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  • Journal Of Nematology


research-article | 30-November-2018

Fluensulfone and 1,3-dichloroprene for plant-parasitic nematode management in potato production

nematodes are a major problem in this warm area with coastal sandy soils (Weingartner et al., 1993; Crow et al., 2000a). A wide variety of plant-parasitic nematodes are abundant in the area, but sting nematode (Belonolaimus longicaudatus) and the stubby-root nematodes, Paratrichodorus (Nanidorus) spp. and Trichodorus spp., are the most problematic (Perez et al., 2000; Crow et al., 2000b). Sting nematode is a very damaging pathogen of potato that stunts the root system, reducing tuber yield (Weingartner

Zane J. Grabau, Joseph W. Noling, Pablo A. Navia Gine

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–12

Research Article | 03-December-2018

Improved 18S small subunit rDNA primers for problematic nematode amplification

The 18S small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA sequence is one of the most useful molecular loci for identification and phylogeny reconstruction of agriculturally important nematodes. Various pairs of universal primers have been developed in the past to amplify short and long nematode sequences. However, certain nematode taxa were not readily amplified and/or sequenced with the existing primer tools. Frequently, the center region of a roughly 1,000 nucleotide segment would be lost. Therefore new

L. K. Carta, S. Li

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 4, 533–542

Article | 21-July-2017

The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue

Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental 


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 2, 87–94

research-article | 30-November-2020

Evaluation of a new chemical nematicide, fluazaindolizine (ReklemelTM active), for plant-parasitic nematode management in bermudagrass

assays from Alabama turfgrass, with many of these being found at damaging levels (Mullen, 1998; Sikora et al., 2001). Zeng et al. (2012) identified over 24 unique plant-parasitic nematode species on over 111 golf courses throughout North and South Carolina. Nematode damage occurs as they feed on the root system, leading to wilting, chlorosis, and thinning of the turf often in irregularly shaped patches (Crow and Han, 2005). This feeding inhibits root growth and development, leading to potential

Will L. Groover, Kathy S. Lawrence

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–14

research-article | 30-November-2018

A Draft Genome Sequence of the Burrowing Nematode Radopholus similis

Plant-parasitic nematodes cause estimated crop losses of $100 billion worldwide (Coyne et al., 2018). In the United States alone, economic losses due to nematode induced damages have been estimated to be around $10 billion (Coyne et al., 2018). Recent advances in genome sequencing technologies combined with the suite of open source softwares have opened a new paradigm for molecular scientists and plant pathologists to examine the genomic variability that exists within pathogen populations

Reny Mathew, Mark Burke, Charles H. Opperman

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–2

Research Article | 03-September-2018

Nematode Genome Announcement: A Draft Genome for Rice Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola

The rice root-knot nematode Meloidogyne graminicola has emerged as a devastating pest of rice in South-East Asian countries. Here we present a draft genome sequence for M. graminicola, assembled using data from short and long insert libraries sequenced on Illumina GAIIx sequencing platform.

Vishal Singh Somvanshi, Madhura Tathode, Rohit Nandan Shukla, Uma Rao

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 111–116

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report of northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla (Chitwood, 1949) on strawberry in Turkey

Strawberry is a crop with global economic significance. Strawberry is cultivated mostly in China, USA, Mexico, Egypt, Turkey, and Spain (FAOSTAT, 2019). Strawberry production is conducted in all regions in Turkey and a total production is 486 705 ton an area of 16,089 ha. In total, 65,998 ton strawberry is produced on an area of 1,650 ha in Mersin province Silifke district (TUİK, 2019). The nematode leads to significant yield losses and crop damages in several host plants due to feeding by a

Adem Özarslandan, Dilek Dinçer, Şefika Yavuz, Ayşenur Aslan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–4

research-article | 30-November-2019

Influences of nitrogen inputs on nematode populations under highbush blueberry

has also been commonly observed to suppress certain populations of free-living soil nematodes, particularly omnivores and predators in the Dorylaimida with ‘persister’ or K-selected traits, resulting in reduced indices of diversity and food web structure such as the nematode community structure index (e.g. Ferris et al., 2001; Forge et al., 2005b; Wang et al., 2006; Azpilicueta et al., 2014; Pan et al., 2015; Song et al., 2016). Such changes in soil food web structure have been theoretically

Thomas Forge, David Ehret, Aime Messiga, Martine Dorais

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–14

research-article | 30-November-2020

Effect of fluensulfone on different functional genes of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

sites (giant cells) that nurture them for rest of their growth and reproduction (Berg et al., 2009). While doing so, these microscopic animals develop a complex nexus of interactive cross-talks with their hosts and remarkably reprogram the plant cells for their own benefit. A wide array of nematode-derived effect or molecules, viz., the cell-wall modifying enzymes (Mantelin et al., 2017), esophageal gland secretions (Chaudhary et al., 2019; Ding et al., 2000; Huang et al., 2003); neurotransmitters

Alkesh Hada, Divya Singh, Kranti Kavalipurapu Veera Venkata Satyanarayana, Madhurima Chatterjee, Victor Phani, Uma Rao

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–14

Research Article | 03-December-2018

Biological characterization of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema innovationi: a South African isolate

Entomopathogenic nematode species perform differently under different environmental conditions; therefore, the authors investigated the biological and environmental characteristics that could optimize performance of Steinernema innovationi. The authors studied the effect of temperature on infectivity and reproduction, the foraging behavior and host range. Thermal activity was optimal between 22 and 25°C. Highest infective juvenile (IJ) yields in last instar Galleria mellonella were observed at

Tshimangadzo Ramakuwela, Justin Hatting, Mark D. Laing, Nicolene Thiebaut, Selcuk Hazir

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 4, 1–10

research-article | 24-April-2019

DNA barcoding evidence for the North American presence of alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis

Alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis (Kirjanova & Krall, 1971) was originally described from the USSR in 1971 and redescribed by Gerber and Maas (1982). The redescription added information missing in the original description regarding juvenile and male stages (Gerber and Maas, 1982). Host testing was conducted for the redescription that included 20 plant species from 7 plant families. These tests included Glycine max, Medicago lupulina, M. sativa, Phaseolus vulgaris, Pisum sativum

Thomas Powers, Andrea Skantar, Tim Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Peter Mullin, Saad Hafez, Zafar Handoo, Tim Todd, Kirsten Powers

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–17

research-article | 13-October-2021

Organic or conventional production system and nutrient rate affect the nematode community in carrot production

Conservation Services, 2020). The nematode community is an important biological component of soil health because it can contribute to sustained soil productivity and can be a useful indicator of agroecosystem status (Grabau et al., 2020; Trap et al., 2016). The nematode community includes both plant-parasitic nematodes that parasitize and damage crops and free-living nematodes, which may be beneficial to soil productivity (Ferris et al., 2001; Grabau et al., 2018). Free-living nematodes include a wide

Zane J. Grabau, Danielle D. Treadwell, Jose J. Perez Orozco, David N. Campbell, Robert C. Hochmuth

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–18

research-article | 30-November-2020

Entomopathogenic nematode-gastropod interactions

Reddy, 2019). EPNs are associated with insect-pathogenic bacterial symbionts. The bacterial species in question do not occur in nature without a nematode associate, and the exact identity of each bacterial symbiont is dependent on the species of their particular nematode partner. Photorhabdus asymbiotica is an exception, as it occurs in both free-living and symbiotic conditions, and can be pathogenic to mammals, including humans. For example, all species of the nematode genus Steinernema associate

Jacob Schurkman, Adler R. Dillman

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–10

research-article | 30-November-2019

Potential impacts of the ring nematode, Mesocriconema xenoplax, on grapevines in British Columbia: a microplot study

The wine grape industry in the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia (BC), Canada has grown rapidly with respect to acreage and economic value since the early 1990s, with approximately 4,000 ha of Vitis vinifera varieties now producing an estimated $2.8 billion total return to the BC economy when agri-tourism benefits are included ( Since approximately 2005 when local diagnostic labs adopted sugar-flotation nematode

Thomas Forge, Rosanne Smit, Denise Neilsen, Gerry Neilsen

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–7

research-article | 30-November-2019

Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii on selected root-knot nematode resistant sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars

Eisenback, 1983), observed in the major sweetpotato producing states in the USA. This nematode species was reported causing severe yield and root quality suppression, and in at least one case, total crop loss in North Carolina (Ashby, 2017). Other production states with severe outbreaks of damage include Louisiana (Strain, 2018a, 2018b) and South Carolina (Rutter et al., 2019). In addition, M. enterolobii has been reported causing damage on sweetpotato in Africa (Fargette, 1987; Fargette and Braaksma

Janete A. Brito, Johan Desaeger, D.W. Dickson

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–6

Research Article | 31-May-2018

List of Type Specimens Deposited Since 1998 in the United States Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection, Beltsville, Maryland

The United States Department of Agriculture Nematode Collection (USDANC) is one of the largest and most valuable in existence and includes millions of specimens housed in over 39,800 permanent slides and 9,300 vials. This collection preserves type specimens of nematodes to serve as a reference for identifications and future taxonomic revisions. Also, the collection provides useful information on nematode hosts, occurrence, and distribution. The present list includes type specimens added to the

Zafar A. Handoo, Mihail R. Kantor, Lynn K. Carta, David J. Chitwood

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 1, 51–68

research-article | 30-November-2020

Infected host responses across entomopathogenic nematode phylogeny

pheromone communication systems across a range of nematode species that includes plant-parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), the model bacterial-feeding C. elegans, and entomopathogenic nematodes from the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae (Kaplan et al., 2012). These ascaroside pheromones regulate dauer formation, aggregation, and various behaviors such as dispersal in C. elegans; additionally, extracts containing ascaroside pheromones have been shown to influence dispersal and

Hilal Erdogan, Glen Stevens, Asa Stevens, David Shapiro-Ilan, Fatma Kaplan, Hans Alborn, Edwin Lewis

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–9

research-article | 30-November-2020

Pratylenchus smoliki, a new nematode species (Pratylenchidae: Tylenchomorpha) from the Great Plains region of North America

publication and the formal description of this species is the primary objective of this study. Materials and methods Nematode populations Nematodes included in this study were collected as part of a series of plant disease surveys as described in Ozbayrak et al. (2019). Pratylenchus smoliki n. sp. was collected from Buffalo County, Nebraska and Shawnee County, Kansas as part of a wheat and corn soil survey. Comparative host tests and most morphological analyses were conducted on specimens cultured at

Thomas Powers, Timothy Todd, Tim Harris, Rebecca Higgins, Ann MacGuidwin, Peter Mullin, Mehmet Ozbayrak, Kirsten Powers, Kanan Sakai

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–23

Article | 21-July-2017

Effects of Cover Crops on Pratylenchus penetrans and the Nematode Community in Carrot Production

Cover cropping is a common practice in U.S. Midwest carrot production for soil conservation, and may affect soil ecology and plant-parasitic nematodes—to which carrots are very susceptible. This study assessed the impact of cover crops—oats (Avena sativa), radish (Raphanus sativus) cv. Defender, rape (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and a mixture of oats and radish—on plantparasitic nematodes and soil ecology based on the nematode community in Michigan carrot


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 1, 114–123

Article | 21-July-2017

Esteya vermicola Controls the Pinewood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, in Pine Seedlings

Esteya vermicola (Ophiostomataceae) is an endoparasitic fungus that has great potential as a biological control agent against the pinewood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus which causes pine wilt disease.We tested E. vermicola for control of pine wilt disease by spraying E. vermicola conidia on artificial wounds on pine seedlings, and the optimum E. vermicola treatment density and application time were also investigated in the greenhouse. The wounds were similar to those made by


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 1, 86–91

research-article | 30-November-2019

In bromeliad phytotelma, anthropic disturbance does not affect the nematode trophic structure

have been widely used as bioindicators (Yeates, 2003; Wilson and Kakouli-Duarte, 2009; Hägerbäumer et al., 2015). In terrestrial ecosystems, the response of nematodes to AD has often been sought in the soil, despite indications that, at least in tropical biomes, nematodes are more abundant and diverse aboveground (Porazinska et al., 2010). Two aboveground environments which harbor large, highly diverse, and little-studied nematode communities are the forest canopy and phytotelmata (sing. phytotelma

Alexandre Macedo Almeida, Janeo Eustáquio Almeida Filho, Ricardo Moreira Souza

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

Research Article | 31-May-2018

Incidence of Oscheius onirici (Nematoda: Rhabditidae), a potentially entomopathogenic nematode from the marshlands of Wisconsin, USA

In a search for an entomopathogenic nematode to control cranberry insect pests, three Oscheius populations (Rhabditidae) were recovered through the Galleria-bait method from one sample taken in a wild cranberry marsh in Jackson County, Wisconsin, USA. Morphological studies with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as molecular analyses of the near-full-length small subunit rDNA gene, D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit rDNA gene, internal transcribed spacer, and

Weimin Ye, Shane Foye, Ann E. MacGuidwin, Shawn Steffan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 1, 9–26

research-article | 30-November-2018

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the plant-parasitic nematode Aphelenchoides besseyi in rice seedlings

The leaf and bud nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi, is the pathogen that causes the rice white-tip disease in rice growing regions worldwide. The nematode is widely distributed in Taiwan. Depends on the rice variety, it generally causes 7.3 to 29% disease rate in the field, and resulted in up to 39.3% yield loss (Wu, 2011). Leaf tips of the A. besseyi-infected plant turned white, and usually extended 3 to 5 cm long. While the nematodes gradually took the majority space within the seed, the

Jiue-in Yang, Guan-yi Yu

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–11

Article | 21-July-2017

Characterization of Lilium longiflorum cv. ‘Nellie White’ Infection with Root-lesion Nematode Pratylenchus penetrans by Bright-field and Transmission Electron Microscopy

Lilium longiflorum cv. Nellie White, commonly known as Easter lily, is an important floral crop with an annual wholesale value of over $26 million in the United States. The root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus penetrans, is a major pest of lily due to the significant root damage it causes. In this study, we investigated the cytological aspects of this plant–nematode interaction using bright-field and transmission electron microscopy. We took advantage of an in vitro culture method


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 1, 2–11

research-article | 30-November-2019

Molecular and morphological characterization of the amaryllis lesion nematode, Pratylenchus hippeastri (Inserra et al., 2007), from California

, 1936 contains approximately 100 species (Geraert, 2013; Qing et al., 2019), with new species being described very frequently. Root-lesion nematodes are among the most prevalent nematodes that can infect and cause damage to the grapevine roots (Téliz et al., 2007; Howland et al., 2014). The large number of species as well as the vast number of hosts makes this genus very important from an economic perspective. Pratylenchus hippeastri, also known as the amaryllis lesion nematode, has been previously

Zafar A. Handoo, Andrea M. Skantar, Mihail R. Kantor, Saad L. Hafez, Maria N. Hult

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–5

research-article | 30-November-2020

Evaluation of root-knot nematode resistance assays for sugarcane accession lines in Australia

Plant-parasitic nematodes are major constraints to sugarcane production worldwide (Ramouthar and Bhuiyan, 2018). In Australia, plant-parasitic nematodes cause 5 to 20% yield loss per year, costing over $80 million in productivity (Blair and Stirling, 2007). The most important nematodes of sugarcane in Australia are root-lesion nematode (Pratylenchus zeae) and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica). Meloidogyne javanica is primarily abundant in sandy soil and can cause significant yield loss

S. A. Bhuiyan, K. Garlick

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–11

Article | 05-December-2017

A New Race (X12) of Soybean Cyst Nematode in China

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, is a serious economic threat to soybean-producing regions worldwide. A new SCN population (called race X12) was detected in Shanxi province, China. Race X12 could reproduce on all the indicator lines of both race and Heterodera glycines (HG) type tests. The average number of females on Lee68 (susceptible control) was 171.40 with the lowest Female Index (FI) 61.31 on PI88788 and the highest FI 117.32 on Pickett in the race test. The average


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 3, 321–326

research-article | 30-November-2019

Nematode trophic structure in the phytotelma of Neoregelia cruenta (Bromeliaceae) in relation to microenvironmental and climate variables

., 2002; Bert et al., 2003; Holovachov et al., 2004; Zullini, 1977, and Jacobs, 1984 cited by Hodda et al., 2006; Quisado, 2013; Kolicka et al., 2016). The ecology of phytotelma nematodes was first examined by Devetter (2004), who found them to be abundant in tree holes in temperate forests. In these phytotelmata, nematode abundance did not vary significantly across seasons and sampling locations. More detailed studies were conducted in plastic cups mimicking tree holes, also in temperate forests

Alexandre M. Almeida, Ricardo M. Souza

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

research-article | 09-April-2020

First report of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne morocciensis infecting peach in Southern Brazil

studies (n = 20). Additionally, individual females (n = 20) were extracted from the peach roots and identified by electrophoresis using α-esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes (Carneiro and Almeida, 2001) and perineal patterns (Taylor and Netscher, 1974). The nematode population density in the samples was 283 eggs and J2s per gram of fresh roots. Perineal patterns of females (Fig. 2B,C) showed oval squared shapes, with moderately high to high dorsal arches, striae widely separated

W. R. Silva, C. P. Machaca-Calsin, C. B. Gomes

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–3

research-article | 17-March-2020

First report of a stunt nematode Tylenchorhynchus zeae on corn in Gansu Province, China

by means of BLAST search in the database. The ITS1 sequence had a remarkably similarity of 99.00 to 99.05% with the T. zeae from Taiwan Province (EF519711) in China, and from Spain (KJ461597, KJ461598, KJ461599, KJ461600). The D2/D3 sequences exhibited 99.43 to 99.73% similarity with that of T. zeae from Iran (KM068058) and Spain (KJ461563, KJ461564, KJ461565, KJ461566). According with our morphological and molecular studies, this population was identified as T. zeae. The nematode was discovered

Zhi Peng Xu, Hui Xia Li, Yong Gang Liu, Bao Cang Ren, Chun Hui Ni, Jin Hui Ma

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–2

research-article | 30-November-2020

Report of the Texas peanut root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne haplanaria (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from American pitcher plants (Sarracenia sp.) in California

During February and May 2021, several potted American pitcher plants (Sarracenia sp.) with roots galls induced by root-knot nematodes were collected from a botanical garden in Los Angeles County, California. Based on the analysis of several molecular markers, the root-knot nematode extracted from the galled roots was identified as the Texas peanut root-knot nematode M. haplanaria (Eisenback et al., 2003) in the Nematology Laboratory, Plant Pest Diagnostics Center, California Department of Food

Sergei A. Subbotin

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–7

research-article | 30-November-2018

In vivo production of entomopathogenic nematodes using Galleria mellonella: costs and effect of diets on nematode pathogenicity

The use of biological agents, such as entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) of the genera Heterorhabditis and Steinernema, is one of a range of tools for biological control. These nematode species are obligate parasites, lethal, and easy to apply (San-Blas, 2013). They can be mass-produced using in vivo or in vitro (solid or liquid) culture methods (Gaugler and Han, 2002; Rahoo et al., 2019), but in vivo is the method of choice for laboratory-scale production (e.g. for generating material for field

Régina Kotchofa, Hugues Baimey

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–15

research-article | 30-November-2019

The effect of two QTLs for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in cotton on nematode egression from roots

Melodoigyne incognita, the Southern root-knot nematode, causes greater total damage than any other pathogen of cotton in the United States and is responsible for losses of $147 million/year in addition to the cost of nematicides used to manage the nematode (Lawrence et al., 2015). The infective second-stage juveniles (J2) are motile and penetrate into the root system to establish feeding sites. If a feeding site is successfully established, the nematode ceases movement and progresses to

Mychele B. da Silva, Richard F. Davis, Robert L. Nichols, Pawan Kumar, Peng W. Chee

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2019

Detoxification-related gene expression accompanies anhydrobiosis in the foliar nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae)

The foliar nematode, Aphelenchoides fragariae (Ritzema Bos) Christie, is a quarantined endo- and ecto-parasite that infects a broad range of herbaceous and woody host plants (Jagdale and Grewal, 2002; McCuiston et al., 2007; Kohl et al., 2010; Fu et al., 2012; Sanchez-Monge et al., 2015). It enters plant leaves through wounds and stomata, where it feeds on mesophyll cells and causes characteristic vein-delimited lesions that reduce the appearance and marketability of ornamental plants (Wallace

Zhen Fu, Paula Agudelo, Christina E. Wells

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

Article | 24-July-2017

First Report of the Fig Cyst Nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, on Fig Tree, Ficus carica, in Ontario, Canada

Although fig trees are a popular ornamental fruit tree in subtropical regions, some hardy species, such as Ficus carica, have been grown in the west coast of British Columbia and southern Ontario in Canada. The fig cyst nematode, Heterodera fici Kirjanova, is a pest on fig plants, and the heavy infestation can cause retarded growth and yellowing of leaves (Maqbool et al., 1987). In the spring of 2016, a sample of rhizosphere from a potted fig (F. carica) seedling was submitted to the


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 131–132

research-article | 30-November-2021

Additional fertilizer and nematicide combinations on upland cotton to manage Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita in Alabama

restricted to tropical and subtropical regions because of elevated temperatures and humidity that are ideal for growth (Luttrell et al., 1994). These climate conditions are found in the cotton belt of the Southern United States where most cotton production occurs (Jones and Durand, 1959). The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) and the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White) are the most economically important nematodes on upland cotton

Kara L. Gordon, Drew W. Schrimsher, Kathy S. Lawrence

Journal of Nematology, Volume 54 , 1–15

research-article | 30-November-2020

Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses uncover species boundaries and reveal the occurrence of two new entomopathogenic nematode species, Heterorhabditis ruandica n. sp. and Heterorhabditis zacatecana n. sp.

, to calculate sequence similarity scores, and to determine signatures of species- and population-specific genetic polymorphism. To improve our understanding on the taxonomic relationships of Heterorhabditis nematodes, we revisited the current literature related to the description, synonymisation, and declaration as species inquirendae of Heterorhabditis species to compile taxonomically relevant morphological and morphometric characters, characterized new nematode isolates at the morphological and

Ricardo A.R. Machado, Aashaq Hussain Bhat, Joaquín Abolafia, Arthur Muller, Pamela Bruno, Patrick Fallet, Carla C.M. Arce, Ted C.J. Turlings, Julio S. Bernal, Joelle Kajuga, Bancy Waweru, Stefan Toepfer

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–42

Research Article | 26-September-2018

Chemical Signals of Vector Beetle Facilitate the Prevalence of a Native Fungus and the Invasive Pinewood Nematode

In China, the invasive Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the vector Monochamus alternatus beetle, and associated fungi exhibit a symbiotic relationship causing serious losses to pine forests. Although this complex system has been intensively investigated, the role of vector beetles on the development of associated fungi and their indirect contribution to the prevalence of pinewood nematode (PWN) is yet unknown. Here, three of the highly prevalent fungal species, viz., Sporothrix sp. 1, Ophiostoma ips


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 4, 341–347

research-article | 30-November-2020

Enhanced biological control of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, by combined inoculation of cotton or soybean seeds with a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium and pectin-rich orange peel

Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) are economically important crops in the United States and worldwide. In the U.S. alone, cotton yield in 2018 was 18.4 million bales, and soybean yield was 4.54 billion bushels (Anonymous, 2018). Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, the southern root-knot nematode, is broadly distributed in soils cultivated with cotton (Xiang et al., 2017b) and other crops (Huang et al., 2016), and causes economically significant yield

Mohammad K. Hassan, Kathy S. Lawrence, Edward J. Sikora, Mark R. Liles, Joseph W. Kloepper

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–17

Article | 21-July-2017

Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 1, 14–19

Article | 24-July-2017

Introduction to Nematode Genome and Transcriptome Announcements in the Journal of Nematology

The Journal of Nematology now offers publication of Nematode Genome Announcements (NGA) and Nematode Transcriptome Announcements (NTA). These brief reports announce the sequencing and assembly of a nematode genome or transcriptome resource, along with basic technical information on DNA sequencing and bioinformatic methods used. This publishing initiative offers a new avenue to openly and concisely communicate the availability and relevance of genome and transcriptome sequence resources to the


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 125–126

research-article | 30-November-2020

First record of the ectoparasitic nematode Amplimerlinius macrurus (Nematoda: Tylenchida) on the perennial grass Miscanthus × giganteus (Angiosperms: Poaceae) in Ukraine

anthropogenic origins (Kharytonov et al., 2019; Pidlisnyuk et al., 2020). Stefanovska et al. (2017) found several herbivorous insects associated with the cultivation of M × g being grown in the plantation as a source of bioenergy. Plant-parasitic nematodes may also affect M × g yields (Mekete et al., 2009, 2011). Different agronomic practices affect M × g yield and nematode communities, the latest can be used as a bioindication of the phytoremediation process (Almasary et al., 2020). Earlier, a soil survey

Tatyana Stefanovska, Andrzej Skwiercz, Łukasz Flis, Valentina Pidlisnyuk, Miloslav Zouhar

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–7

research-article | 30-November-2020

The impact of chemical nematicides on entomopathogenic nematode survival and infectivity

soil studies have not been addressed. Our objectives, herein, were to investigate the effects of four nematicidal compounds viz. fluopyram, metam potassium, fosthiazate, and fenamiphos on S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora survival, virulence, and penetration efficacy after exposure to nematicides in aqueous suspensions as well as in nematicide-treated soil. A novel assay measuring chemotaxis was also conducted. In addition, we included the plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) Meloidogyne incognita, for

Mustapha Touray, Harun Cimen, Sebnem H. Gulsen, Derya Ulug, Dolunay Erdogus, David Shapiro-Ilan, Selcuk Hazir

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–17

research-article | 16-April-2020

A new stunt nematode, Geocenamus chengi n. sp. (Nematoda: Merliniinae) in the rhizosphere of tea (Camellia sinensis) from Zhejiang Province, China

The tea plant is native to China; this country has the highest tea production and consumption rate in the world. More than 100,000 hectares of tea acreage are located in seven Chinese provinces: Yunnan, Sichuan, Fujian, Hubei, Zhejiang, Guizhou, and Anhui (Yao and Chen, 2012). In an attempt to investigate the nematode biodiversity associated with the tea plantations of Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, a population of stunt nematode of subfamily Merliniinae was detected. This family comprises

Munawar Maria, Wentao Miao, Pablo Castillo, Jingwu Zheng

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–13

Article | 21-July-2017

Oscheius microvilli n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae): A Facultatively Pathogenic Nematode from Chongming Island, China

features of the bursa, and molecular data. The new species is facultatively associated with a bacterial strain of Serratia. The LC50 of this novel nematode against Galleria mellonella was 69.1 dauer juveniles per milliliter after 48 hr of infection.


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 1, 33–41

research-article | 30-November-2018

Swine manure application enriches the soil food web in corn and soybean production

management of plant-parasitic nematodes is necessary to optimize crop productivity (Grabau and Chen, 2016a, 2016b) and non-parasitic, free-living nematodes contribute to and are sensitive indicators of soil fertility and ecology (Bongers, 1990; Ferris et al., 2001). In particular, soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) is the major yield-limiting pest in soybean production (Koenning and Wrather, 2010). Additional strategies to manage this pest are needed because management relies on a narrow set of

Zane J. Grabau, Yong Bao, Jeffrey A. Vetsch, Senyu Chen

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–14

Research Article | 03-December-2018

Broad-based root-knot nematode resistance identified in cowpea gene-pool two

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an affordable source of protein and strategic legume crop for food security in Africa and other developing regions; however, damage from infection by root-knot nematodes (RKN) suppresses cowpea yield. The deployment through breeding of resistance gene Rk in cowpea cultivars has provided protection to cowpea growers worldwide for many years. However, occurrence of more aggressive nematode isolates threatens the effectiveness of this monogenic resistance. A

Arsenio D. Ndeve, William C. Matthews, Jansen R. P. Santos, Bao Lam Huynh, Philip A. Roberts

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 4, 545–558

research-article | 17-March-2020

The effects of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines on the yield and quality of edamame (Glycine max l.) in Arkansas

(Wrather and Koenning, 2003, 2006). Two nematodes of major concern for soybean production in Arkansas include the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, Ichinoe) and the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita, Kofoid & White, Chitwood). Both nematodes have been historically present in Arkansas soybean and cotton fields (Kirkpatrick et al., 1992; Bateman et al., 2000; Walter and Barker, 1994; Tylka and Marett, 2014). A survey from 2018 identified that soybean cyst and root-knot nematode

J. E. Wilkes, T. L. Kirkpatrick

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–15

Article | 24-July-2017

Draft Transcriptome of Globodera ellingtonae

Globodera ellingtonae is a newly described cyst nematode found in Idaho, Oregon, and Argentina. Here we present the first transcriptome assembly of G. ellingtonae, providing a valuable resource for comparing the evolution of expressed genes between potato cyst nematode species.


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 129–130

research-article | 30-November-2018

Conspecific pheromone extracts enhance entomopathogenic infectivity

success of EPNs as biological control agents, field efficacy is often variable, and therefore research toward improvement is needed (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2017). Methods to enhance biocontrol efficacy in EPNs include strain improvement as well as improving nematode production, formulation and application technology (Shapiro-Ilan et al., 2012, 2017). Clearly, to cause insect mortality, and thereby reduce pest populations, the nematodes must move to the host and successfully infect (invade) it. Therefore

David I. Shapiro-Ilan, Fatma Kaplan, Camila Oliveira-Hofman, Paul Schliekelman, Hans T. Alborn, Edwin E. Lewis

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–5

research-article | 17-March-2020

Molecular and morphological characterization of the alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis, from Utah

The alfalfa cyst nematode, Heterodera medicaginis Kirjanova in the study of Kirjanova and Krall (1971) was originally described from the USSR in 1971 and re-described by Gerber and Maas (1982). The distribution of H. medicaginis is mostly Europe (Russia and Ukraine) and Asia (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan) (Subbotin et al., 2010). This cyst nematode species can cause up to 46% green matter losses in lucerne under arid conditions (Artokhnica, 1984; Subbotin et al., 2010). More recently, the first

Zafar A. Handoo, Andrea M. Skantar, Saad L. Hafez, Mihail R. Kantor, Maria N. Hult, Stephen A. Rogers

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

Article | 24-July-2017

Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Control of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) in Tomato Production in Florida

terms of root-knot nematode management, were the combinations 1,3-D-chloropicrin, chloropicrin-proprietary solvent ,and 1,3-D-metam sodium. Sprayed or injected metam sodium generally provided only short-term nematode management and by harvest nematode infection was not different from the nontreated control. Drip-applied metam sodium gave good nematode management under high nematode pressure, but needs further verification to establish (i) the importance of soil moisture and temperature on treatment


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 140–149

research-article | 17-March-2020

Characterization of root-knot nematodes infecting mulberry in Southern China

Root-knot nematode disease has dramatically impacted Morus alba L. production in Japan, India, and Brazil (Hida and Zhu, 1985; Sujathamma et al., 2014; Paestakahashi et al., 2015). According to Wang and Chen (1989a, 1989b), root-knot nematodes cause mulberry leaf loss of 20 to 45%, with severe cases reaching over 75% in some fields (Wang and Chen, 1989a, 1989b). Leaf quality can also be negatively impacted by this pathogen. Root-knot nematodes on mulberry in Japan have previously been

Pan Zhang, Hudie Shao, Chunping You, Yan Feng, Zhenwen Xie

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2020

Pathogen identification of Gentiana macrophylla root-knot nematode disease in Yulong, China

.). In order to clarify the nematode species of Gentiana macrophylla, extracted root-knot nematodes were identified by both molecular and morphological methods as Meloidogyne hapla. Materials and methods The nematodes were collected from the soil in the root zone using standard procedures (Hooper, 1990). For morphological studies, the nematodes were killed with hot water, fixed in 5% formalin solution, and mounted in glycerin slides using the Seinhorst technique (Seinhorst, 1959). For molecular

Wentao Wu, Shanshan Xu, Zewen Gao, Shusheng Zhu, Youyong Zhu, Yang Wang, Xiahong He

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–3

Research Article | 17-October-2018

Short-term Impacts of Tillage and Fertilizer Treatments on Soil and Root Borne Nematodes and Maize Yield in a Fine Textured Cambisol

fertilizer rate, (iii) medium fertilizer rate, and (iv) high fertilizer rate. The experiment was arranged as a split plot in randomized complete block design, replicated three times with tillage as the main plot factor and fertilizer as the sub-plot factor. The study was conducted on fine-textured Cambisol soils at Chinhoyi University of Technology farm, Zimbabwe, over two cropping seasons between December 2014 and April 2016. Eight plant-parasitic nematode genera were observed belonging to five groups

N. Mashavakure, A. B. Mashingaidze, R. Musundire, E. Gandiwa, V. K. Muposhi, C. Thierfelder, N. Nhamo, T. Bere, S. S. Akhtar

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 3, 329–342

research-article | 30-November-2018

First report of the cactus cyst nematode, Cactodera cacti, from a cactus garden in Idaho

The cactus cyst nematode, Cactodera cacti (Filipjev and Schuurmans Stekhoven, 1941; Krall amily Heteroderidae on the basis of th and Krall, 1978) is distributed worldwide, mainly on plants of family Cactaceae grown in glasshouses as ornamentals. This cyst nematode has been well known for over 85 years and was first recorded and described by Adam (1932) from Maartensdiijk, near Utrecht, The Netherlands. The dispersal of C. cacti from native regions in the America is believed to be associated

Andrea M. Skantar, Zafar A. Handoo, Mihail R. Kantor, Maria N. Hult, Saad. A. Hafez

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–6

Article | 24-July-2017

Nematode Fauna of Tropical Rainforest in Brazil: A Descriptive and Seasonal Approach

Studies of nematode assemblages in natural ecosystems can contribute to better understanding of the occurrence, relevance, and ecology of plant-parasitic and other soil nematodes. Nematode assemblages and environmental parameters (organic matter, water content (WC), bulk density (BD), total porosity (Po), soil respiration, and soil texture) were investigated in two seasons (rainy and dry) in two forest areas of the Zona da Mata, Pernambuco State. The aim of our research was to


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 2, 116–125

Article | 24-July-2017

Gossypium arboreum Accessions Resistant to Rotylenchulus reniformis

In the southeastern United States, reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a serious pest of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), a species which has no naturally occurring resistance against this nematode. To identify sources of reniform nematode resistance in species closely related to upland cotton, 222 G. arboreum accessions from the U.S. germplasm collection were evaluated in repeated growth chamber experiments. In initial screenings, root infection was measured 4 wks


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 4, 223–230

research-article | 18-March-2020

A new rare nematode Nothocriconemoides hangzhouensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from Hangzhou, China

annuli and the first annulus is not offset collar like. So far, the genus contains only two species i.e. Nothocriconemoides crenulatus (Ivanova, 1984) and Nothocriconemoides lineolatus (Maas et al., 1971) that were described from Tadzhikistan and Suriname, respectively. Both species were found associated with forest soils; however, no association has been reported from soils of cultivated areas(Geraert, 2010). During our nematode inventory survey, a population of Nothocriconemoides was detected in

Munawar Maria, Wentao Miao, Ruihang Cai, Pablo Castillo, Jingwu Zheng

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–14

research-article | 30-November-2020

Nematode genome announcement: The draft genome sequence of entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica

hermaphrodites for 20 generations by placing a single L4 nematode onto the lawn of Photorhabdus akhurstii on the nutrient-agar medium supplemented with cholesterol. Inbred nematodes were lysed using Qiagen buffer G2 (Catalogue no. 19060, Qiagen, USA), and high molecular weight DNA was extracted using the phenol-chloroform method. DNA concentration and quality were estimated using Qubit 4.0 Fluorometer (ThermoFisher Scientific, USA) and agarose gel electrophoresis (0.6% agarose gel, 120 min run time at 100 V

Chaitra G. Bhat, Vishal S. Somvanshi, Roli Budhwar, Jeffrey Godwin, Uma Rao

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–3

research-article | 30-November-2020

Molecular and morphological characterization of a first report of Cactodera torreyanae Cid del Prado Vera & Subbotin, 2014 (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Minnesota, the United States of America

In March 2020, a cyst nematode was discovered during a Pale Potato Cyst Nematode survey conducted by Minnesota Department of Agriculture as part of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) efforts to survey states for the presence of PCN. The soil samples were collected from a potato field, located in Karlstad, Kittson County, Minnesota, USA. The cyst samples were sent to the Mycology and Nematology Genetic Diversity and Biology Laboratory (MNGDBL) for identification purposes

Zafar A. Handoo, Andrea M. Skantar, Sergei A. Subbotin, Mihail R. Kantor, Maria N. Hult, Michelle Grabowski

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–5

Article | 05-December-2017

The Mesostigmatid Mite Protogamasellus mica, an Effective Predator of Free-Living and Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

Protogamasellus mica was extracted from a sugarcane field in Australia and cultured on bacterial-feeding nematodes. Studies with various nematodes in laboratory arenas showed that one mite and its progeny reduced nematode numbers by between 26 and 50 nematodes/day. A bacterivore (Mesorhabditis sp.), a fungivore (Aphelenchus avenae), and two plant parasites (root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae) were all reduced at much the same rate despite the


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 3, 327–333

Article | 21-July-2017

Oscheius tipulae in Italy: Evidence of an Alien Isolate in the Integral Natural Reserve of Montecristo Island (Tuscany)

Montecristo Island is an integral natural reserve of the Tuscan Archipelago National Park (Central Italy), characterized by a peculiar assemblage of flora and fauna, with several endemic taxa, and also with a high number of alien species. During a soil survey, we found an alien Oscheius tipulae Lam &Webster, 1971 isolate, phylogenetically close to others from South America. In this article, we examined the possible pathways of introduction of this nematode. Because of the high


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 1, 8–13

Article | 24-July-2017

Management of Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) onPittosporum tobira Under Greenhouse, Field, and On-farm Conditions in Florida

(=Paecilomyces lilacinus) strain 251. Treatment applications were made during the spring and fall seasons according to manufacturer’s specifications. Efficacy was evaluated based on J2/100 cm3 of soil, J2/g of root, and crop yield (kg/plot). Unlike spirotetramat, which did not demonstrate any measurable effects on Meloidogyne incognita J2 in the soil, furfural and P. lilacinum were marginally effective in reducing the population density of M. incognita on Pittosporum tobira. However, nematode reduction did


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 133–139

research-article | 30-November-2021

Review of nematode interactions with hemp (Cannabis sativa)

body of knowledge on hemp-nematode host-parasite relationships is quite small (McPartland, 1996; McPartland et al., 2000; Wang, 2021). Publications on nematodes of hemp prior to the 1990s, and some afterwards, usually are reports of occurrence or association and provide little or no useful data on pathogenicity. The burgeoning interest in medicinal Cannabis, as well as increasing production of industrial and seed hemp (Żuk-Gołaszewska and Gołaszewski, 2020), requires a modern approach to the

Ernest C. Bernard, Angel G. Chaffin, Kimberly D. Gwinn

Journal of Nematology, Volume 54 , 1–18

research-article | 30-November-2018

The Draft Genome of Deladenus siricidicola

effective control of S. noctilio is via the biological control agent, Deladenus siricidicola (Tylenchida: Neotylenchidae). This nematode has a bicyclic life-cycle, where in the free-living phase it reproduces in wood whilst feeding on A. areolatum, while in the parasitic phase it infects S. noctilio larvae and results in sterilized females. The parasitized adult female S. noctilio becomes the natural vector that disperses D. siricidicola into new trees. In this study, the genome of D. siricidicola was

Alisa Postma, X. Osmond Mlonyeni, Frederick Clasen, Fourie Joubert, Bernard Slippers

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–4

Article | 24-July-2017

The Effects of Nutrient Concentration, Addition of Thickeners, and Agitation Speed on Liquid Fermentation of Steinernema feltiae

Entomopathogenic nematode production in liquid fermentation still requires improvements to maximize efficiency, yield, and nematode quality. Therefore, this study was aimed at developing a more suitable liquid medium for mass production of  Steinernema feltiae, by assessing the effects of nutrient concentration, thickeners (primarily agar), and agitation speed on infective juvenile (IJ) yield. Base medium (BM) contained yeast extract (2.3%), egg yolk (1.25%), NaCl (0.5%), and


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 2, 126–133

research-article | 31-August-2020

First report of potato rot nematode, Ditylenchus destructor Thorne, 1945 infecting Codonopsis pilosula in Gansu province, China

″, E 104°36′27″). The roots of diseased plants were collected and nematodes were extracted using a modified Baermann technique (Hooper, 1990). The results of morphological and morphometric characteristics of this nematode population were as following. The lip regions of females were plain with obscure constriction and stylets were 9.9 to 10.8 (μm) long with distinct knobs. Oval median bulbs were with valves, narrow isthmus and the posterior esophageal extended over intestines dorsally. Tail tips

Chunhui Ni, Shuling Zhang, Huixia Li, Yonggang Liu, Wenhao Li, Xuefen Xu, Zhipeng Xu

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–2

Research Article | 03-December-2018

Five life stage-specific transcriptome assemblies for the reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira

The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford and Oliveira) is a semi-endoparasitic nematode that is a pathogen of numerous major crops such as cotton and soybean. Here, the authors present transcriptome assemblies of the egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), J3, vermiform adult, and sedentary female life stages of this important plant pathogen.

Kurt C. Showmaker, William S. Sanders, Sebastian Eves-van den Akker, Brigitte E. Martin, Franklin E. Callahan, Daniel G. Peterson, Martin J. Wubben

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 4, 1–2

research-article | 27-May-2019

First report of the dagger nematode Xiphinema pachtaicum on onion in Morocco

Nematodes of the genus Xiphinema are ectoparasites that feed on extensive range of hosts. Some species of this genus are economically important pests of agricultural plants and others are vectors of Nepovirus. In April 2018, during a survey, specimens of dagger nematode (Xiphinema spp.) were collected from soil around the rhizosphere of onion (Allium cepa L.) with poor growth appearance and low yield from Ouled Dahou, Souss-Massa region of Morocco (Fig. 1). Nematodes were extracted from soil

Fouad Mokrini, Abdelfattah Dababat

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–2

research-article | 30-November-2018

Nitrogen inputs and irrigation frequency influence population dynamics of Mesocriconema xenoplax under grapevines

The ring nematode, Mesocriconema xenoplax, is an economically important parasite of woody perennial fruit crops including Vitis spp. wine-grape (Pinkerton et al., 2004) and Prunus spp., such as peach and plum (Ferris et al., 2004; Cao et al., 2006). Most wine-grape and tree-fruit production in western North America occurs in semi-arid regions with nutrient-poor soils and is dependent on irrigation and supplemental nitrogen (N) inputs for optimal productivity. For reasons of optimizing fruit

Thomas Forge, Kirsten Hannam, Denise Neilsen, Gerry Neilsen

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–6

research-article | 13-April-2020

Root-knot nematodes demonstrate temporal variation in host penetration

exudate to hatch (Wesemael et al., 2006). Plant volatiles are also often used as signals for infective second-stage juveniles (J2) to locate potential hosts. Once J2 detect compatible environmental and host cues, migration toward the host begins (Kihika et al., 2017). Carbon dioxide is the most common and potent nematode attractant released by living and decaying plant and animal tissues (Perry, 2005). Soil pH and chemical components of root diffusates also determine nematode migration toward host

Shova Mishra, Peter DiGennaro

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

research-article | 30-November-2020

Report of the Parana coffee root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne paranaensis (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from Caladium sp. in the continental United States

a mixture of two root-knot nematode species: the Parana coffee root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne paranaensis (Carneiro et al., 1996) and the peanut root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of M. paranaensis in the continental United States. Meloidogyne paranaensis was first described in 1996 in the state of Paraná, Brazil (Carneiro et al., 1996; Campos and Vallain, 2005). This species is considered as one of the

Sergei A. Subbotin, Julie Burbridge

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–6

research-article | 30-November-2020

Induction of defence-related proteins by selected plant growth regulators and biocontrol agents against guava root knot nematode, Meloidogyne enterolobii

yellowing followed by bronzing and marginal necrosis of leaves, delayed and poor flowering, shedding of leaves, reduction in fruit size, and decline of guava trees leading to complete destruction of the orchards within a short span of time of one to two years (Ashokkumar and Poornima, 2019). Root-knot nematode infestation at Ayakudi and surrounding villages of Dindigul district which are the major Guava growing area in Tamil Nadu was reported by Poornima et al. (2016) for the first time and the nematode

N. Ashokkumar, K. Poornima, P. Kalaiarasan, P. Jeyakumar, D. Uma, M. Kavino, S. Dharani, S. Kothai

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–15

research-article | 23-April-2019

Nematicidal Activity of Fosthiazate Against Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera glycines

Soybean (Glycine max, Family Leguminosae) is widely grown worldwide due to its unique property of possessing high plant-based protein contents, lipid minerals, and vitamins (Olaoye and Ade-Omowaye, 2011). Soybean cyst nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines) infection is the most serious disease affecting soybean production worldwide; this infection was reported for the first time in 1899 in Northeast China, since then, this nematode has been spread widely in various regions, including Asia, America

Hai Yan Wu, Man Luo, Lu Yuan Zhang, Xun Bo Zhou

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–9

research-article | 16-April-2020

Nematicide efficacy at managing Meloidogyne arenaria and non-target effects on free-living nematodes in peanut production

Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is an important crop in the United States with 757,000 ha planted in 2018, worth $1.15 billion (NASS-USDA, 2019a, b). Much of the production is concentrated in the Southeast where Meloidogyne arenaria (peanut root-knot nematode (PRKN)) can significantly reduce yields with suppression approaching 50% observed in field research (Rodriguez-Kabana and Robertson, 1987; Rodriguez-Kabana et al., 1994a, 1994b). Damage thresholds for this nematode are 1 egg/100 cm3, so any

Zane J. Grabau, Mark D. Mauldin, Alemayehu Habteweld, Ethan T. Carter

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

research-article | 30-November-2018

Nematicidal activity of fipronil against Pratylenchus zeae in sugarcane

losses were observed for both plant and ratoon crops due to the root-lesion nematode, Pratylenchus zeae (Kawanobe et al., 2014, 2016, 2019). Despite the very significant yield losses caused by the nematode, no nematicide has been registered for the control of plant-parasitic nematodes on sugarcane in Japan. Though alternative approaches to control plant-parasitic nematodes in sugarcane fields are available, such as antagonistic plants and crop rotation, nematicides may be an effective tool for

Masanori Kawanobe, Koki Toyota, Takashi Seko, Koshi Gunjima

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–14

research-article | 30-November-2018

A case study of soil food web components affected by Fallopia japonica (Polygonaceae) in three natural habitats in Central Europe

., 2007), allelopathic effects in experimental conditions (Dommanget et al., 2014), or impact on invertebrate species richness (Beerling and Dawah, 1993; Gerber et al., 2008), but the responses of soil microbial or nematode communities on invasion by Fallopia spp. are largely understudied. Dassonville et al. (2010) found that Fallopia spp. decreased potential denitrification enzyme activity by reducing soil moisture, denitrifying bacteria density in the soil and potential ammonia and nitrite oxidizing

Andrea Čerevková, Lenka Bobuľská, Dana Miklisová, Marek Renčo

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–16

research-article | 26-April-2019

First report of Meloidogyne javanica on Ginger and Turmeric in the United States

Fig. 1 Ginger (Zingiber officinale) (A) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) infected with Meloidogyne javanica from an organic farm in Wheeler County, Georgia showing severely galled roots. Numerous egg masses of the nematode are evident protruding from galled roots of both ginger (C) and turmeric (D). Fig. 2 Healthy ginger (left) and ginger infected with Meloidogyne javanica (right) showing stunted growth of the rhizomes, collected from nematode-infested soils on an organic farm in Wheeler

Abolfazl Hajihassani, Weimin Ye, Brooke B. Hampton

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–3

Research Article | 31-May-2018

Influence of Temperature on Susceptibility of CVS. Tifguard and Georgia-06G Peanut to Meloidogyne arenaria

Tifguard was released in 2008 as a peanut cultivar with a high level of resistance to Meloidogyne arenaria. Our objective was to determine the role of temperature on infection and development of M. arenaria in Tifguard compared to that in the nematode susceptible cultivar, Georgia-06G. Temperature affected the rate of nematode infection and development in both Tifguard and Georgia-06G (P ≤ 0.05). In Georgia-06G, egg-laying females were observed 25, 20 or 25 days after inoculation at 28°C, 31°C

Weimin Yuan, C. C. Holbrook, Y. Chu, P. Ozias-Akins, D. W. Dickson

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 1, 33–40

Research Article | 17-October-2018

First Report of Stubby-Root Nematode, Paratrichodorus minor, on Onion in Georgia, U.S.A

both in the root system and foliage, tip die-back of the leaves (Fig. 1A,B), and slight swelling at the tip of roots. Vermiform life stages from the soil samples were extracted using centrifugal-flotation technique (Jenkins, 1964). On an average, 67 stubby-root nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil were obtained. Additional two soil samples were collected from the nursery in December 2017 to confirm the presence of the nematode. On an average, 1 and 75 nematodes per 100 cm3 of soil were recovered from

Abolfazl Hajihassani, Negin Hamidi, Bhabesh Dutta, Chris Tyson

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 3, 453–455

research-article | 30-November-2019

Prevalence of the root lesion nematode virus (RLNV1) in populations of Pratylenchus penetrans from North America

., 2018; Ruark et al., 2017, 2018). We have recently discovered a new virus (the root lesion nematode virus, RLNV1) associated with the migratory nematode Pratylenchus penetrans (Vieira and Nemchinov, 2019). P. penetrans is an endoparasitic migratory PPN, which can infect a broad range of economically important crops (Castillo and Vovlas, 2007) and is among the top three most damaging species of PPN (Jones et al., 2013). Pratylenchus species were the most abundant PPN (69%) identified in 38,022

Paulo Vieira, Amy Peetz, Benjamin Mimee, Kanan Saikai, Dimitre Mollov, Ann MacGuidwin, Inga Zasada, Lev G. Nemchinov

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–10

research-article | 23-April-2019

Resistant Pepper Carrying N, Me1, and Me3 have Different Effects on Penetration and Reproduction of Four Major Meloidogyne species

) Chitwood, M. arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, and M. javanica (Treub) Chitwood are particularly significant nematode pests of pepper (Fery et al., 1998; Castagnone-Sereno et al., 2001). Meloidogyne haplanaria, Eisenback, Bernard, Starr, Lee & Tomaszewski, a resistant (Mi gene)-breaking root-knot species of tomato, has also been reported to infect and reproduce on pepper (Eisenback et al., 2003; Bendezu et al., 2004; Joseph et al., 2016). Successful management of Meloidogyne spp. in pepper includes one or

Abolfazl Hajihassani, William B. Rutter, Xuelin Luo

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–9

research-article | 30-November-2019

First report of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species) infecting Chinese Elm (Ulmus parvifolia) in Florida, USA

) and Drake (Fig. 1A), in Lake County, FL and submitted for nematode certification at the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, FL (FDACS-DPI). Initially, nematodes were extracted from soil and roots, and species identification performed using FDACS-DPI’s standard protocol for identifying Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang and Eisenback, 1981, a COI-based qPCR assay (Kiewnick et al., 2015; Braun-Kiewnick et al., 2016) with slight modifications

M. R. Moore, J. A. Brito, S. Qiu, C. G. Roberts, L. A. Combee

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

Research Article | 24-July-2017

The Draft Genome of Globodera ellingtonae

Globodera ellingtonae is a newly described potato cyst nematode (PCN) found in Idaho, Oregon, and Argentina. Here, we present a genome assembly for G. ellingtonae, a relative of the quarantine nematodes G. pallida and G. rostochiensis, produced using data from Illumina and Pacific Biosciences DNA sequencing technologies.


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 2, 127–128

research-article | 30-November-2019

A draft genome of Steinernema diaprepesi

 al., 2013). Entomopathogenic nematodes endemic to citrus growing regions in Florida include Steinernema diaprepesi and S. khuongi and their role in determining the distribution of root weevil is also evident (Nguyen and Duncan, 2002; Duncan et al., 2003; Stuart et al., 2008; Campos-Herrera et al., 2013; Stock et al., 2018). The endemic entomopathogenic nematode S. diaprepesi is commercially applied to control citrus root weevil. As an obligate parasite, S. diaprepesi relies on the toxin produced

Anil Baniya, Jose C. Huguet-Tapia, Peter DiGennaro

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

research-article | 30-November-2019

Nematicidal effect of cruciferous bio-fumigants against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infesting okra

influenced due to the attack by several pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and abiotic factors. Plant parasitic nematodes are the most harmful pests of vegetable crops, responsible for an annual yield loss amounting to 9 to 15% of the world crop yield (Koenning et al., 2004). Among all the plant parasitic nematodes, root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are a hidden threat to okra (Marin et al., 2017). It has been reported that root-knot nematode causes annual losses up to 29% in

J.A. Patil, Anil Kumar, Saroj Yadav, K.K. Verma

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–7

Research Article | 03-September-2018

An Agent-Based Metapopulation Model Simulating Virus-Based Biocontrol of Heterodera Glycines

With recently discovered soybean cyst nematode (SCN) viruses, biological control of the nematodes is a theoretical possibility. This study explores the question of what kinds of viruses would make useful biocontrol agents, taking into account evolutionary and population dynamics. An agent-based model, Soybean Cyst Nematode Simulation (SCNSim), was developed to simulate within-host virulence evolution in a virus-nematode-soybean ecosystem. SCNSim was used to predict nematode suppression under a

Safyre Anderson, Chinmay Soman, Sadia Bekal, Leslie Domier, Kris Lambert, Kaustubh Bhalerao

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 79–90

research-article | 30-November-2020

Meloidogyne incognita management by nematicides in tomato production

The production of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a very important industry in the United States with 10 billion kg tomatoes worth $1.6 billion United States dollars (USD) produced in 2019 (USDA-NASS, 2020). Florida produces 54% of fresh market tomatoes, an industry that produced 646 million kg worth $705 million (USD) nationwide in 2019 (USDA-NASS, 2020). Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode, SRKN) is a major pest in tomato production, and there are relatively few management

Zane J. Grabau, Chang Liu, Rebeca Sandoval-Ruiz

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–12

Research Article | 03-September-2018

Molecular Identification of Entomopathogenic Nematode Isolates from the Philippines and their Biological Control Potential Against Lepidopteran Pests of Corn

In search for local entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species as a biological control agent of lepidopterous insect pests of corn, a survey for EPN in the major islands in the Philippines was conducted. Seven EPN populations from 279 soil samples were isolated using Ostrinia furnacalis, the key target insect pest of corn in the country, as bait. Analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal DNA sequence revealed the presence of Steinernema abbasi, Steinernema minutum, Steinernema tami, and

Barbara L. Caoili, Romnick A. Latina, Regina Faye C. Sandoval, Joey I. Orajay

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 99–110

research-article | 27-May-2019

Effect of the trap crop, Solanum sisymbriifolium, on Globodera pallida, Globodera tabacum, and Globodera ellingtonae

Species in the genus Globodera are production-limiting pests in a number of crops, and novel methods are required to combat these plant-parasitic nematodes. Globodera pallida (Stone, 1973) Behrens, 1975, a potato cyst nematode, is of worldwide regulatory concern, and one of the most economically important pests of potato causing in excess of 80% yield loss in infested fields (Talavera et al., 1998). First detected in the United States in 2006 (Hafez et al., 2007), the introduction and potential

L. M. Dandurand, I. A. Zasada, J. A. LaMondia

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–11

research-article | 30-November-2018

First report of Mesocriconema xenoplax (Nematoda: Criconematidae) from turfgrass in Portugal and in Europe

Turfgrasses are among the most widely used ornamental plants in the world, serving important functions in soil stabilization and providing safe surfaces for recreational activities (Zeng et al., 2012a). Moreover, the quality of the turf in the sports areas, mainly football fields and golf courses, is crucial and any imperfection can have a huge impact (Oliveira et al., 2018). Of all turfgrass pests, nematodes are probably the least understood and most often overlooked. Due to this, nematode

M. L. Inácio, L. C. Rusinque, M. J. Camacho, F. Nóbrega

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–6

Article | 21-July-2017

New Cyst Nematode, Heterodera sojae n. sp. (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Soybean in Korea

A new soybean cyst nematode Heterodera sojae n. sp. was found from the roots of soybean plants in Korea. Cysts of H. sojae n. sp. appeared more round, shining, and darker than that of H. glycines. Morphologically, H. sojae n. sp. differed from H. glycines by fenestra length (23.5–54.2 mm vs. 30–70 mm), vulval silt length (9.0–24.4 mm vs. 43–60 mm), tail length of J2 (54.3–74.8 mm vs. 40–61 mm), and hyaline part of J2 (32.6–46.3 mmvs. 20


Journal of Nematology, Volume 48 , ISSUE 4, 280–289

Report | 21-July-2017

First Report of the Spiral Nematode Helicotylenchus microlobus Infecting Soybean in North Dakota

spiral nematodes per kilogram of soil for Sheyenne and 9,45162,751 for Barnes. The reproductive factor in Sheyenne and Barnes was 6.2 and 6.3, respectively, indicating that this spiral nematode infects and reproduces well on these two soybean cultivars. Infected soybean roots had small brown lesions on the surface. Individual spiral nematodes were handpicked and examined morphologically and molecularly for species identification. Morphological measurements of adult females (n = 15


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 1, 1–1

research-article | 30-November-2018

The morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of Pratylenchus vulnus Taiwan strawberry isolate

nematode have been reported (Colbran, 1974; Minagawa and Maeso-Tozzi, 1990; Mohotti et al., 1997). We here report the discovery of one Pratylenchus sp. population in strawberry fields in Dahu township of Miaoli, Taiwan in 2017. The strawberry crops growing in the nematode-distributing fields GS and KDL were obviously stunted when discovered. Both fields had been cropping strawberry for over 10 years. The soil composition of the area was characterized as sandy loam by hydrometer method (Bouyoucos, 1951

Yu-po Lin, Wan-chun Lee, Pei-che Chung, Jiue-in Yang

Journal of Nematology, Volume 51 , 1–5

research-article | 30-March-2020

Characterization of Vittatidera zeaphila (Nematoda: Heteroderidae) from Indiana with molecular phylogenetic analysis of the genus

Globally, cyst nematodes species cause serious damage to a wide variety of economically important crops. The need for information on cyst-forming nematode species has been instrumental in stimulating growth of nematology worldwide. The cyst nematode group currently contains eight genera, with a total of 121 valid species (Handoo and Subbotin, 2018). The general morphology and molecular taxonomy and phylogeny of cyst nematodes have been given in detail in two recent review articles (Baldwin and

Andrea M. Skantar, Zafar A. Handoo, Mihail R. Kantor, Lynn K. Carta, Jamal Faghihi, Virginia Ferris

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–8

Research Article | 26-September-2018

First Report of Matricidal Hatching in Bursaphelenchus xylophilus

The reproductive strategy of the pinewood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is sexual amphimictic and oviparous. The incidence of intrauterine egg development and hatching in plant-parasitic nematodes is not a very common phenomenon. During the process of maintaining and breeding a B. xylophilus population isolated in Spain under laboratory conditions, evidence of matricidal hatching was observed. This is the first described case of this phenomenon in this species.


Journal of Nematology, Volume 49 , ISSUE 4, 390–395

research-article | 30-November-2020

Organic fertilization influences nematode diversity and maturity index in coffee tree plantations using an agroforestry system

fertilization (Ferris, 2010; Oka, 2010). Studies on the diversity of nematodes in agricultural areas have resulted in a growing interest in this field as these organisms can act as bioindicators for agroecosystems (Neher, 2001). Depending on the fertilizer used, the availability of soil nutrients is altered and this reflects on the nematode community (Yeates et al., 2009; Zhang et al., 2019). Organic fertilization can provide nutrients for the development of bacterial-feeding nematodes and reduce the

JOL Vieira Júnior, RC Pereira, RL Soto, IM Cardoso, EA Mondino, RLL Berbara, E Sá Mendonça

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–13

Research Article | 03-September-2018

First Report of Carrot Cyst Nematode Heterodera carotae in Mexico: Morphological, Molecular Characterization, and Host Range Study

During 2008 to 2016 in several nematological surveys in the Tepeaca Valley, Puebla, Mexico, carrot cyst nematode, Heterodera carotae was found parasitizing carrots, Daucus carota. The nematode was present in 61% of the sampled fields with high population densities, causing severe carrot yield losses in the Tepeaca Valley. The aim of this work was to study morphology, morphometrics, host range, and molecular characterization of the nematode. The morphological and morphometric characterization

Ilia Mariana Escobar-Avila, Edgar Óliver López-Villegas, Sergei A. Subbotin, Alejandro Tovar-Soto

Journal of Nematology, Volume 50 , ISSUE 2, 229–242

research-article | 30-November-2019

Festulolium and fungal endophyte associations: host status for Meloidogyne incognita and nematotoxic plant extracts

indicated that the loline alkaloid N-formylloline could either attract or repel the plant-parasitic nematode Pratylenchus scribneri, depending on the loline concentration (Bacetty, Snook, Glenn, Noe, Nagabhyru and Bacon, 2009). While endophytes can affect susceptibility of grasses to nematodes, host status may be more strongly influenced by plant cultivar than by presence or absence of endophyte. For example, tall fescue ‘Kentucky 31’, with or without endophytes, was a host for the Southern root-knot

Susan L. F. Meyer, Brian J. Patchett, Timothy J. Gillanders, Mihail R. Kantor, Patricia Timper, Margaret H. MacDonald

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–16

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