti-Ce and subsequently developed hemoglobinuria and hyperbilirubinemia. The second case was a patient who developed an autoanti-Wrb that caused severe hemolysis that resulted in death.

D. Chan, G.D. Poole, M. Binney, M.D. Hamon, J.A. Copplestone, A.G. Prentice

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 80–83

Case report | 09-October-2019

Development of red blood cell autoantibodies following treatment with checkpoint inhibitors: a new class of anti-neoplastic, immunotherapeutic agents associated with immune dysregulation

Laura L.W. Cooling, John Sherbeck, Jonathon C. Mowers, Sheri L. Hugan

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 15–21

Article | 09-November-2020

Direct Coombs test-negative autoimmune hemolytic anemia and low-affinity IgG class antibodies

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, in which the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) is negative or weakly positive, may be due to low-affinity autoantibodies. We describe two such cases. An 8-year-old male presented with weight loss, jaundice, a hemoglobin of 33 g/L, reticulocytes of 306 x 109/L, and haptoglobin of < 0.1 g/L. The DAT was negative. After washing the red blood cells (RBCs) with saline at 4°C, the DAT was positive for IgG and an eluate contained an IgG3 autoantibody, thus confirming a

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, S. Jalihal, B. Paul

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 115–118

Article | 03-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by warm-reacting IgM-class antibodies

confirmed as IgM by their ability to rebind to normal red blood cells (RBCs) after elution; the absence of small increases in RBC-bound IgG and IgA was shown by a sensitive enzyme-linked antiglobulin test. Patient 1 was a 64-year-old female with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, with a hemoglobin of 50 g/L and haptoglobin of < 0.1 g/L. Direct antiglobulin tests were positive for IgM, C3d, and C3c; only IgM was present in an eluate. The serum contained a weak autoantibody at 37°C and tests for

R.J. Sokol, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, S. Sobolewski, A.P. Haynes

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 53–58

Article | 17-November-2020

ABO discrepancy with monoclonal ABO reagents caused by a pH-dependent autoantibody

Melanie S. Kennedy, Abdul Waheed, Jane Moore

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 71–73

Case report | 01-December-2019

Molecular analysis of patients with weak D and serologic analysis of those with anti-D (excluding type 1 and type 2)

Whether or not patients whose red blood cells (RBCs) carry certain weak D types  produce anti-D, and if they do whether it is  allo- or autoanti-D, remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the serologic features of anti-D in individuals expressing a weak D other than type 1 or type 2 and to assess whether the anti-D was an allo- or autoantibody. Serologic D typing and molecular analyses were performed on 748 individuals. Serologic characterization of anti-D

Bach-Nga Pham, Michèle Roussel, Dominique Gien, Maryline Ripaux, Carine Auxerre, Pierre-Yves Le Pennec, Christine Andre-Botte

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 55–62

Article | 03-November-2020

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia associated with an IgM autoanti-Ge

Thom S. Sererat, Douglas W. Veidt, Patricia A. Arndt, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 1, 26–29

Article | 16-October-2019

Dithiothreitol treatment of red blood cells

these systems will not react or will be significantly weaker with the treated RBCs. DTT will also cleave the disulfide bonds that connect the monomeric subunits and the J chain of the IgM antibody pentameric form. When heavy coating of RBCs with IgM autoantibody causes spontaneous agglutination, DTT treatment will disrupt the IgM structure and disperse the agglutination. Indications DTT-treated reagent RBCs can be used in antibody identification to suggest the possible blood group specificity of

C.B. Bub

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 170–172

Article | 17-November-2020

A simple screening method to evaluate the presence of alloantibodies with concomitant warm autoantibodies

and allogeneic adsorption. In 42 percent of the cases, all autoantibody reactivity was removed by both methods. No clinically significant alloantibodies were missed using serum dilution as compared to allogeneic adsorptions. We conclude that serum dilution is a simple, rapid way to initially assess tor the presence of alloantibodies that co-exist with autoantibodies.  

Ragnhild Øyen, Maria L. Angeles

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 3, 85–87

Article | 27-December-2020

A simple alternative for Rh phenotyping red cells that have a persistently positive Rh control

lnvestigation of a patient's red cell sample with a persistently positive Rh control revealed that if the patient's red cells were treated with ZZAP, then incubated at 37°C with commercial Rh-typing reagents, then washed four times with saline, the positive Rh control could be circumvented and the Rh phenotype readily determined. One hundred red cell samples of known Rh phenotype were treated with ZZAP and coated with autoantibody to resemble the cells of the index case. Accurate

Jill T. Hardman, Malcolm L. Beck, Patricia Lamley

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 83–85

Report | 06-November-2019

Drugs that have been shown to cause druginduced immune hemolytic anemia or positive direct antiglobulin tests: some interesting findings since 2007

George Garratty, Patricia A. Arndt

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 66–79

Article | 30-November-2020

Autoimmune hemolysis following transfusion: a mimicking autoanti-D in a D- patient with alloanti-D

with D- RBCs reduced reactivity. An eluate from the adsorbing D- RBCs was nonreactive with D+ RBCs. These findings suggest an autoantibody mimicking alloanti-D. The patient was treated with prednisone and was transfused with group O, D- (rr), K-, Fy(a-) RBCs. Four months later, the Hct was stable. One year later, the DAT remained positive and the eluate demonstrated a panagglutinin.

Walter H. Dzik, Joyce Blank, Paula Lutz, Thomas G. Hirose, Christine Lomas-Francis, Marilyn Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 4, 117–119

Article | 06-December-2020

Serologic investigation of fatal hemolytic anemia associated with a multiple drug history and Rh-like autoantibody

Nancy I. Maddox, Debra Futral, Floyd T. Boudreau

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 70–76

Article | 14-October-2020

Serologic aspects of treating immune thrombocytopenic purpura using intravenous Rh immune globulin

In patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), IgG autoantibody-coated platelets are phagocytized by mononuclear macrophages, primarily in the spleen. Intravenous Rh immune globulin (IV RhIG) has been used since 1983 to treat D+, nonsplenectomized patients with ITP. The beneficial therapeutic effect of IV RhIG is attributed to competitive inhibition of phagocytosis of IgG-coated platelets by IgG anti-D-coated D+ red blood cells (reticuloendothelial or Fc receptor blockade). Following

Can M. Savasman, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 106–110

Case report | 17-March-2020

Clinical evaluation for lymphoproliferative disease prompted by finding of IgM warm autoanti-IT in two cases

Regina M. Leger, Frederick Lowder, Maria C. Dungo, Weip Chen, Holli M. Mason, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 60–62

Article | 21-April-2020

Severe hemolytic anemia due to auto anti-N

Caroline C. Immel, Myra McPherson, Shauna N. Hay, Linda R. Braddy, Mark E. Brecher

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 63–65

Article | 20-December-2020

Two cases of autoantibodies that demonstrate mimicking specificity in the Duffy blood group system

(3+), Fy:1,2 (3+) RBCs at the antiglobulin phase (AGT) but were nonreactive with Fy: -1,- 2 RBCs. The anti­bodies in both cases were nonreactive with papain- or ficin-treated RBCs and reacted with Rhnull RBCs, which ruled out anti-Fy3 and anti-Fy5, respectively. These cases suggest mimicking autoantibody specificities in the Duffy system. One case may indicate that the degree of reactivity is dependent on the Duffy phenotype of the RBCs tested (Fy: -1,2 > Fy:1,2 > Fy: -1, -2). An

Teresa Y. Harris

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 4, 87–91

Article | 09-November-2020

Measurement of red blood cell-bound C3b and C3d using an enzyme-linked direct antiglobulin test

of RBCbound C3b and C3d were relatively common and probably resulted from autoantibody activity, immune-complexes, and nonspecific adsorption. There was no association between positive ELDAT results and the presence of active hemolysis. The ELDAT was far more sensitive than the agglutination tests for detecting RBC-bound C3b and also for C3d if the monoclonal reagent was employed.

J.D. Bellamy, D.J. Booker, N.T. James, R. Stamps, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 123–131

Article | 14-October-2020

Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by anti-Coa

-Fya. The patient received six units of RBCs during his initial hospitalization and developed anti-E. A subsequent sample was sent to the reference laboratory when all units of RBCs appeared incompatible. Additional studies, including alloadsorptions, revealed the presence of anti-E, anti-Fya, and an apparent warm autoantibody. One unit of least-incompatible RBCs was transfused during surgery. The patient had an increase in temperature. Hemoglobinuria and a decrease in hematocrit were also noted

Randal B. Covin, Karen S. Evans, Richard Olshock, Hannis W. Thompson

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 45–49

Report | 14-March-2020

The significance of a positive DAT in thalassemia patients

nonreactive eluate (65.4% of 286 eluates performed). A positive DAT was significantly associated with splenectomy (χ2 = 15.4; p < 0.001), elevated IgG levels (χ2 = 26.8; p < 0.001), HCV (χ2 = 20.7; p < 0.001), and warm autoantibody (χ2 = 5.87; p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis revealed that only HCV (OR, 5.0; p = 0.037) and elevated IgG levels (OR, 9.0; p = 0.001) were independently associated with a positive DAT. Alloimmunized thalassemic patients were more likely to have a

Suzanne A. Arinsburg, Donna L. Skerrett, Dorothy Kleinert, Patricia J. Giardina, Melissa M. Cushing

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 87–91

Report | 06-November-2019

Drug-induced immune neutropenia/ agranulocytosis

, but those that have been studied include drug- or hapten-induced antibody formation and autoantibody production against drug metabolite or protein adducts covalently attached to neutrophil membrane proteins. This review will address acute, severe neutropenia caused by neutrophil-reactive antibodies induced by nonchemotherapy drugs—DIIN.

Brian R. Curtis

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 95–101

Article | 03-November-2020

Improved detection of weak, clinically significant antibodies by supplementation of polyethylene glycol with a low-ionic solution

268 by both saline-IAGTs and RAM-IAGTs. The four antibodies that were not detected were identified as anti-D, anti-E, anti-Bga, and an autoantibody known previously to be only reactive with papain-pretreated red cells. No nonspecific reactions were detected by PEG-IAGTs and no hemolysis was evident in any of the IAGTs. PEG-IAGTs were more sensitive than saline- and RAM-IAGTs. PEG-IAGTs detected all weak, clinically significant antibodies as well as four antibodies that were otherwise undetected by

Kim Swee Low, Yew-Wah Liew, Peter M. Bradley

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 68–71

Report | 06-November-2019

Drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia: incidence, clinical features, laboratory testing, and pathogenic mechanisms

candidate drug resulted in recurrent thrombocytopenia. Flow cytometry testing for DDAbs can be useful in confirmation of a clinical diagnosis, and monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing can be used to determine the platelet glycoprotein target(s), usually GPIIb/IIIa or GPIb/IX/V, but testing is not widely available. Several pathogenic mechanisms for DIIT have been proposed, including hapten, autoantibody, neoepitope, drug-specific, and quinine-type drug mechanisms. A recent

Brian R. Curtis

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 2, 55–65

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