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  • Immunohematology

 

Report | 14-March-2020

Comparison of gel test and conventional tube test for antibody detection and titration in D-negative pregnant women: study from a tertiary-care hospital in North India

Conventional tube testing was used for antibody screening and titration in D– pregnant women in our hospital until the recent introduction of the gel test. In this study we assessed the sensitivity of the gel test in our setup and tried to establish a correlation between these tests for determining antibody titer. We collected 652 blood samples from 223 antenatal D– women during a span of 1 year. The samples were tested separately by the conventional tube technique and the gel test

Manish K. Thakur, Neelam Marwaha, Praveen Kumar, Subhash C. Saha, Beenu Thakral, Ratti Ram Sharma, Karan Saluja, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Ashish Jain

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 4, 174–177

Article | 14-October-2020

Antibody screening in 37°C saline. Is it safe to omit it using the indirect antiglobulin (gel) test?

indicate that 37°C saline is not an essential pretransfusion procedure when the DiaMed gel test is used.

José A. Duran, Manuel Figueiredo

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 13–15

Article | 03-November-2020

The gel test: use in the identification of unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The IgG GEL test was compared with the LISS tube test (Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline) for antibody identification. The suitability of red blood cells (RBCs) pretreated with ficin, dithiothreitol (DTT), or chloroquine diphosphate (CDP) also was assessed for use in the GEL test. In addition, time-in-motion studies were performed comparing GEL (12 panels per batch) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) tube tests (3 panels per batch). In 57 antibody identification studies, there

W. John Judd, E.Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf, Colleen Masters

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Article | 09-November-2020

The gel test: sensitivity and specificity for unexpected antibodies to blood group antigens

The recently FDA-licensed anti-IgG gel test for pretransfusion antibody detection requires crossover validation before implementation. Six hundred coded samples sent for routine pretransfusion tests were used to compare GEL (ID-MTS, Ortho Diagnostic Systems Inc., Raritan, NJ) with Löw and Messeter’s low-ionic-strength saline (LISS). There were 456 GEL–LISS–, 97 GEL+LISS+, 45 GEL–LISS+, and 2 GEL+LISS– tests. The 144 positive tests involved 157 antibodies; 67

W. John Judd, E. Ann Steiner, Pamela C. Knaf

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 132–135

Article | 14-October-2020

A gel microtyping system for diagnosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

lysis (MIRL [CD59]). We evaluated the diagnostic value of a simple hemagglutination test using the gel microtyping system by comparing it with lytic tests (the Ham test and the sucrose lysis test) and with flow cytometry (FC) assessment of expression of GPI-anchored proteins (CD59 and CD55). Examining 51 blood samples from 48 patients, we found that the gel test is useful as a screening test for PNH diagnosis and can replace the Ham test and the sucrose lysis test. The threshold of the gel test is

Barbara Zupanska, Irena Bogdanik, Hanna Pyl

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 9–12

Article | 18-October-2020

Comparison of tube and gel techniques for antibody identification

There are several methods for antibody detection and each technique has advantages and limitations. We compared the performance of the tube (polyethylene glycol–indirect antiglobulin test [PEG-IAT]) and gel test technique for antibody identification. From January to May 1999, we performed antibody screening tests by gel and tube techniques on 10,123 random blood samples submitted to our reference laboratory. Six hundred and twentyeight (6.2%) reactive samples were tested for antibody

Marcia Cristina Zago Novaretti, Eduardo Jens Silveira, Edio da Costa Filho, Pedro Enrique Dorlhiac- Llacer, Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 4, 138–141

Article | 01-April-2020

Application of gel technology in the serologic characterization of autoantibody in DAT-positive autoimmune diseases

coated with more than one type of immunoglobulin and complement were experiencing hemolysis (p < 0.05). Seventy-five percent (21 of 28) of patients having IgG1, IgG3, or both on their RBCs showed hemolysis (p < 0.05). Thus, it is important to serologically characterize autoantibodies in autoimmune disorders to effectively predict the prognosis and disease outcome. This characterization can be performed effectively with the gel test,which can be introduced in blood centers as a replacement to

Sudipta Sekhar Das, Rajendra K. Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 59–62

Article | 14-October-2020

Selecting an acceptable and safe antibody detection test can present a dilemma

The Transfusion Service at Duke University Hospital has changed antibody detection methods from the use of albumin in indirect antiglobulin tests to low-ionic-strength solution (LISS), and from LISS to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in an effort to enhance the rapid detection of clinically significant antibodies. In 1996, staffing issues required the consideration of automation. Although previous studies indicated that the gel test was not as sensitive as PEG for detection of clinically significant

Martha Rae Combs, Steven J. Bredehoeft

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 86–89

Article | 15-May-2020

The sensitivity, specificity, and clinical relevance of gel versus tube DATs in the clinical immunology laboratory

of 310 cases the DAT was negative by both methods. Of the 42 patients with a positive DAT, the test was positive by both methods in 18 patients. In the remaining 24 cases the DAT was positive by the gel test only.In all cases positive by both techniques the test result affected patient management. Of the 24 cases that were positive only by gel test, 3 were judged to be clinically significant. In this study, the gel test was more sensitive than the tube technique for performance of the DAT.However

Na’ama Paz, Dganit Itzhaky, Martin H. Ellis

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 2, 118–121

Article | 14-October-2020

Comparative testing for weak expression of D antigen: manual tube testing vs. a semiautomated IgG gel system

cards. Results with this semi-automated gel test were compared with results obtained with 37 D– and 99 weak D samples, as determined by previous testing with a manual IAT tube test. Hands-on time was determined for both methods and both methods were evaluated for inconsistency, or nonagreement, between the interpretation of the current weak D test and the results on record for any prior donations. There were no discordant results obtained, with the majority of weak D samples giving stronger

Bill A. Martinez, Liz A. Crews, Arlene M. Dowd, Melissa McMahan

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 7–9

Report | 01-December-2019

Single-center comparison of gel microcolumn and solid-phase methods for antibody screening

Our facility changed antibody screening methods from a gel microcolumn–based test (ID-Micro Typing System Gel Test; Ortho Clinical Diagnostics, Inc., Raritan, NJ) to an automated solid-phase test (Galileo/Capture-R Ready-Screen [I and II], Immucor, Inc., Norcross, GA). To determine whether detection rates for commonly encountered clinically significant red blood cell antibodies differed as a consequence of this change, preimplementation and postimplementation antibody identification

Anne Schmidt, Brenda J. Bendix, Eapen K. Jacob, Sandra C. Bryant, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 3, 101–104

Article | 15-April-2020

In search of the Holy Grail: comparison of antibody screening methods

improved sensitivity,with the occasional negative impact on relevant results. The focus on improving efficiency through automation, and personnel resourcing challenges of the transfusion service,have led laboratories to select methods tailored to meet their needs. This review compares the newer methods used in the gel test and solid phase test with commonly used tube methods. Both of the newer methods were developed with future adaptation to automation in mind. Further literature reviews about

Tony S. Casina

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 196–202

Article | 14-October-2020

Equivalence of spray-dried K2EDTA,spray-dried K3EDTA, and liquid K3EDTA anticoagulated blood samples for routine blood center or transfusion service testing

(Olympus® PK 7200) and gel column methods (Ortho ID-Micro Typing System™/Gel Test™). Additional studies on blood donors’samples included time delayed antigen testing and antibody identification and half-draw/halfevacuated collections. Also, we compared the results of routine ABO/D testing and antibody screening for 50 patients’ samples collected in spray-dried K2EDTA and spray-dried K3EDTA and for an additional 50 patients’ samples collected in spray-dried K2EDTA tubes

Stacie Leathem, Nicole Dodge Zantek, Marti Kemper, Laura Korte, Al Langeberg, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 117–121

Article | 14-October-2020

Tube and column agglutination technology for autocontrol testing

agglutination tests. The tube method was carried out using low-ionic-strength solution (LISS). The direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was performed using the tube method, and further investigated with elution studies if warranted. Seventy-nine patient’s samples (7.74%) had a positive autocontrol: the gel test, 72 (91.13%); ReACT, 21 (26.58%); and the tube method, 27 (34.18%). Of the 79 positive autocontrols, 44 samples had a negative DAT. Of the samples with positive DAT results, only one possessed a

J.E. Courtney, J.L. Vincent, A.J. Indrikovs

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 2, 50–52

Report | 14-March-2020

Attempts to support an immune etiology in 800 patients with direct antiglobulin test–negative hemolytic anemia

antiglobulin sera (AGS) panel of anti-IgG, anti-C3, anti-IgM, and anti-IgA by a routine DAT. Additional tests included a direct Polybrene test to detect small amounts of RBCbound IgG, a cold-wash technique to detect low-affinity IgG, and a DAT by gel test with anti-IgG. A positive result was obtained with at least one method for 431 (54%) of 800 specimens tested. The AGS panel was positive for 400 (50%) of samples, with IgG or C3 or both accounting for reactivity in 48 percent. IgA alone was found on 2

Regina M. Leger, Asuncion Co, Penny Hunt, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 4, 156–160

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