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Review | 13-April-2020

Review: monoclonal reagents and detection of unusual or rare phenotypes or antibodies

rare phenotypes can cause discrepant reactions when performing phenotyping. Discrepant reactions can also occur because of patient or donor antibodies that react in an unusual manner when antiglobulin tests are performed with monoclonal antihuman globulin (AHG) versus rabbit AHG reagent. It is important to know the identity of the unusual or rare phenotypes and antibodies and to be able to recognize the different types of reactions that will be observed when using more than one reagent of the same

Marilyn K. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 2, 52–63

Report | 09-October-2019

Trends of ABO and Rh phenotypes in transfusion-dependent patients in Pakistan

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of ABO and Rh phenotypes in the general Pakistan population. This information could be used to help reduce the rate of alloimmunization in patients with blood disorders, such as thalassemia major, who require frequent blood transfusions. A total of 242 patients with blood disorders requiring frequent blood transfusions were enrolled in the study. ABO and Rh typing was performed on samples from these patients using tube and gel methods

Nida Anwar, Munira Borhany, Saqib Ansari, Sana Khurram, Uzma Zaidi, Imran Naseer, Muhammad Nadeem, Tahir Shamsi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 170–173

original-report | 30-November-2020

Prevalence of major blood group antigens in blood donors at a main donation center in United Arab Emirates

extended RBC antigen phenotypes can help in preventing transfusion-related side effects by providing a source to better antigen-match donors to specific recipients. This matching is especially useful in regularly transfused patients such as patients with thalassemia major. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotype prevalence in the major blood group systems among regular blood donors at the Sharjah Blood Transfusion and Research Center in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study was

F.H. Sajwani, A.M. Amer, F.M. Khamis, S.R. AlShamsi

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 4, 171–177

Article | 20-April-2020

Rh antigens and phenotype frequencies of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar, Nigeria

This report forms part of the study on the Rh phenotypes within the various ethnic nationalities in the south-south region of Nigeria. The aim is to demonstrate the Rh polymorphisms among the people of African descent. The frequencies of Rh blood group antigens and phenotypes of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar municipality, Nigeria, were determined using standard serologic techniques. Of the 720 Calabar individuals tested, the frequencies of the Rh antigens within the

Z. Awortu Jeremiah, Chris Odumody

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 21–24

Article | 10-June-2019


hospitals and no strains outside the hospital environment were observed, while in Europe, animals were the reservoir [1]. 7. VRE phenotypes Among the strains of vancomycin-resistant enterococci, nine phenotypes can be distinguished. These are: VanA, VanB, VanC, VanD, VanE, VanG, VanL, VanM, VanN [1]. One of them, VanC, is an example of natural (species-specific) resistance. It is a feature of species that do not pose a significant clinical threat: E. gallinarum (vanC1), E. casseliflavus (vanC2 and

Wojciech Rogóż, Daniel Sypniewski, Ilona Bednarek

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology, Volume 58 , ISSUE 1, 35–48

Report | 20-March-2020

A simple screening assay for the most common JK*0 alleles revealed compound heterozygosity in Jk(a–b–) probands from Guam

family: a mother and her two sons referred to us for genetic investigation of their Jk(a–b–) phenotypes. Two different nucleotide substitutions, –1g>a in intron 5 (IVS5) and 956C>T in exon 10, originally associated with Polynesian and Indian/African populations respectively, were identified in the family. The mother and one son were compound heterozygotes, and the second son was homozygous for IVS5– 1g>a. We conclude that the effort to design and validate such a

Elisabet Sjöberg Wester, Julia Gustafsson, Beverly Snell, Peggy Spruell, Åsa Hellberg, Martin L. Olsson, Jill R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 165–169

Review | 01-May-2020

Review: the molecular basis of the Rh blood group phenotypes

Franz F. Wagner, Willy A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 23–36

Article | 17-February-2021

Identification of rare blood types in southern Brazil: impact on transfusion support

requires access to a blood inventory widely phenotyped, as well as a rare donor registry. A way of accomplishing this initiative is by screening routinely for rare phenotypes in blood donors.6 In Brazil, there are few studies about the prevalence of rare blood types in the population, and the existing results reveal that within the same state, differences occur depending on the region.7 Until 2014, there was no national rare donor program, and the inventories of frozen RBCs were kept in two centers

C.D.S.R. de Araújo, B.A. Machado, C.D. Reche, L. Maroni, L.C. Garlet, M.M.P. dos Santos, M. Beber, A. Pasqualotti, L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 152–156

Review | 01-December-2019

The molecular basis of the LU:7 and LU:–7 phenotypes

Kim Hue-Roye, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 130–131

Review | 09-October-2019

DEL phenotype

DEL red blood cells (RBCs) type as D– by routine serologic methods and are transfused routinely, without being identified as expressing a very weak D antigen, to D– recipients. DEL RBCs are detected only by adsorption and elution of anti-D or by molecular methods. Most DEL phenotypes have been reported in population studies conducted in East Asia, although DEL phenotypes have been detected also among Caucasian individuals. Approximately 98 percent of DEL phenotypes in East Asians

Dong Hyang Kwon, S. Gerald Sandler, Willy Albert Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 125–132

Article | 20-December-2020

Microcomputer-generated antigen panel worksheets

Many antibody identifications require testing with cells of rare or uncommon phenotypes. To expedite the resolution of these identifications, we developed a microcomputer database using Lotus 123TM to enter antigen phenotypes from our frozen cell inventory. Data is entered into a customized screen input form and automatically copied to the database. The use of an input form pro­tects the database from inadvertent errors made while entering data. The database can be searched for any

Rebecca R. Rose, Kathy J. Skradski, Margaret A. Helgeson, Herbert F. Polesky

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 2, 37–40

Article | 01-April-2020

A novel study of association between Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the human carbohydrate blood groups

Previous studies of association of ABO blood groups with gonorrhea have shown contradictory results. Despite the interdependencies ofABO,Lewis,and secretor systems,none of the previous studies examined the combined effect of these systems on their proposed association with gonorrhea. This study attempted to redress that and used genotyping in addition to RBC phenotyping to determine correct tissue phenotypes. Samples from 131 gonorrhea-positive individuals and from 175 gonorrhea-negative

Holly E. Perry, Rick A. Franklin, Susan J. Bray, Min K. Lo, Lola A.C. Svensson, Stephen M. Henry

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 3, 100–104

Article | 14-October-2020

ABO and Rh(D) blood typing on the PK 7200 with ready-to-use kits

The performance of ready-to-use kits was evaluated on the PK 7200 blood grouping system. The Olymp Group (kit 1) and Olymp Group II (kit 2) containing anti-A, -B, -AB, and -D reagents were tested for first and second determinations of A, B, and D antigens. More than 500 RBC samples, including several variant ABO and D phenotypes, were evaluated for specificity, repeatability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. Specificity was tested with wellcharacterized reagent RBCs. Repeatability was

Pierre Moncharmont, Annick Plantier, Véronique Chirat, Dominique Rigal

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 2, 54–56

Article | 14-October-2020

Rh antigen and phenotype frequencies and probable genotypes for the four main ethnic groups in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

Zac Awortu Jeremiah, F.I. Buseri

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 86–88

original-report | 25-June-2021

Effect of cryopreservation on a rare McLeod donor red blood cell concentrate

rare phenotypes, although these units are not represented in method validation or quality control data sets presently used to establish standard cryopreservation methods. This finding is problematic, since rare donor RBCs may have abnormal morphology and membrane structure that can affect component quality associated with the mechanical stresses of cryoprotectant addition/removal, freezing, thawing, and cell processing. Considering there is little evidence of the effect that rare phenotypes

T.R. Turner, G. Clarke, G.A. Denomme, R. Skeate, J.P. Acker

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 78–83

Report | 09-October-2019

Distribution of blood groups in the Iranian general population

%), C (2677; 77.04%), c (2557; 73.58%), and E (1059; 30.47%). In the Kell blood group system, 3293 (94.76%) samples were typed as K–k+. For the Kidd and Duffy blood group systems, the following were the most common phenotypes: Jk(a+b+) (1703; 49%), Jk(a+b–) (1006; 28.95%), Fy(a+b+) (1495; 43.02%), and Fy(a+b–) (1005; 28.92%). In the MNS blood group system, the following were the most common phenotypes: M+N+ (1668; 48%), M+N– (1310; 37.70%), S+s+ (1564; 45%), and S–s

Ehsan Shahverdi, Mostafa Moghaddam, Ali Talebian, Hassan Abolghasemi

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 4, 135–139

Case report | 01-December-2019

Serologic and molecular characterization of D variants in Brazilians: impact for typing and transfusion strategy

Rh discrepancies are a problem during routine testing because of partial D or weak D phenotypes. Panels of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) are being developed to identify D variants such as partial D and weak D when there are anomalous D typing results; however, molecular characterization offers a more specific classification of weak and partial D. The weak D and partial D phenotypes are caused by many different RHD alleles encoding aberrant D proteins, resulting in distinct serologic phenotypes

Débora Castilho Credidio, Jordão Pellegrino Jr., Lilian Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 6–11

Article | 15-April-2020

Molecular characterization of GYPB and RH in donors in the American Rare Donor Program

Transfusion of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has been a challenge in clinical transfusion medicine, especially when the required donor RBCs must be U– and negative for high-prevalence Rh phenotypes (hrB,hrS). It is now possible to genotype donors to identify or confirm Uvar and U– phenotypes,as well as Rh hrB– and hrS– phenotypes,and to characterize the different RH backgrounds found in these donors. In a preliminary study of donors registered in the American

Sunitha Vege, Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 3, 143–147

Report | 16-October-2019

Rh and Kell blood group antigen prevalence in a multi-ethnic cohort in Nigeria: implications for local transfusion service

Ademola Samson Adewoyin, Grace Ming Lee, Titilope Adenike Adeyemo, Omolade Augustina Awodu

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 2, 61–65

research-article | 21-October-2020

First report of southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting Brassica nigra in Peru

Province, Peru. In order to identify the plant-parasitic nematode species, a combination of morphological, biochemical, and molecular analyses were performed. Figure 1: A and B: Roots of Brassica nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch showing galls induced by Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919; Chitwood, 1949). This population of root-knot nematode was identified to species with esterase phenotypes (n = 36 females) (Carneiro and Almeida, 2001); morphology, and morphometrics of second-stage juveniles

Jorge Airton Gómez-Chatata, Juan José Tamo-Zegarra, Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–3

Article | 15-February-2021

An update on the JR blood group system

weakened expression of Jra has been linked to missense changes. Since publication of the original review in 2013,1 13 new alleles of ABCG2 causing the Jr(a–) phenotype have been identified (Table 1), and 9 different alleles of ABCG2 have been reported to encode weak or unclear phenotypes (Table 2). Table 1. Alleles encoding the Jr(a–) phenotype Phenotype Nucleotide change (exon) Amino acid Ethnicity/origin Reference Jr (a–) c.420_421insA (5) p.Gln141T hr fs*16 Pakistani 2 Jr (a–) c

L. Castilho

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 2, 43–44

Original Paper | 10-June-2013

Detection of SCN1A mutations in patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy by custom resequence array

Introduction. Very few epilepsy phenotypes have been associated with causative genes; nevertheless, it is becoming possible, for some epilepsy phenotypes, to predict the most efficacious anti-epileptic drugs for patients based on their genetic makeup. The development of individualized medicine based on genetic information and the genetic diagnosis of epilepsy are expected to greatly improve the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy. Here, we developed a DNA array (resequencing array) for the

Takayuki Sugawara, Shuichi Yoshida, Naoko Onodera, Kazumaru Wada, Shinichi Hirose, Sunao Kaneko

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 1, 5–13

Review | 01-December-2019

P1PK: The blood group system that changed its name and expanded

is generally a weak and cold-reactive antibody not implicated in hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR) or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn while Pk antibodies can cause HTR, and anti-NOR is regarded as a polyagglutinin. A higher frequency of miscarriage is seen in women with the rare phenotypes p, P1k, and P2k. Furthermore, the Pk and P1 antigens have wide tissue distributions and can act as host receptors for various pathogens and toxins. Why p individuals lack not only Pk and P

Åsa Hellberg, Julia S. Westman, Britt Thuresson, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 25–33

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting hops, Humulus lupulus, in São Paulo, Brazil

. The identification of the nematode characterized as Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949, was based on morphological characters of adults, esterase phenotypes (n = 16), and molecular analysis. Morphological identification was performed by analyzing the male labial region, and presented a trapezoidal shape and prominent concave labial disk compared to the submedian lips and transverse striations on the head annule; the stylet basal knobs were higher than wide (n  = 12; Fig

R. F. Gonsaga, A. Souza Pollo, D. D. Nascimento, R. J. Ferreira, L. T. Braz, P. L. M. Soares

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–4

research-article | 30-November-2020

First report of rice root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne graminicola, infecting Juncus microcephalus in Brazil

graminicola Golden and Birchfield, 1965, root infestation symptoms on South American rush (Juncus microcephalus Kunth). Root-knot symptoms of galls of J. microcephalus from the field (A, B) and in the greenhouse (C, D). This species was identified from esterase using esterase phenotypes (n = 20 females) (Carneiro and Almeida 2001; Carneiro et al., 2000), morphological measurement of second-stage juveniles (J2) (n = 20), females (n = 10) and males (n = 10), and perineal patterns (n = 20) and through the

Cristiano Bellé, Paulo Sergio dos Santos, Tiago Edu Kaspary

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–4

research-article | 24-April-2020

First report of southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, infecting pomegranate, Punica granatum, in Peru

identified to species with esterase phenotypes (n = 36 females) (Carneiro and Almeida, 2001); morphology and morphometrics of second-stage juveniles (J2) (n = 30) and females (n = 10), and perineal patterns (n = 15); and molecular characterization of the mitochondrial DNA region between the cytochome oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16 S rRNA genes (mtDNA) using the primers C2F3 (5´-GGTCAATGTTCAGAAATTTGTGG-3´) and 1108 (5´-TACCTTTGACCAATCACGCT-3´) (Powers and Harris, 1993) along with PCR species-specific

Ricardo Andreé Vega-Callo, María Yaquelin Mendoza-Lima, Nataly Ruth Mamani-Mendoza, Leslie Sharon Lozada-Villanueva, Juan José Tamo-Zegarra, Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–3

research-article | 21-October-2020

Chenopodium album is a weed host of Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) in Peru

 = 20), and perineal patterns (n = 20 females), esterase phenotypes (n = 36 females), and molecular characterization of the mitochondrial DNA region between the cytochome oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes (mtDNA) using the primers C2F3 and 1108 (Powers and Harris, 1993); along with PCR species-specific characterized amplified region (SCAR) sequence for confirmation, using a primer set composed of inc-K14-F and inc-K14-R (Randig et al., 2002). The nematode population density observed in

Jorge Airton Gómez-Chatata, Teodocia Gloria Casa-Ruiz, Juan José Tamo-Zegarra, Cristiano Bellé

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

Article | 22-January-2021

Freezing and recovering rare red blood cells using glycerol

Principle According to the AABB Standards for Immunohematology Reference Laboratories, an accredited immunohematology reference laboratory (IRL) must maintain an appropriate inventory of reagent red blood cells (RBCs) for testing. This inventory should include RBCs negative for high-prevalence antigens, such as Kpb, Jsb, and Vel, as well as rare phenotypes, such as PP1Pk, Rhnull, and Kiddnull, which are not readily available in commercial panel cells.1 When such rare RBC phenotypes are

B. Eades

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 85–88

research-article | 30-November-2018

First report of Meloidogyne javanica (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) infecting Scoparia dulcis, a medicinal plant in Brazil

molecular analyses were performed. Figure 1: Sweet broom (Scoparia dulcis L.) roots showing galls caused by Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949 infection. To identify this Meloidogyne population, the following techniques were used: esterase phenotypes (n = 40 females) (Carneiro and Almeida, 2001); morphology and morphometrics of second-stage juveniles (J2) (n = 40) and females (n = 20), and perineal patterns (n = 20); and molecular characterization of the mitochondrial DNA region

Cristiano Bellé, Rodrigo Ferraz Ramos, Andressa Lima de Brida, Tiago Edu Kaspary

journal of nematology, Volume 51 , 1–3

research-article | 30-November-2019

First report of Meloidogyne naasi parasitizing turfgrass in Portugal

M. Clara Vieira dos Santos, M. Teresa M. Almeida, Sofia R. Costa

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–4

Report | 01-December-2019

Transfusion practices for patients with sickle cell disease at major academic medical centers participating in the Atlanta Sickle Cell Consortium

, alloimmunization occurs infrequently with the exception of chronically transfused SCD patients, who represent the minority of active SCD patients. With increasing availability, red blood cell genotyping will be used in the near future both for determination of predicted patient phenotypes and for provision of genotypically matched donor units.

Anne M. Winkler, Cassandra D. Josephson

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 1, 24–26

Report | 09-October-2019

Red blood cell phenotype prevalence in blood donors who self-identify as Hispanic

populations. We performed a retrospective review of all serologic and molecular typing from donors who self-reported as Hispanic. The phenotype prevalence was reported and compared with rates from other racial/ethnic groups. A total of 1127 donors who selfidentified as Hispanic were screened by serologic methods for Rh and Kell antigens, and 326 were subsequently selected for molecular typing. The most prevalent probable Rh phenotypes were R1r (26.6%), R1R2 (21.5%), and R1R1 (20.7%); rr was found in 7.8

Chelsea A. Sheppard, Nicole L. Bolen, Beth Eades, Gorka Ochoa-Garay, Mark H. Yazer

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 119–124

Report | 01-December-2019

Blood group antigen distribution in Lao blood donors

systems including ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, Lewis, Duffy, Kidd, and Diego. The results show similar antigen prevalence to that among Northeast Thais for ABO, MNS, P1PK, Rh, Kell, and Duffy systems. In the ABO system, O was the highest at 37.72 percent, followed by 35.56 percent B, 19.83 percent A1, 6.47 percent A1B, and 0.43 percent A2B. The common phenotypes were D+C+E–c– e+ at 60.43 percent, M+N–S–s+ at 46.55 percent, Fy(a+b–) at 80.82 percent, Jk(a+b+) at 39.44 percent

Chirapha Keokhamphoui, Yupa Urwijitaroon, Douangchanh Kongphaly, Te Thammavong

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 132–136

Article | 16-November-2020

ABO genotyping by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism

amplifications were used that were specific for nucleotides sites 261, 526, 703, and 796 to distinguish the A, B, O1 and O2 alleles. The ABO genotypes of 294 random individuals were determined and were found to completely correlate with the serologic phenotypes. The protocol is applicable for investigations of weak or nonexpression of ABO alleles, paternity determinations, and population analysis.

Nicole A. Mifsud, Albert P. Haddad, Jennifer A. Condon, Rosemary L. Sparrow

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 4, 143–148

minireview | 19-March-2021

Microbiota: A Missing Link in The Pathogenesis of Chronic Lung Inflammatory Diseases

have still not been fully understood. Despite their differences in nature, pathophysiologies, and clinical phenotypes, a growing body of evidence indicate that the presence of lung microbiota has the potential to shape the pathogenic processes underlying chronic inflammation typically observed in the course of the diseases (Dima et al. 2019; Loverdos et al. 2019). The characterization of the lung microbiota may therefore shed new light on the pathogenesis of these diseases. Specifically, in chronic


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 70 , ISSUE 1, 25–32

Review | 01-December-2019

An update on the GLOB blood group system and collection

The P blood group antigen of the GLOB system is a glycolipid structure, also known as globoside, on the red blood cells (RBCs) of almost all individuals worldwide. The P antigen is intimately related to the Pk and NOR antigens discussed in the review about the P1PK blood group system. Naturally occurring anti-P is present in the serum of individuals with the rare globosidedeficient phenotypes p, P1k, and P2k and has been implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions as well as unfavorable

Åsa Hellberg, Julia S. Westman, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 19–24

Article | 27-December-2020

A simple alternative for Rh phenotyping red cells that have a persistently positive Rh control

results were obtained when these modified cell samples were tested against Rh typing reagents from three manufacturers using a 37°C incubation followed by four saline washes. The procedure, termed Z37W, appears to be a simple alternative that can assist in determination of Rh phenotypes when the Rh control is positive.

Jill T. Hardman, Malcolm L. Beck, Patricia Lamley

Immunohematology, Volume 5 , ISSUE 3, 83–85

Article | 14-October-2020

Easy method for determining the frequency of O1 and O2 alleles in Brazilian blood donors by PCR-RFLP analysis

Serologic ABO blood typing is routinely performed using anti-A and anti-B sera to distinguish four phenotypes (A, B, AB, and O). Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) and DNA sequence studies offer the possibility of direct ABO genotyping. We used polymerase chain reaction-RFLP analysis to determine the frequency of O1 and O2 alleles in 82 unrelated blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil, known to be group O. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes by a modified salting

Ana C. Batissoco, Marcia C.Z. Novaretti, Valdecir J. Bueno, Pedro E. Dorlhiac-Llacer, Dalton A.F. Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 111–116

Article | 22-January-2021

The P1PK blood group system: revisited and resolved

Resulting in p Phenotype Currently, a total of 40 different alleles at the A4GALT locus have been reported to abolish the enzyme activity and cause the p phenotype; 37 are described on the homepage of the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT; or at Additionally, three null alleles with deletions in coding exon 3 were recently described.18,19 Alleles Underlying the P1 vs. P2 Phenotypes In the original review published in this journal,1 theories on the

L. Stenfelt, Å. Hellberg, J.S. Westman, M.L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 3, 99–103

research-article | 30-November-2019

A smaller olfactory bulb in a mouse model of Down syndrome

Pietro Bontempi, Barbara Cisterna, Manuela Malatesta, Elena Nicolato, Carla Mucignat-Caretta, Carlo Zancanaro

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 80 , ISSUE 4, 375–380

Article | 26-October-2019

Mass-scale donor red cell genotyping using real-time array technology

blood donors to find rare phenotypes and rare combinations of antigens. When performed on donors who are predicted to donate again after testing, integrating the genotype information with existing donor data and demographics provides the blood center with real-time information to identify the common clinically relevant blood group antigens demanded by hospital transfusion services. This review outlines a red cell genotype methodology using TaqMan chemistry and existing algorithms and data handling

Gregory A. Denomme, Michael J. Schanen

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 69–74

Review | 12-March-2020

The Dombrock blood group system: a review

The Dombrock blood group system (Do) consists of two antithetical antigens (Doa and Dob) and five antigens of high prevalence (Gya, Hy, Joa, DOYA, and DOMR). Do antigens are carried on the Dombrock glycoprotein, which is attached to the RBC membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage. The gene (DO, ART4) encoding the Do glycoprotein, located on the short arm of chromosome 12, has been cloned and sequenced, allowing the molecular basis of the various Do phenotypes to be determined. Doa

Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 2, 71–78

Review | 26-October-2019

Kidd blood group system: a review

>A (p. Asp280Asn). Recent discoveries have expanded the system to include 23 variant alleles recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion that silence the protein expression and 7 variant alleles presumably producing weak or partial JK antigens. Null phenotypes have been identified in individuals of several populations including those of African, Indian, and Chinese decent, in addition to the well-documented findings in the Polynesian and Finnish populations. This review will

Janis R. Hamilton

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 29–35

case-report | 25-June-2021

B subgroup detection in a small hospital transfusion service

have subgroups that are often distinguished by decreased amounts of A or B antigens on red blood cells (RBCs). A and B subgroup phenotypes can be identified based on the quantity of A or B antigens carried on RBCs and A or B substances present in secretions (for individuals who have the secretor phenotype). The most common subgroups are A1 and A2 (in Europeans, 80% of all group A and AB individuals are A1 and 20% are A2).2 Blood group A appears to have more subgroup variations than group B. In

E. Elardo, N. Elbadri, C. Sanchez, V. Powell, M. Smaris, Y. Li, J. Jacobson, T. Hilbert, T. Hamilton, D.W. Wu

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 89–94

Case report | 01-December-2019

Red blood cell phenotype matching for various ethnic groups

phenotype distribution of Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS. A random subsample of 800 donor phenotypes was then evaluated for the probability of obtaining an exact match with respect to phenotype with a randomly selected patient from a particular ethnic group. Overall, there was a greater than 80 percent probability of finding an exact donor-recipient match for the K/k alleles in the Kell system. The probability ranged from 3 percent to 38 percent, depending on the ethnicity and disparities in phenotypic

Karafa S.W. Badjie, Craig D. Tauscher, Camille M. van Buskirk, Clare Wong, Sarah M. Jenkins, Carin Y. Smith, James R. Stubbs

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 1, 12–19

Article | 15-April-2020

Serologic and molecular genetic management of a pregnancy complicated by anti-Rh18

populations, but this is the first report of an individual self-identified of Hispanic ethnicity. This case report demonstrates the clinical importance of molecular testing of patients with rare Rh phenotypes.

Richard L. Haspel, Dawn Michelle, Richard M. Kaufman, Sunitha Vege, Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 3, 132–135

Article | 09-November-2020

Absence of hemolysis after a kidney transplant in an E+ recipient from a donor with anti-E

A 12-year-old Caucasian male with cystinosis received a kidney from his mother, whose red blood cells typed as group O, D+, E–. Her serum contained an anti-E with an IgG1 titer of 16 (score 31). The recipient’s type was group O, D+, E+, with a negative antibody screen in the pretransplant period. The recipient and donor Rh phenotypes were most likely DCcEe and Dccee, respectively. Because the recipient’s mother had no transfusion history, she was probably immunized by the

Marcia C. Zago-Novaretti, Carlos Roberto Jorge, Eduardo Jens, Pedro Enrique Dorihiac-Llacer, Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 138–140

original-report | 30-November-2020

Erythrocyte antigens and antibodies in the Chilean population

0.3 Diego Anti-Dia 6 1.0 0 0 Xg Anti-Xga 1 0.2 0 0 Total 591 1528 *Number of immunohematologic test results. †Percentage of immunohematologic test results. Erythrocyte Phenotype For antigen typing, a total of seven laboratories reported 3055 tests for the Rh antigens (D, C, c, E, e), 1043 for the Kell antigens (K, k), 309 for the Duffy antigens (Fya, Fyb), and 361 for the Kidd antigens (Jka, Jkb). The Rh phenotypes mostly found in this study were DCe (21.8%), ce (20.7%), DCce

A. Aburto, D. Zapata, E. Retamales, H. Moscoso, C. Canales, C. Escobar

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 4, 151–156

Article | 01-April-2020

Serologic and molecular characterization of the B(A) blood group in the Chinese population

B(A) phenotype individuals have normal B antigen and a small amount of A antigen on the RBCs with anti-A in the plasma. Some highly potent monoclonal anti-A reagents are capable of agglutinating B(A) RBCs,which therefore usually results in a discrepancy between RBC and plasma ABO grouping. To date,five B(A) alleles (ABO*B(A)01, B(A)02, B(A)03, B(A)04, and B(A)05) have been defined by nucleotide sequences. To get a more complete picture of B(A) phenotypes found in the Chinese population and

Zhong-Hui Guo, Dong Xiang, Zi-Yan Zhu, Xi Liu, He-Ping Chen, Jian-Lian Wang, Da-Zhuang Liu, Tong-Mao Zhao

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 2, 69–74

Article | 15-April-2020

Update on HDFN: new information on long-standing controversies

have improved the outlook for affected pregnancies to the extent that even hydrops fetalis can be reversed and effectively treated in many cases. This review will provide an update on the current issues in prevention and treatment of HDFN, emphasizing recent insights into long-standing controversies regarding maternal weak D phenotypes and D alloimmunization, noninvasive fetal diagnosis and monitoring of affected pregnancies, and recent treatment guidelines.

Anne F. Eder

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 188–195

Article | 10-November-2020

A new form of polyagglutination related to Cad

Four phenotypes of Cad (Cad 1–4) have been characterized by a continuum of polyagglutinability and reactivity with lectins, with the strongest Cad+ red blood cells (RBCs) being polyagglutinable because of the presence of anti-Cad (anti-Sda) in most normal sera. Over a period of 7 years, a French male blood donor’s RBCs demonstrated polyagglutinability with 50 percent to 70 percent of normal adult sera. The reactivity was characteristic of anti-Sda (refractile agglutination at 4°

Regina M. Leger, Elfreda J. Lines, Keith Cunningham, George Garratty

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 69–71

Review | 25-March-2020

The O2 allele: questioning the phenotypic definition of an ABO allele

There are three main alleles in the ABO blood group system, A, B, and O.  The former two alleles encode glycosyltransferases resulting in the wild-type A and B phenotypes, whereas the latter allele does not encode a functional enzyme owing to a frameshift polymorphism in the majority of cases.  Thus the group O phenotype is the absence of A or B sugars.  More than 15 years ago the O2 allele was described; this allele did not feature the usual crippling 261delG polymorphism, which

Mark H. Yazer, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 138–147

Article | 03-November-2020

Use of the MAIEA assay to demonstrate that Fy3 is on the same glycoprotein as Fy6, Fya, and Fyb

same membrane protein as Fy6. The well-established location and relationship of Duffy blood group antigens Fya, Fyb, and Fy6 were again confirmed by the MAIEA assay, and those facts were used to standardize a variation of the assay to establish the relationship between Fy3 and Fy6 using red cells with various Fy phenotypes. The MAIEA assay generated high absorbance values when Fy6 and Fya (or Fyb) antigens were evaluated. Similarly, high absorbance values were seen when Fy3 and Fy6 antigens were

Jaw-Lin Tzeng, Roger Dodd, Delores Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

Article | 01-April-2020

An alloantibody to a highprevalence MNS antigen in a person with a GP.JL/Mk phenotype

detected an antigen resistant to treatment by papain, trypsin,α-chymotrypsin, or DTT. The antibody was strongly reactive by the IAT with all RBCs tested except those having the MkMk, GP.Hil/GP.Hil, or GP.JL/GP.JL phenotypes. The patient’s RBCs typed M+N–S+/–s–U+, En(a+/–), Hut–, Mi(a–), Mur–, Vw–, Wr(a–b–), and were TSEN+, MINY+. Reactivity with Glycine soja suggested that her RBCs had a decreased level of sialic acid

John Ratliff, Susan Veneman, Joan Ward, Christine Lomas-Francis, Kim Hue-Roye, Randall W. Velliquette, Laima Sausais, Twilla Maldonado, Janet Miyamoto, Yolanda Martin, David Slater, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 146–149

Case report | 14-October-2020

Moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) due to anti-Rh17 produced by a black female with an e variant phenotype

The Rh blood group antigen e is of high incidence and has many epitopes. Partial expression may occur, more commonly in black persons. Individuals with e variant phenotypes can make antibodies to epitopes they lack. While some of these antibodies may be specific for an antigen, e.g., hrB, others, like anti-Rh17 (anti-Hro), show broader specificity, compatible only with D– – and Rhnull red blood cells (RBCs). Anti-Rh17 in persons of the D– – phenotype has been reported to

Marla C. Brumit, Gary E. Carnahan, James R. Stubbs, Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 40–42

Article | 18-October-2020

Fyx is associated with two missense point mutations in its gene and can be detected by PCR–SSP

) substitution in the 300 samples. A298 was found to be present in both FY*X and FY*B alleles, pointing to an allelic variation among FY*B alleles. T265 was encountered exclusively in FY*X and is thought to be FY*X specific. Combining the T265 specific reaction with the three PCR–SSPs described above, we were able to correctly DNA-type all phenotypes investigated in our study.

Christoph Gassner, Richard L. Kraus, Tadeja Dovc, Susanne Kilga-Nogler, Irene Utz, Thomas Mueller, Friedrich Schunter, Diether Schoenitzer

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 2, 61–67

research-article | 30-November-2020

Reclaimed desert habitats favor entomopathogenic nematode and microarthropod abundance compared to ancient farmlands in the Nile Basin

Alexandros Dritsoulas, Fahiem E. El-Borai, Ibrahim E. Shehata, Mostafa M. Hammam, Ramadan M. El-Ashry, Moawad M. Mohamed, Mahfouz M. Abd-Elgawad, Larry W. Duncan

Journal of Nematology, Volume 53 , 1–13

original-report | 25-June-2021

Statistical model for prediction of ABO hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn in India

D.S. Patale, T.L. Lokhande, R.K. Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 64–68

original-report | 30-November-2020

New ABO intron 1 variant alleles

/alfa). §Position c.28+5839 may be within or adjacent to the consensus C/EBP site (Fig. 2). ABO*A(28+5788T) Cases 2–4: Typing of three white patients yielded the following phenotypes: Case 2: Forward mixed field with anti-A and anti-A,B by gel and tube methods, respectively, reverse group A; Case 3: Forward group Amixed field by gel method and group Aweak by tube method, reverse group A; Case 4: Forward group O by gel method and mixed field by tube method, reverse group A (Table 1). Next

K. Fennell, M.A. Keller, M.A. Villa, C. Paccapelo, M. Kucerakova, J. Rosochova, C. Clemente DosSantos, L. Brackney, C.J. Lee, R. Metcalf, G. Crovetti, M. Barbieri, S. Travali, G. Barrotta, G. Giuca, L.E. Guerra, G. Ochoa-Garay

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 4, 178–184

Research paper | 25-July-2017

Surgical injury-induced early neocortical microvascular changes and characteristics of the cells populating the peri-lesion zone

remodeling of brain parenchyma, including the presence of multiple cell types of immature phenotypes. The latter, as shown by a variety of light and electron microscopy techniques, included endothelial cell precursors as well as nestin-positive immature neural cells of astrocytic or non-glial characteristics. However, there was no evidence of in situ neurogenesis or a considerable migration of cells from SVZ. The centers of the said repair processes were capillary blood vessels connected with basal

Dorota Sulejczak, Stanisław J. Chrapusta, Wojciech Kozłowski, Małgorzata Frontczak-Baniewicz

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 76 , ISSUE 2, 125–141

Research paper | 06-February-2018

Energy-dense diet triggers changes in gut microbiota, reorganization of gut-brain vagal communication and increases body fat accumulation

Obesity is associated with consumption of energy-dense diets and development of systemic inflammation. Gut microbiota play a role in energy harvest and inflammation and can influence the change from lean to obese phenotypes. The nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) is a brain target for gastrointestinal signals modulating satiety and alterations in gut-brain vagal pathway may promote overeating and obesity. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet-induced changes in gut microbiota

Alexandra C. Vaughn, Erin M. Cooper, Patricia M. DiLorenzo, Levi J. O’Loughlin, Michael E. Konkel, James H. Peters, Andras Hajnal, Tanusree Sen, Sun Hye Lee, Claire B. de La Serre, Krzysztof Czaja

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 77 , ISSUE 1, 18–30

Original Paper | 04-December-2017

The Determination and Correlation of Various Virulence Genes, ESBL, Serum Bactericidal Effect and Biofilm Formation of Clinical Isolated Classical Klebsiella pneumoniae and Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae from Respiratory Tract Infected Patients

96 K. pneumoniae strains were isolated from sputum of respiratory tract infected patients. The isolates were performed string test, AST, ESBL virulence gene, serum bactericidal and biofilm assays. Out of 96 isolates, 39 isolates (40.6%) were identified with hypervirulent phenotypes. The number of cKP exhibiting resist­ance to the tested antimicrobials and ESBLs were significantly higher than that of the hvKP strains. The virulence genes of K. pneumoniae such as K1, K2, rmpA, uge, kfu and

Rambha K. Shah, Zhao H. Ni, Xiao Y. Sun, Guo Q. Wang, Fan Li

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 66 , ISSUE 4, 501–508

Pictorial Review | 25-September-2018

Acrania-exencephaly-anencephaly sequence phenotypic characterization using two- and three-dimensional ultrasound between 11 and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation

systematic fetal head and brain examination including the formation of cranial bones, choroid-plexus and ventricles. Acrania-exencephaly-anencephaly sequence and/or other neural tube defects, such as meningoencephalocele, may be identified during a routine 11–14 week scan. Early first trimester detection of acrania-exencephaly-anencephaly sequence with the characterization of different related phenotypes, 2D and 3D ultrasound imaging as well as differential diagnosis are also presented in this pictorial

Eduardo Félix Martins Santana, Edward Araujo Júnior, Gabriele Tonni, Fabricio Da Silva Costa, Simon Meagher

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 74, 240–246

case-report | 21-November-2019

Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) – delayed diagnosis and treatment. A case report

Piotr Bogucki, Ewa Nagańska, Marta Jurek, Dorota Hoffman-Zacharska, Anna Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak, Ewa Obersztyn, Urszula Fiszer

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 27 , 49–54

Article | 17-February-2021

Weak D types 38 and 11: determination of frequencies in a Brazilian population and validation of an easy molecular assay for detection

a population of European descent or on patients with sickle cell disease.8–10 It has been recently suggested that weak D types 1, 2, and 3 represent less than 30 percent of the serologic weak D phenotypes identified among Brazilians, who are intensely racially mixed.11 Relatively high frequencies of weak D type 38 and weak D type 11 in this population were also shown,11,12 which is an interesting finding, since these variants are infrequent among white individuals and not reported among people

M.R. Dezan, V.B. Oliveira, M. Conrado, F. Luz, A. Gallucci, T.G.M. Oliveira, E.C. Sabino, V. Rocha, A. Mendrone, C.L. Dinardo

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 47–53

Report | 24-March-2020

Cryopreserving and deglycerolizing sickle cell trait red blood cell components using an automated cell-processing system

RBC components with rare phenotypes are sometimes required for patients with sickle cell disease, and these rare components can often be found among donors with sickle cell trait.  Cryopreserving RBC components from sickle cell trait donors requires a modified deglycerolization method to preserve the integrity of the RBCs.  This study evaluated the feasibility of using an automated cell-processing system to cryopreserve and deglycerolize sickle cell trait donor RBC components. 

Ricci Jo Ackley, A. Hallie Lee-Stroka, Barbara J. Bryant, David F. Stroncek, Karen M. Byrne

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 3, 107–111

Article | 15-April-2020

Efficacy of murine monoclonal antibodies in RBC phenotyping of DAT-positive samples

method. There are a limited number of direct agglutinating monoclonal antibodies available. Murine monoclonal antibodies provide an additional tool for typing RBCs with a positive DAT. Five murine monoclonal IgG antibodies (anti-K: MIMA-22, MIMA-23; anti-Kpa: MIMA-21, MIMA-27; anti-Fya: MIMA-19) were used in this study. Donor RBCs with known phenotypes were sensitized in vitro with alloanti-D, alloanti-c, and alloanti-K and with 20 autoantibodies (autoanti-D [n=3],autoanti-e [n=5], autoanti-Ce/e [n=5

Edmond Lee, Kevin Hart, Gordon Burgess, Gregory R. Halverson, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 161–165

Article | 17-February-2021

Concordance of two polymerase chain reaction–based blood group genotyping platforms for patients with sickle cell disease

*ce allele encodes a normal c antigen. Therefore, the predicted phenotypes were in agreement for the two platforms (data not shown). HEA BeadChip predicted all three samples to be V+, VS+ because of interrogation of only c.733 and not c.712 by this platform. Two samples were NC for Rh and Dombrock blood group systems on ID CORE XT because of insufficient DNA quality and/or quantity as determined by spectrophotometry. In both cases, HEA BeadChip predicted common phenotypes. The antigens in these

C.A. Sheppard, N.L. Bolen, G. Meny, M. Kalvelage, G. Ochoa-Garay

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 123–128

Article | 26-October-2019

Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay for blood group genotyping, copy number quantification, and analysis of  RH variants

extensive analysis of RHD variants. In our reference lab in the Netherlands, the MLPA was validated to detect RH variants in patients, donors, and pregnant women. Furthermore, we have used the MLPA to provide comprehensive typing after blood transfusion of 52 blood group antigens simultaneously, in patients with red cell autoantibodies or patients with rare phenotypes.

Barbera Veldhuisen, C. Ellen van der Schoot, Masja de Haas

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 2, 58–61

Report | 25-March-2020

Rapid, single-subject genotyping to predict red blood cell antigen expression

isolated from fresh and 1- and 2-week-old stored blood from 20 donors with known ABO and Rh phenotypes and was used for ABO, RHD, and RHCE genotyping using SSPs.  The amplicons were analyzed using gel electrophoresis and a novel microfluidic onchip electrophoresis system.  Analysis of DNA from fresh and 1- and 2-week-old blood by SSP and gel electrophoresis yielded the correct ABO, RHD, and RHCE type in all samples, but with DNA from 2-week-old stored blood the amplicons were more difficult

Stefanie L. Slezak, Sharon Adams, Hallie Lee-Stroka, Joshua E. Martin, Lorraine Caruccio, David F. Stroncek

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 154–159

Review Paper | 07-April-2017

Genetic epilepsies. remarks on the proposed “organization of the Epilepsies”

include into genetic testing genes responsible for the side effects of AEDs. In addition, for some epilepsy phenotypes it has became possible to predict the most efficacious antiepileptic drugs for patients based on their genetic makeup. Thus, the development of individualized medicine is expected to greatly improve the management of epilepsy patients.

Heinz Gregor Wieser

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 1, 11–23

research-article | 09-April-2020

First report of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne morocciensis infecting peach in Southern Brazil

studies (n = 20). Additionally, individual females (n = 20) were extracted from the peach roots and identified by electrophoresis using α-esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes (Carneiro and Almeida, 2001) and perineal patterns (Taylor and Netscher, 1974). The nematode population density in the samples was 283 eggs and J2s per gram of fresh roots. Perineal patterns of females (Fig. 2B,C) showed oval squared shapes, with moderately high to high dorsal arches, striae widely separated

W. R. Silva, C. P. Machaca-Calsin, C. B. Gomes

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–3

research-article | 30-November-2019

Intraspecific variation in phenotypic and phylogenetic features among Pratylenchus penetrans isolates from Wisconsin, USA

Kanan Saikai, Ann E. MacGuidwin

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–17

Article | 14-October-2020

Studies on the Dombrock blood group system in non-human primates

phenotypes have been determined. The purpose of this study was to perform DNA-based assays on the DO homolog in non-human primates to determine the degree of conservation in the DO gene. Murine MoAbs to Dombrock protein were developed by standard hybridoma technologies and used to test RBCs from non-human primates by hemagglutination. PCR-RFLP analysis for the six singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have been defined in human alleles were performed on DNA extracted from fresh or frozen blood

Cristina Mogos, Alissa Schawalder, Gregory R. Halverson, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 77–82

Article | 16-February-2021

Comparison of ABO genotyping methods: a study of two low-resolution polymerase chain reaction assays in a clinical testing laboratory

plasmid vectors and subjected to Sanger sequencing to determine the phase when multiple SNVs were detected and to facilitate allele assignments. Sanger sequencing was performed on one sample by the RBC-FluoGene kit manufacturer (inno-train Diagnostik) using Big Dye Terminators 3.1 and the ABI3130 Sequencer. Results TaqMan-based SSP-PCR and PCR-RFLP were performed for each sample and genotype-predicted phenotypes were compared in the context of the serologic information provided. The results are

J.A. Keller, T. Horn, S. Scholz, S. Koenig, M.A. Keller

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 149–153

Report | 26-October-2019

Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors

and maintain adequate rare inventory of each. Molecular red blood cell genotyping allows transfusion services to increase their availability of rare phenotypes for chronically transfused patients.

Lorena I. Aranda, Linda A. Smith, Scott Jones, Rachel Beddard

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 4, 166–173

Article | 30-November-2018


constitutes a threat to public health, the European Commission, with the means of the 2013/652/EU decision, introduced the obligation, starting in 2014, to monitor the sensitivity of these antibiotics to Salmonella and indicator E. coli rods [9]. These bacteria, which show resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime or meropenem are subjected to further detailed analysis to determine the resistance phenotypes and their mechanisms. In most European countries, animal isolates of Salmonella rods have not shown

Marian Binek, Magdalena Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena Rzewuska, Dorota Chrobak-Chmiel, Agnieszka Sałamaszyńska-Guz

Postępy Mikrobiologii - Advancements of Microbiology, Volume 58 , ISSUE 3, 259–270

Article | 28-April-2020

Reactivity of FDA-approved anti-D reagents with partial D red blood cells

that failed to react with R0Har RBCs by the IAT. Elimination of the test for weak D on all patient samples, using currently available FDA-licensed reagents, will ensure that partial D category VI (DVI) patients will type as D– for the purpose of RhIG prophylaxis and blood transfusion. However, RBCs of other partial D phenotypes will be classified as D+ in direct agglutination tests with some,if not all,currently available reagents. Testing donors for weak expression of D continues to be

W. John Judd, Marilyn Moulds, Gloria Schlanser

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 4, 146–148

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