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Report | 12-March-2020

Consortium for Blood Group Genes (CBGG): 2009 report

The Consortium for Blood Group Genes is a worldwide organization whose goal is to have a vehicle to interact, establish guidelines, operate a profi ciency program, and provide education for laboratories involved in DNA and RNA testing for the prediction of blood group, platelet, and neutrophil antigens. Currently, the consortium operates with representatives from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. Membership is voluntary with the expectation that members actively contribute to discussions

Gregory A. Denomme, Connie M. Westhoff, Lilian Maria de Castilho, Maryse St-Louis, Vagner Castro, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 47–50

Report | 19-March-2020

Consortium for Blood Group Genes (CBGG): 2008 report

The Consortium for Blood Group Genes is a worldwide organization whose goal is to have a vehicle to interact, establish guidelines, operate a proficiency program, and provide education for laboratories involved in DNA and RNA testing for the prediction of blood group, platelet, and neutrophil antigens.

Gregory Denomme, Connie Westhoff, Lilian Maria de Castilho, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 75–78

Article | 01-April-2020

Consortium for Blood Group Genes (CBGG): 2007 report

The Consortium for Blood Group Genes is a worldwide organization whose goal is to have a vehicle to interact, establish guidelines, operate a proficiency program, and provide education for laboratories involved in DNA and RNA testing for the prediction of blood group, platelet, and neutrophil antigens.

Marion E. Reid, Connie Westhoff, Gregory Denomme, Lilian Maria de Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 165–168

Review | 26-October-2019

Kell and Kx blood group systems

The Kell and Kx blood group systems are expressed as covalently linked molecules on red blood cells (RBCs). The Kell blood group system is very polymorphic, with 35 antigens assigned to the system. The expression of Kell glycoprotein on RBCs is not critical to the erythrocyte function. However, the expression of Kx is critical to normal morphology, and null mutations are associated with the McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome. The immunogenicity of the K antigen is second only to the D antigen

Gregory A. Denomme

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 14–19

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Knops blood group system

York Antigen York (Yka) was assigned when the Knops (KN) blood group system (system 22) was established.1 The number given for the Yk(a–) phenotype was KN:–5, and the allele was designated as KN*01.-05. Although the molecular mechanism for the more well-known high-prevalence antigens (e.g., Kna, McCa, and Sl1) were identified fairly rapidly, that for Yka was elusive. In 2011, Veldhuisen et al.2 identified a mutation at c.4223C>T that resulted in the change of threonine to methionine at amino

J.M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 16–18

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the JR blood group system

Update on the JR System The JR blood group system consists of one antigen, Jra, which is of high prevalence in all populations. Anti-Jra has caused transfusion reactions and been involved in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Jra antigen is located on ABCG2 transporter, a multipass membrane glycoprotein, which is encoded by the ABCG2 gene on chromosome 4q22.1. Several null alleles of ABCG2 (nonsense, deletions, and insertions) are responsible for the Jr(a–) phenotype, and the

L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 43–44

Review | 12-March-2020

The Dombrock blood group system: a review

The Dombrock blood group system (Do) consists of two antithetical antigens (Doa and Dob) and five antigens of high prevalence (Gya, Hy, Joa, DOYA, and DOMR). Do antigens are carried on the Dombrock glycoprotein, which is attached to the RBC membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage. The gene (DO, ART4) encoding the Do glycoprotein, located on the short arm of chromosome 12, has been cloned and sequenced, allowing the molecular basis of the various Do phenotypes to be determined. Doa

Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 71–78

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the CD59 blood group system

Introduction CD59 is a 20-kDa cell membrane glycoprotein, present on a large number of cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), that binds the complement components C8 and C9 and, thereby, protects the cell from a complement attack.1 CD59 was assigned a blood group system after a CD59-deficient child presented with anti-CD59, reacting with all CD59-carrying RBCs.2 In contrast to patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, where an acquired mutation in a stem cell clone causes the

C. Weinstock, M. Anliker, I. von Zabern

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 7–8

Article | 17-February-2021

The Xg blood group system: no longer forgotten

Erythrocyte Expression of the Xga and CD99 Antigens Since the previous review by Johnson in 2011,1 much of the work on the Xg blood group system has centered on identifying the genetic determinants of Xga and CD99 status. Strikingly, for a decade, the Xg system remained one of only two blood group systems for which the polymorphic blood group could not be genetically determined2—this scenario occurred despite the fact that the gene encoding Xga, XG (formerly PBDX), has been known since 1994.3

Y.Q. Lee, J.R. Storry, M.L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 1, 4–6

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the MNS blood group system

Update on the MNS Blood Group System The MNS blood group system is highly complex, with 49 antigens currently recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion.1 All antigens are carried by glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or multiple glycophorin (GP) variants resulting from unequal crossover or gene conversion events between GYPA and GYPB genes.2 GYPE, the other glycophorin gene family member, does not encode detectable antigens on the red blood cell (RBC) surface but has

L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 61–62

Review | 12-March-2020

The Gerbich blood group system: a review

Antigens in the Gerbich blood group system are expressed on glycophorin C (GPC) and glycophorin D (GPD), which are both encoded by a single gene, GYPC. The GYPC gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 2, and Gerbich antigens are inherited as autosomal dominant traits. There are 11 antigens in the Gerbich blood group system, six of high prevalence (Ge2, Ge3, Ge4, GEPL [Ge10*], GEAT [Ge11*], GETI [Ge12*]) and five of low prevalence (Wb [Ge5], Lsa [Ge6], Ana [Ge7], Dha [Ge8], GEIS [Ge9

Phyllis S. Walker, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 60–65

Review | 20-March-2020

MNS blood group system: a review

The MNS blood group system is second only to the Rh blood group system in its complexity. Many alloantibodies to antigens in the MNS system are not generally clinically significant although antibodies to low-prevalence and high-prevalence MNS antigens have caused hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The MNS antigens are carried on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or hybrids thereof, which arise from single-nucleotide substitution, unequal crossing over, or gene conversion

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

Article | 22-January-2021

The P1PK blood group system: revisited and resolved

After having expanded to include three antigens (P1, Pk, and NOR) and also having changed its name from the P blood group system to P1PK (since the P antigen resides in the GLOB system1), the status of this system has stabilized—although P1PK remained one of two systems for which a polymorphic blood group could not be genetically determined.2 Thus, one of the major developments reported is the clarification of the genetic basis and underlying molecular mechanism explaining the presence (P1

L. Stenfelt, Å. Hellberg, J.S. Westman, M.L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 99–103

Review | 16-October-2019

A brief overview of clinical significance of blood group antibodies

This review was derived from a presentation made on September 2, 2016 for the first Academy Day presented by the Working Party on Immunohematology at the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) Congress in Dubai. The focus of this review is to provide a brief overview of the clinical significance of blood group antibodies. Blood group antibodies can be naturally occurring (e.g., anti-A and anti-B through exposure to naturally occurring red blood cell [RBC] antigen-like substances) or

Manish J. Gandhi, D. Michael Strong, Barbee I. Whitaker, Evangelia Petrisli

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 1, 4–6

Article | 14-October-2020

A review of the Knops blood group: separating fact from fallacy

It has been more than 10 years since the topic of “high-titer, lowavidity” (HTLA) antibodies was reviewed in Immunohematology. We have learned a lot about these antibodies in the past 10 years and that knowledge has helped us to understand some of the unusual characteristics of these antibodies. Furthermore, it has helped us to name and delineate the various associated blood group systems. Although we will begin with a general review of HTLAs, this manuscript will focus on the

Joann M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 1–8

Review | 02-May-2020

Review: the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems

After the discovery (over 50 years ago) that the IAT could be applied to the detection of antibodies to blood group antigens, there was a rapid increase in the identification of alloantibodies that caused transfusion reactions or HDN. After Rh, antibodies in the Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group systems were the next in clinically significant antibodies to be revealed. Much of what has been learned about these blood groups since the journal Immunohematology issued its first edition has to do

Constance M. Westhoff, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 37–49

Review | 09-October-2019

The Vel blood group system: a review

The blood group antigen Vel has been one of immunohematology’s greatest enigmas: the variation in antigen strength from one individual to another, the property of anti-Vel to readily hemolyze Vel+ red blood cells (RBCs), and the difficulty to screen for sufficient numbers of Vel– blood donors had made Vel a tough nut to crack. In 2013, a small, previously unknown protein called small integral membrane protein 1 (SMIM1) was identified on the RBC by three independent research groups

Jill R. Storry, Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 56–59

Article | 26-October-2019

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay for blood group genotyping, copy number quantification, and analysis of  RH variants

The blood group multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) is a comprehensive assay, developed for genotyping the majority of clinically relevant blood group antigens in both patients and donors. The MLPA is an easy method to apply and only requires a thermal cycler and capillary electrophoresis equipment. Because the molecular basis of blood group antigens can be a single nucleotide polymorphism, an insertion/deletion polymorphism, or genetic recombination, a single assay such as

Barbera Veldhuisen, C. Ellen van der Schoot, Masja de Haas

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 58–61

Article | 26-October-2019

An overview of the use of SNaPshot for predicting blood group antigens

The use of SNaPshot (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) for predicting blood group antigens has emerged as an alternative to hemagglutination testing and also to the current low- and highthroughput blood group genotyping methods. Several groups have developed multiplex–polymerase chain reaction SNaPshot assays to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in blood group genes with the purpose of identifying clinically relevant antigens and rare alleles. The selection of SNPs is

Flavia R.M. Latini, Lilian M. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 53–57

Review | 14-March-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system reside on decay-accelerating factor (DAF), a protein belonging to the regulators of complement activation family. The blood group system consists of 12 high-prevalence and three lowprevalence antigens. The molecular basis for the antigens is known, and with the exception of IFC, each antigen is the product of a single nucleotide change in the DAF gene and has been localized to one of the four complement control protein (CCP) domains on the DAF

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 109–117

Review | 15-April-2020

Review: molecular basis of MNS blood group variants

The MNS blood group antigens are expressed in the RBC membrane on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or combinations of both. GPA expresses the M or N antigen,whereas GPB expresses the S or s antigen and the N antigen (′N′). Both glycophorin genes (GYPA and GYPB) are located on the long arm of chromosome 4 and share 95 percent sequence identity. This high degree of sequence identity, together with the rare involvement of a third homologous gene (GYPE), provides an increased

P. Palacajornsuk

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 171–182

Report | 01-December-2019

Validation of a blood group genotyping method based on high-resolution melting curve analysis

The detection of polymorphism is the basis of blood group genotyping and phenotype prediction. Genotyping may be useful to determine blood groups when serologic results are unclear. The development and application of different methods for blood group genotyping may be needed as a substitute for blood group typing. The purpose of this study is to establish an approach for blood group genotyping based on a melting curve analysis of realtime polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Using DNA extracted

Tianxiang Gong, Ying Hong, Naihong Wang, Xuemei Fu, Changhua Zhou

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 4, 161–165

Review | 29-October-2019

JMH blood group system: a review

The JMH blood group system consists of six high-prevalence antigens. These antigens are located on the Sema7A protein. The molecular basis of the JMH1– phenotype is not known; however, single nucleotide changes in the SEMA7A gene on chromosome 15 account for the other JMH antigens. JMH1, commonly known as JMH, is most notable because transient depression of the antigen occurs and anti-JMH may develop. These antibodies are most commonly observed and are not significant in transfusion

Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 18–23

Review | 26-October-2019

Kidd blood group system: a review

The Kidd blood group system has been recognized as clinically important in red blood cell (RBC) serology since its identification in 1951. Forty years later, the JK glycoprotein was determined to be a product of SCL14A1 and was identical to the urea transport protein UT-B produced by HUT11A. The functional role of the protein as a urea transporter in RBCs and kidney has been well documented. The polymorphism responsible for the antithetical antigens Jka and Jkb was identified in 1994 as c.838G

Janis R. Hamilton

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 29–35

Review | 26-October-2019

CD59: A long-known complement inhibitor has advanced  to a blood group system

The blood group system number 35 is based on CD59, a 20-kDa membrane glycoprotein present on a large number of different cells, including erythrocytes. The major function of CD59 is to protect cells from complement attack. CD59 binds to complement components C8 and C9 and prevents the polymerization of C9, which is required for the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC). Other functions of CD59 in cellular immunity are less well defined. CD59 is inserted into the membrane by a

Christof Weinstock, Markus Anliker, Inge von Zabern

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 145–151

Report | 01-December-2019

Implications of the Kidd blood group system in renal transplantation

The association of the Kidd blood group system with hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn is well known. The Kidd antigens, which are localized to the HUT/UT-B urea transport protein, are found on red blood cells and the endothelial cells of the blood vessels of the medulla of the kidney. Recently it has been suggested that these antigens might play a role as minor histocompatibility antigens in renal transplantation. In the current case, the appearance of an anti

Angela Rourk, Jerry E. Squires

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 91–94

Review | 01-December-2019

The LAN blood group system: a review

LAN (Langereis) was officially recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion in 2012 as being the 33rd human blood group system. It consists of one single high-prevalence antigen, Lan (LAN1). The ABCB6 protein is the carrier of the Lan blood group antigen. The ABCB6 gene (chromosome 2q36, 19 exons) encodes the ABCB6 polypeptide (ATP-binding cassette protein, subfamily B, member 6), known as a porphyrin transporter. The exceptional Lan– people do not express ABCB6 (Lan null

Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 131–135

Article | 26-October-2019

Blood group genotyping: the power and limitations of the Hemo ID Panel and MassARRAY platform

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), is a sensitive analytical method capable of resolving DNA fragments varying in mass by a single nucleotide. MALDI-TOF MS is applicable to blood group genotyping, as the majority of blood group antigens are encoded by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Blood group genotyping by MALDI-TOF MS can be performed using a panel (Hemo ID Blood Group Genotyping Panel, Agena Bioscience Inc., San Diego, CA) that is

Rhiannon S. McBean, Catherine A. Hyland, Robert L. Flower

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 75–80

Review | 01-December-2019

GIL: a blood group system review

The GIL blood group system was added to the list of systems already recognized by the International Society for Blood Transfusion in 2002. It was designated as system 29 after the antigen was located on the aquaglyceroporin 3 (AQP3) protein and the gene encoding the protein was identified in 2002. There is only one antigen in the system, GIL, and the antigen, as well as the system, was named after the antigen-negative proband identified in the United States who had made anti-GIL. It was later

Dawn M. Rumsey, Delores A. Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 141–144

Article | 26-October-2020

DNA from urine sediment or buccal cells can be used for blood group molecular genotyping

Accurate blood group antigen typing of red blood cells with a positive direct antiglobulin test or from a recently transfused patient has been a long-standing problem. To overcome this problem, we evaluated the feasibility of using somatic cells as a source of DNA for molecular genotyping. Two sources of cells that could be obtained by noninvasive procedures were chosen for analysis: urine samples, which were already available in the clinical laboratory, and buccal epithelial cells collected

Marion E. Reid, Maria J. Rios, Kevin L. Cash, Annie M. Strupp, Joan M. Uehlinger

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 2, 61–65

Report | 16-October-2019

Rh and Kell blood group antigen prevalence in a multi-ethnic cohort in Nigeria: implications for local transfusion service

Antigens belonging to the Rh and Kell blood group systems are of major clinical significance because of their immunogenicity and the potential of their consequent antibodies to cause in vivo destruction of exogenous red blood cells (RBCs). Despite the widespread use of transfusion, there are sparse data on the prevalence of Rh and Kell system antigens and their ethnic variability in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the five major Rh (D, C, c, E, e) and

Ademola Samson Adewoyin, Grace Ming Lee, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo, Omolade Augustina Awodu

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 61–65

Article | 14-October-2020

Studies on the Dombrock blood group system in non-human primates

The Dombrock blood group system consists of five distinct antigens: two antithetical antigens, Doa and Dob , and three highfrequency antigens:Gya ,Hy, and Joa . Although the prevalence of Doa and Dob in different populations makes them useful as genetic markers, the scarcity of reliable antibodies to these antigens has prevented this potential from being realized. The gene (DO;ART4) encoding the Dombrock glycoprotein has been cloned and sequenced, and the molecular bases of the various Dombrock

Cristina Mogos, Alissa Schawalder, Gregory R. Halverson, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 77–82

Report | 12-March-2020

Application of real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in rapid Diego blood group genotyping

The paucity of appropriate reagents for serologic typing of the Diego blood group antigens has prompted the development of a real-time PCR and melting curve analysis for Diego blood group genotyping. In this study, we phenotyped 4326 donor blood samples for Dia using semiautomated equipment. All 157 Di(a+) samples were then genotyped by PCR using sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP) for DI*02 because of anti-Dib scarcity. Of the 4326 samples, we simultaneously tested 160 samples for Dia and Dib

Marcia C. Zago Novaretti, Azulamara da Silva Ruiz, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac-Llacer, Dalton Alencar Fisher Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 66–70

Case report | 01-December-2019

Alloimmunization to Kell blood group system antigen owing to unmatched blood transfusion in a resource-poor setting

One of the major drawbacks of multiple blood transfusions in patients with thalassemia is the risk of development of alloimmunization to various red cell antigens within blood group systems such as Rh, Kell, Duffy, and Kidd. The problem is greater in developing countries because of lack of awareness and insufficient availability of specific typing antisera and antibody screening panels owing to financial constraints. It is of utmost importance to provide D, C, c, E, e, and K phenotype-matched

Sheetal Malhotra, Gagandeep Kaur, Sabita Basu, Ravneet Ravneet, Geetanjali Jindal

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 45–48

Article | 18-May-2020

The gene encoding the I blood group antigen: review of an I for an eye

Unlike most blood group antigen pairs, the I and i antigens are not antithetical (produced by allelic pairs) but, rather, they are reciprocal. The I antigen is formed by the action of an enzyme (a glycosyltransferase), which adds branches onto the i antigen. Thus, branched I antigen is formed at the expense of its precursor, the linear i antigen. The antigens are present on all blood cells and have a wide tissue distribution. Soluble I antigen is found in milk, saliva, and amniotic fluid, and a

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 4, 249–252

Report | 16-October-2019

Validity and reliability of serologic immunophenotyping of multiple blood group systems by ORTHO Sera with fully automated procedure

The increase of immunization against blood group antigens has reinforced the need for automated extensive blood typing. The aim of this study was to assess both the validity and reliability of red blood cell (RBC) automated agglutination technology in testing for antigens of Kidd (Jk), Duffy (Fy), and MNS (Ss) blood systems. ORTHO Sera (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Raritan, NJ) anti-Jka, anti-Jkb, Anti-Fya, anti-Fyb, anti-S, and anti-s reagents were each tested on RBC samples previously typed

Ugo Salvadori, Roberto Melotti, Daniela L'Altrella, Massimo Daves, Ahmad Al-Khaffaf, Laura Milizia, Rossana Putzulu, Renata Filippi, Aurelio Carolo, Giuseppe Lippi, Ivo Gentilini

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 140–147

Article | 30-November-2019

Inhibition of blood group antibodies by soluble substances

expression among individuals, such as anti-P1. Some antibodies can be inhibited by soluble substances such as sugars, proteins, and peptides; examples include ABH, Lewis, P1, Sda, Chido/Rodgers, and ID. Human saliva, hydatid cyst fluid, pigeon egg white, human or guinea pig urine, human serum, and human milk have been used as soluble substances to inhibit red blood cell (RBC) antibodies before the 1990s.1–4 Since then, recombinant blood group proteins (rBGPs) have also been shown to be effective in the

K.M. Byrne, C.M.C. Mercado, T.N. Nnabue, T.D. Paige, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 19–22

Report | 26-October-2019

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Case report | 01-December-2019

Molecular RH blood group typing of serologically D–/CE+ donors: the use of a polymerase chain reaction–sequence-specific primer test kit with pooled samples

The known presence of RHD blood group alleles in apparently D– individuals who are positive for C or E antigens leads to an appropriate investigation for the RHD gene on the red blood cells (RBCs) of D– blood donors, thus preventing their RBCs from immunizing D– recipients. Ready-to-use polymerase chain reaction–sequence-specific primer (PCR-SSP) typing kits are available and allow single-sample results. The need to perform this testing on a large number of donors

Donatella Londero, Mauro Fiorino, Valeria Miotti, Vincenzo de Angelis

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 25–28

Article | 10-April-2021

The Ok blood group system: an update

Summary of the Ok Blood Group Antigens To date, the Ok blood group system, system 24 in the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT024), comprises three high-prevalence antigens: Oka, OKGV, and OKVM. Only one example of the OKGV− and OKVM− phenotypes has been described, each identified by the presence of a specific antibody to its respective high-prevalence antigen.1,2 The Ok(a−) phenotype was identified in Japanese people only,3 and the allele frequency in the gnomAD database is 0.1

J.R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 18–19

Review | 14-October-2020

Review: Biochemistry of carbohydrate blood group antigens

This review presents the basics of the structural chemistry of blood group glycoconjugates,with special reference to red cell serology. Its aim is to create an appreciation of the inherent subtleties of the carbohydrate blood group antigens, which are currently poorly understood within the field of blood transfusion. It is hoped that a better understanding of the intricacies of the carbohydrate blood group systems will lead to further contributions to the body of knowledge within this growing

Lissa G. Gilliver, Stephen M. Henry

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 33–42

Review | 20-March-2020

Lewis blood group system review

Martha Rae Combs

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 3, 112–118

Article | 17-February-2021

Concordance of two polymerase chain reaction–based blood group genotyping platforms for patients with sickle cell disease

Alloimmunization is a known complication in which patients develop antibodies to non-self, red blood cell (RBC) antigens after exposure through transfusion, transplant, or pregnancy. Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are especially vulnerable, with up to 47 percent of transfused patients reported to be alloimmunized.1–8 A majority of these alloimmunization events occur within the Rh and Kell blood group systems. Providing antigen-matched blood for antigens in these two blood group systems

C.A. Sheppard, N.L. Bolen, G. Meny, M. Kalvelage, G. Ochoa-Garay

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 123–128

Article | 14-October-2020

Frequencies of the major alleles of the Diego, Dombrock,Yt, and Ok blood group systems in the Chinese Han, Hui, and Tibetan nationalities

The frequencies of the major alleles of the Diego,Dombrock,Yt,and Ok blood group systems in the Chinese Han, Hui, and Tibetan nationalities were determined using a DNA-based PCR–sequencespecific primers (SSP) genotyping technique. The frequencies of Dia , Dib , Doa , and Dob genes were 0.0295, 0.9705, 0.1159, and 0.8841 in 220 Chinese North Han, respectively. The Yta gene frequencies were 0.9928, 0.9917, and 0.9983 in 277 Han, 300 Hui, and 303 Tibetan blood donors, respectively. No Ok(a

Tongmao Zhao, Mengli Liu, Dongling Jiang, Sheng Liu

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 22–25

Review | 01-December-2019

The molecular basis of the LU:7 and LU:–7 phenotypes

The Lutheran blood group system currently consists of 20 antigens that have been assigned ISBT numbers. Of these, all but LU7 have been associated with one or more nucleotide changes in LU. The purpose of this study was to determine the molecular basis associated with the LU:–7 phenotype. We obtained a stored sample from one proband with this phenotype and sequenced LU. Using genomic DNA, exons 1 through 15, and their flanking intronic regions, of LU were amplified by polymerase-chain

Kim Hue-Roye, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 130–131

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Duffy blood group system

Introduction A description of Duffy (FY) blood group system antigens and antibodies and how this information is used in transfusion management was featured prominently in the original Duffy blood group review published in 2010.1 At that time, the Duffy glycoprotein was also known to bind to a variety of chemokines of the CXC and CC classes and was referred to as the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC). Ongoing research studies of FY, particularly at the molecular level, continue to

G.M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 11–12

Article | 17-February-2021

An update on the RAPH blood group system

M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 58–59

Case report | 01-December-2019

Possible suppression of fetal erythropoiesis by the Kell blood group antibody anti-Kpa

Antibodies to antigens in the Kell blood group system are usually immunoglobulin G, and, notoriously, anti-K, anti-k, and anti-Kpa can cause severe hemolytic transfusion reactions, as well as severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). It has been shown that the titer of anti-K does not correlate with the severity of HDFN because, in addition to immune destruction of red blood cells (RBCs), anti-K causes suppression of erythropoiesis in the fetus, which can result in severe anemia

Michelle Tuson, Kim Hue-Roye, Karen Koval, Sherwin Imlay, Rajendra Desai, Gayatri Garg, Esam Kazem, Diane Stockman, Janis S. Hamilton, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 2, 58–60

Review | 01-December-2019

Scianna: the lucky 13th blood group system

The Scianna system was named in 1974 when it was appreciated that two antibodies described in 1962 in fact identified antithetical antigens. However, it was not until 2003 that the protein on which antigens of this system are found and the first molecular variants were described. Scianna was the last previously serologically defined, protein-based blood group system to be characterized at the molecular level, marking the end of an era in immunohematology. This story highlights the critical role

Patricia A.R. Brunker, Willy A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 2, 41–57

Review | 17-March-2020

The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update

Jill R. Storry, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 2, 48–59

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the H blood group system

E.A. Scharberg, C. Olsen, P. Bugert

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 67–68

Review | 29-October-2019

Raph blood group system

This review describes the current state of knowledge of the Raph blood group system, which consists of a single antigen, MER2. MER2 was initially classified as a high-incidence antigen in the 901 series of blood groups, formerly known as 901011, but was reclassified as an antigen in the Raph blood group system in 2004. There have been six reports of human alloantibodies to MER2. Three of the subjects were found to have a stop codon in the CD151 gene, which encodes a member of the tetraspanin

Michele Hayes

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 6–10

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Scianna blood group system

New ERMAP Variants, Haplotypes, and Population Distributions The International Society of Blood Transfusion recognizes seven antigens in the Scianna system,1 each of which results from genetic variations that have rather low minor allele frequencies in all studied populations.2,3 In recent years, several groups have mined public genetic databases and cataloged the variation in known blood group genes. Using the 1000 Genomes data, the Erythrogene project found 357 nonsynonymous mutations in

P.A.R. Brunker, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 48–50

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Augustine blood group system

New Augustine Antigens Since the publication of the original review,1 two new antigens have been added to the Augustine (AUG) blood group system: AUG3 and AUG4 (Table 1). Table 1. Antigens of the Augustine system Antigen Molecular basis Reference Number Name Prevalence Nucleotides Exon Amino acids AUG1 High c.589+1G>C 6 Slice site 1 AUG2 Ata High c .117 1 G > A 12 Glu391l_ys 1 AUG3 ATML Low c .115 9 A > C 12 p.Thr387Pro 2 AUG4 ATAM High c.242A>G 3 p.Asn81Ser 3 An

G. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 1–2

Report | 11-March-2020

The Indian blood group system

The Indian blood group system (ISBT: IN/023) consists of two antithetical antigens: Ina (IN1), which is present in approximately 10 percent of some Arab populations and in 3 percent of Bombay Indians, and its allelic antigen Inb (IN2), an antigen of high incidence in all populations. In 2007, two new high-incidence antigens were identified as belonging to the IN blood group system, namely IN3 (INFI) and IN4 (INJA). The antigens in this system are located on CD44, a single-pass membrane

Qun Xu

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 89–93

Report | 01-April-2020

Consortium for Blood Group Genes (CBGG): Miami 2006 report

The Consortium for Blood Group Genes (CBGG) is a worldwide organization whose goal is to have a system to interact, establish standards, operate a proficiency program, and provide education for laboratories involved in DNA and RNA testing for the determination of blood group,platelet,and neutrophil antigens. The purpose of this report is to summarize the CBGG meeting held in Miami in October 2006.

Marion E. Reid, Connie Westhoff, Gregory Denomme, Lilian Maria de Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 81–84

Report | 25-March-2020

From DNA to blood groups

A blood group antigen is a protein or carbohydrate on the outer surface of a RBC.  Portions of DNA are transcribed and translated into proteins.  A protein-based blood group antigen is the direct product of a gene whereas a carbohydrate-based blood group antigen is an indirect product of a gene; the gene product is a glycosyltransferase that transfers a carbohydrate moiety to a protein, or to another carbohydrate to form a chain of sugars.  This report gives a brief description

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 166–169

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Lewis blood group system

M.R. Combs

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 65–66

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the Chido/Rodgers blood group system

A review of the Chido/Rodgers blood group system published in 2010 summarized the discovery of this blood group,1 with the eventual recognition that Chido/Rodgers antigens were not intrinsic red blood cell (RBC) antigens but were epitopes carried on the C4 component of complement. In normal homeostasis, fragments of the C4 protein (C4b) are deposited on the RBC membrane and on other tissues as well. C4b is then broken down to C4d. Thus, with anti-Ch or anti-Rg, agglutination with indirect

R. Mougey

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 135–138

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the Cartwright (Yt) blood group system

novel polymorphisms.1 Scharberg et al.2 demonstrated the use of genotyped RBCs in antibody identification in a study of nearly 17,000 blood samples from close to 8500 patients tested in their reference lab. In this 3-year study, 21 antibodies from 10 blood group systems were identified in 126 patients by using the genotype information of these reagent RBCs. Antibodies to Cartwright antigens were among the most frequent, accounting for antibodies identified in 31 patients (25%). This study suggests

M.R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 154–155

Review | 01-December-2019

The Diego blood group system: a review

The Diego blood group system (DI) currently encompasses 22 antigens. Three of the antigens are of high prevalence and the other 19 are of low prevalence. The antigens of the Diego blood group system are carried on the erythroid band 3 protein anion exchanger 1 (AE1), the product of a single gene, SLC4A1 (solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 1). AE1 is a member of a family of three anion exchangers or transporters expressed in a variety of tissues. This protein is involved in carbon

Dolores Figueroa

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 73–81

Review | 01-December-2019

An update on the GLOB blood group system and collection

The P blood group antigen of the GLOB system is a glycolipid structure, also known as globoside, on the red blood cells (RBCs) of almost all individuals worldwide. The P antigen is intimately related to the Pk and NOR antigens discussed in the review about the P1PK blood group system. Naturally occurring anti-P is present in the serum of individuals with the rare globosidedeficient phenotypes p, P1k, and P2k and has been implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions as well as unfavorable

Åsa Hellberg, Julia S. Westman, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 19–24

Review | 01-December-2019

Cartwright blood group system review

The Cartwright (Yt) blood group system consists of two antigens, Yta and Ytb, that result from point mutations in the acetylcholinesterase gene on chromosome 7q. Yta is a highincidence antigen, whereas its antithetical antigen, Ytb, shows much lower incidence. Anti-Yta and anti-Ytb are relatively rare. Anti-Yta is more commonly found in individuals of Jewish descent. Cartwright antibodies are rarely clinically significant; however, cases of in vivo hemolysis have been reported, suggesting that

Melissa R. George

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 49–54

Review | 14-October-2020

The Cromer blood group system: a review

The antigens of the Cromer blood group system reside on decay accelerating factor (DAF), a protein belonging to the regulators of complement activation family. The blood group system consists of eight high-incidence antigens and three low-incidence antigens. The molecular basis for the antigens is known and, with the exception of IFC, each antigen is the product of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the DAF gene and has been localized to one of the four short consensus repeat regions on the

Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 4, 95–103

Report | 01-December-2019

Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors

Blood group antigens can be distributed differently within different nationalities. Therefore, information about the prevalence of blood group antigens in the Lao population will be useful for providing better blood transfusion services in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of blood group antigens in Lao blood donors. Blood samples from 464 Lao national volunteer blood donors were typed for antigens in various blood group

Chirapha Keokhamphoui, Yupa Urwijitaroon, Douangchanh Kongphaly, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 132–136

Article | 06-December-2020

Alloimmunization by blood group antigens from bone allografts

The purpose of this report is to heighten awareness of the risk of blood group antigen sensitization following bone allografting. Two Rh-negative females of childbearing age developed multiple antibodies to Rh antigens following transplantation of bone from Rh-positive donors. A previous pregnancy and/or blood transfusions were ruled out as factors influencing the antibody production. It is postulated that red cells or red cell stroma in the allografts stimulated the antibody production

C. Elizabeth Musclow, Glen Dietz, Robert S. Bell, Madeleine Beaudry-Clouatre

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 102–104

Article | 16-February-2021

PROCEEDINGS FROM THE INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF BLOOD TRANSFUSION WORKING PARTY ON IMMUNOHAEMATOLOGY, WORKSHOP ON THE CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF RED BLOOD CELL ALLOANTIBODIES, SEPTEMBER 9, 2016, DUBAI: Clinical significance of antibodies to antigens in the ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Lutheran, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, Diego, Yt, and Xg blood group systems

The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) currently recognizes 36 blood group systems, which contain a total of 322 antigens.1 Table 1 shows the current blood group systems and the number of antigens within each system. The information presented during the Workshop on the Clinical Significance of Red Blood Cell Alloantibodies was collated data from the main review resources available, including Human Blood Groups by Daniels,2 The Blood Group Antigen Factsbook by Reid et al.,3 and

N.M. Thornton, S.P. Grimsley

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 95–101

Review | 12-March-2020

The Duffy blood group system: a review

Duffy was the fi rst blood group mapped to an autosome (chromosome 1) using cytogenetic studies. Duffy antigens are located on a glycoprotein that can be found on erythrocytes and other cells throughout the body. Fya and Fyb are products of their respective alleles (FY*A, FY*B). Fyx, characterized by weak Fyb expression, is a result of an additional mutation in FY*B. The Fy(a–b–) phenotype, most commonly found in Blacks, occurs primarily as a result of a GATA promoter region

Geralyn M. Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 51–56

Review | 09-October-2019

The H blood group system

The H blood group system, ISBT symbol H (018), consists of a single antigen (H) defined by a terminal fucose residue found on red blood cells and in secretions formed by the action of α-1,2-fucosyltransferases 1 (α2FucT1) and 2 (α2FucT2), respectively. Mutant alleles of the corresponding FUT1 and FUT2 genes result in either a H– phenotype (Bombay phenotype, Oh) or a weak H phenotype (para-Bombay, H+w). In addition, the FUT2 gene is the molecular basis of the secretor (Se

Erwin Andreas Scharberg, Coral Olsen, Peter Bugert

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 112–118

Review | 18-October-2020

ABO blood group system: a rev i ew of molecular aspects

Marion E. Reid, Agnes Hallie Lee

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Article | 18-October-2020

The Rh blood group system: the first 60 years of discovery

Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 7–17

Article | 17-November-2020

Loss of the Knops blood group system antigens from stored blood

Complement receptor type one (CR1) is a polymorphic glycoprotein, present on red blood cells (RBCs), that carries the Knops blood group system antigens. Since Knops system antigens can vary in strength, we investigated whether CR1 deteriorated upon storage, thus affecting Knops blood group system antigen reactivity. Units of whole blood were collected in CPDA-1 and evaluated at day 0 and day 35 for antigen strength, using routine serologic techniques. CR1 was quantitated by an enzyme-linked

Joann M. Moulds, L. Lee Brown, Elizabeth Brukheimer

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 46–50

Case report | 29-October-2019

Evans syndrome in a pediatric liver transplant recipient with an autoantibody with apparent specificity for the KEL4 (Kpb) antigen  

Although most warm red blood cell (RBC) autoantibodies react broadly with panel cells in addition to the patient’s own RBCs, occasionally an autoantibody with specificity for a specific blood group antigen is encountered. Rare cases of warm autoantibodies with specificity for the Kpb antigen of the Kell blood group system have been described. We report a pediatric transplant recipient with anemia, immune-mediated hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and a warm autoantibody with apparent anti-Kpb

Scott A. Koepsell, Kerry Burright-Hittner, James D. Landmark

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 14–17

Review | 06-December-2020

Review: the LW blood group system

The LW blood group system had its origin in the early Rh experiments of the 1940s and played an important role in our understanding of hemolytic disease of the newborn. Considered for a number of years to be the animal equivalent of the human Rh(D) antigen, LWa has been shown to be unique. Biochemical studies have located the antigen on a different protrein from proteins of the Rh antigens; however, the interdependence of LW and D still exists. The disappearance of LW antigens in various

Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 87–93

Report | 25-March-2020

Value of DNA-based  assays for donor screening and  regulatory issues

Hemagglutination, the gold standard method to detect the presence or absence of blood group antigens on RBCs, has served the transfusion community well for decades.  It is simple, and, when done correctly, it has a specificity and sensitivity that is appropriate for most testing in the vast majority of patients requiring blood transfusion.  The limitations of hemagglutination for screening donor blood include that both testing and data entry are labor-intensive, that the required

Donna Strauss, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 175–179

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the Lutheran blood group system

New Antigens of the Lutheran System and Molecular Basis of LU7 Since publication of the original review in 2009,1 the molecular basis for LU7 has been resolved,2 and six new high-prevalence antigens have been added to the Lutheran (LU) blood group system (Table 1). The antigen-negative phenotype of each of these new antigens, except LU22, results from homozygosity for one or two nucleotide changes in the Lutheran gene. LU22 is more complex, however. LU22 expression requires the presence of both

G. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 1, 23–24

Article | 14-December-2020

Phosphatidylinositol-linked red blood cell membrane proteins and blood group antigens

the lack of expression of GPI-anchored proteins that is responsible for manifestations of the acquired hematologic disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Recently, several investigators have also demonstrated that a number of erythrocyte blood group antigens reside on this class of proteins. These antigens include those of the Cromer blood group, JMH, Holley/Gregory, Cartwright, and Dombrock. The biochemical basis for the Cromer, JMH, and Holley/Gregory antigens have so far been partly

Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 3, 65–72

case-report | 25-June-2021

B subgroup detection in a small hospital transfusion service

The ABO blood group system is the most clinically significant antigen system in transfusion medicine. The ABO gene is located on chromosome 9 and consists of seven exons. Exons 6 and 7 encode for the catalytic domain of the ABO glycosyltransferases. The A blood group is formed by the addition of N-acetyl-galactosamine to the H antigen, the B blood group is formed by the addition of galactose to the H antigen, and blood group O results when no sugar is added to the H antigen.1 ABO blood groups

E. Elardo, N. Elbadri, C. Sanchez, V. Powell, M. Smaris, Y. Li, J. Jacobson, T. Hilbert, T. Hamilton, D.W. Wu

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 89–94

Article | 26-October-2019

An overview of the Progenika ID CORE XT: an automated genotyping platform based on a fluidic microarray system

Automated testing platforms facilitate the introduction of red cell genotyping of patients and blood donors. Fluidic microarray systems, such as Luminex XMAP (Austin, TX), are used in many clinical applications, including HLA and HPA typing. The Progenika ID CORE XT (Progenika Biopharma-Grifols, Bizkaia, Spain) uses this platform to analyze 29 polymorphisms determining 37 antigens in 10 blood group systems. Once DNA has been extracted, processing time is approximately 4 hours. The system is

Mindy Goldman, Núria Nogués, Lilian M. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 62–68

Article | 27-December-2020

Auberger red cell antigens are not part of the Kell, Colton, or Dombrock blood group systems

Since 1981, red cell samples from families were tested with anti-Aua and, since 1986, with both anti-Aua and anti-Aub in an attempt to elevate Auberger to a blood group system status. The results show that Auberger is not part of the Kell (five families), Colton (three families), or Dombrock (two families) blood group systems. Exclusion from four more systems (Di, Yt, LW, Ch:Rg) is required before system status may be claimed.

Patricia Tippett, Geoff L. Daniels, Christine Lomas, Carole A. Green

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 67–69

Article | 26-October-2019

Mass-scale donor red cell genotyping using real-time array technology

Blood centers are in the unique position to evaluate large numbers of blood donations for antigen-negative blood types. The limitations with the use of hemagglutination, however, can be circumvented with red cell genotyping. The reagents used for genotyping are synthesized and can be designed for any of the known blood group antigen single nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with blood group antigen expression. There is interest in the application of mass-scale red cell genotyping of

Gregory A. Denomme, Michael J. Schanen

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 69–74

Article | 16-November-2020

Effect of pronase on highincidence blood group antigens and the prevalence of antibodies to pronase-treated erythrocytes

Pronase is a useful and relatively nonspecific protease that cleaves many red blood cell (RBC) membrane proteins that carry blood group antigens. Unexpected findings in tests using pronase-treated RBCs during the investigation of a patient’s blood sample led us to test which high-incidence blood group antigens were sensitive and which were resistant to pronase treatment, and to determine the prevalence of antipronase in the serum of blood donors. Our results show that antigens in the

Marion E. Reid, Carole A. Green, Jack Hoffer, Ragnhild Øyen

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 139–142

Review | 01-December-2019

A review of the JR blood group system

The JR blood group system (ISBT 032) consists of one antigen, Jra, which is of high prevalence in all populations. The rare Jr(a–) phenotype has been found mostly in Japanese and other Asian populations, but also in people of northern European ancestry, in Bedouin Arabs, and in one Mexican. Anti-Jra has caused transfusion reactions and is involved in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. The Jra antigen is located on ABCG2 transporter, a multipass membrane glycoprotein (also known

Lilian Castilho, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 63–68

Report | 25-March-2020

The potential of blood group genotyping for transfusion medicine practice

assays are reproducible and highly correlated with the RBC phenotype.  The recent availability of automated, highthroughput, DNA-array platforms now moves testing from the reference laboratory setting into hospital and donor testing centers.  This approach has the potential to revolutionize the process of locating antigen-negative donor units by testing for all clinically significant blood group antigens in a single assay.  When partnered with the same extended typing of the patient

Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 190–195

Review | 01-December-2019

XG: the forgotten blood group system

The XG blood group system is best known for its contributions to the fields of genetics and chromosome mapping. This system comprises two antigens, Xga and CD99, that are not antithetical but that demonstrate a unique phenotypic relationship. XG is located on the tip of the short arm of the X chromosome with exons 1 to 3 present in the pseudoautosomal region of the X (and Y) chromosome(s) and exons 4 to 10 located only on the X chromosome. Xga demonstrates a clear X-linked pattern of

Nanette C. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 2, 68–71

Review | 16-October-2019

An update on the GLOB blood group system (and former GLOB collection)

The main change that has occurred in the GLOB blood group system since the GLOB review published in this journal in 2013 is the addition of an antigen. The high-prevalence PX2 antigen, originally recognized as the x2 glycosphingolipid, is expressed on red blood cells of most individuals and is elevated in the rare PP1Pk-negative p blood group phenotype. P synthase, encoded by B3GALNT1, was found to elongate paragloboside to PX2 by adding the terminal β3GalNAc moiety. Hence, PX2 was moved

Jennifer Ricci Hagman, Julia S. Westman, Åsa Hellberg, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 4, 161–163

Article | 21-April-2020

Novel molecular basis of an Inab phenotype  

The Cromer blood group system consists of ten high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF is found in the cell membranes of RBCs, granulocytes,platelets,and lymphocytes and is widely represented in other body tissues. Sequence analyses of DNA were performed on a blood sample from a 91-year-old Japanese woman whose serum contained an alloantibody to a high-prevalence antigen in the Cromer blood group system (anti-IFC). A blood sample from her

Kim Hue-Roye, Vivien E. Powell, Gita Patel, Debra Lane, Mariska Maguire, Amy Chung, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 53–55

Report | 09-October-2019

Distribution of blood groups in the Iranian general population

We report the first study of antigen and phenotype prevalence within various blood group systems in the Iranian general population. In this retrospective study, samples from 3475 individuals referred to the Immunohematology Reference Laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, Tehran, Iran, for paternity testing from 1998 to 2008 were additionally tested for red blood cell (RBC) antigens in the Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, Lutheran, P1PK, and Xg blood group systems. The antigen

Ehsan Shahverdi, Mostafa Moghaddam, Ali Talebian, Hassan Abolghasemi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 135–139

Article | 16-February-2021

An update on the I blood group system

L. Cooling

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 85–90

Case report | 01-December-2019

Blood group genotyping in a multitrauma patient: a case report

blood cell concentrates. This case demonstrates how the use of blood group genotyping in an acute setting can lead to a decrease in the unnecessary use of group O, D– blood products.

Joyce Curvers, Volkher Scharnhorst, Masja de Haas, Loes Warnier-Wandel, Daan van de Kerkhof

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 3, 85–87

Report | 25-March-2020

Principles of PCR-based assays

DNA-based assays are powerful tools to predict the blood group of an individual and are rapidly gaining in popularity.  DNA, which can be extracted from various sources using commercial kits, is amplified by PCR to obtain a sufficient amount of the target of interest for analysis.  There are different types of PCR assays: standard single PCR (followed by RFLP or sequencing), allele-specific PCR, multiplex PCR, and real-time PCR.  Microarray platforms are a newer application of

Kim Hue-Roye, Sunitha Vege

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 170–175

Article | 18-October-2020

Preview 2000: proposal for a new terminology to describe carbohydrate histo-blood group antigens/glycotopes within the ISBT terminology framework

Stephen M. Henry, John J Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 1, 49–56

Article | 14-October-2020

DNA analysis for donor screening of Dombrock blood group antigens

Jill R. Storry, Connie M. Westhoff, Dalisay Charles-Pierre, Maria Rios, Kim Hue-Roye, Sunitha Vege, Sandra Nance, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 73–76

Article | 21-April-2020

Analysis of SERF in Thai blood donors

The Cromer blood group system consists of nine high-prevalence and three low-prevalence antigens carried on decay-accelerating factor (DAF). We recently described one of these Cromer highprevalence antigens,SERF,the absence of which was found in a Thai woman.The lack of SERF antigen in this proband was associated with a substitution of nucleotide 647C>T in exon 5 of DAF, which is predicted to be a change of proline to leucine at amino acid position 182 in short consensus repeat (SCR) 3 of

Poonsub Palacajornsuk, Kim Hue-Roye, Oytip Nathalang, Srisurang Tantimavanich, Sasitorn Bejrachandra, Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 2, 66–69

Article | 14-October-2020

Low-incidence MNS antigens associated with single amino acid changes and their susceptibility to enzyme treatment

MNS antigens are carried on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or their variants. Antigens at the N-terminus of GPA are sensitive to cleavage by ficin, papain, and trypsin but are resistant to α-chymotrypsin. Antigens at the N-terminus of GPB are sensitive to cleavage by ficin, papain, and α-chymotrypsin but are resistant to trypsin treatment. These characteristics have been used to aid in the identification of blood group alloantibodies. Recent molecular analyses have

Marion E. Reid, Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 76–81

case-report | 25-June-2021

Anti-A1Leb: a mind boggler

The Lewis blood group system (Le) is unique because it is the only system in which the antigens are not synthesized by red blood cells (RBCs); rather, the antigens are passively adsorbed onto the RBC membrane.1 Le antigens are soluble carbohydrate moieties formed by tissue cells and secreted by body secretions like saliva, where they appear as glycoproteins; in plasma, however, they appear as glycolipids. The Le phenotype depends on ABH secretor status of an individual, although FUT2 and FUT3

A. Gupta, K. Chaudhary, S. Asati, B. Kakkar

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 69–71

Article | 20-December-2020

Cromer-related blood group antigens and the glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-linked protein, decay-accelerating factor DAF (CD55)

Cromer-related blood group antigens are located on the complement regulatory glycoprotein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). DAF is not detectable on red cells from individuals with a Cromernull phenotype (termed Inab), which is probably an inherited condition. DAF is also absent from a subpopulation of red cells (PNH III) from patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), an acquired hematological defect. PNH III red cells, like Inab cells, lack all the Cromer-related antigens

Marion Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 27–29

Review | 09-October-2019

The FORS awakens: review of a blood group system reborn

The presence of the FORS1 antigen on red blood cells was discovered relatively recently, and in 2012, the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) acknowledged FORS as blood group system number 031. This rare antigen is carried by a glycosphingolipid and formed by elongation of the P antigen. Most people have naturally occurring anti-FORS1 in their plasma. The clinical significance of these antibodies is unknown in the transfusion setting, but they can hemolyze FORS1+ erythrocytes in

Annika K. Hult, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 64–72

Review | 09-October-2019

The Augustine blood group system, 48 years in the making

The high-prevalence antigen, Ata, was first identified in 1967, but it was not until 2015 that Ata became AUG1 of a new blood group system, Augustine (AUG). The new system was established after the identification of the gene encoding Ata and the recognition of a null phenotype (AUG:–1,–2) in an At(a–) patient with an antibody (anti-AUG2) reactive with At(a–) red blood cells. The At(a–) phenotype is very rare and, with the exception of the one family with the null

Geoffrey Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 100–103

Report | 01-December-2019

A novel JK null allele associated with typing discrepancies among African Americans

. Results of donor genotyping were compared with previously recorded results of serologic tests, and discrepant results were investigated. Although the two previously identified polymorphisms were not detected in the discrepant samples, a novel allele (191G>A) was identified and was assigned the ISBT number JK*02N.09. This study illustrates a limitation of using single-nucleotide polymorphisms for prediction of blood group antigens.

Katrina L. Billingsley, Jeff B. Posadas, Joann M. Moulds, Lakshmi K. Gaur

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 145–148

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