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Case report | 31-January-2019

Heterotopic pregnancy – how easily you can go wrong in diagnosing? A case study

Abstract Introduction: Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare, but potentially life-threatening pathology. The diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy is still one of the biggest challenges in modern gynecology. The incidence of those pregnancies in natural conception is about 1:30000. Case presentation: We present an unusual case of a heterotopic pregnancy which was misdiagnosed in the first trimester as a dichorionic twin pregnancy. At 13 weeks of gestation, the patient presented with an acute abdomen

Michał Ciebiera, Aneta Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Kornelia Zaręba, Grzegorz Jakiel

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 75, 355–358

Review Article | 30-March-2018

Cesarean scar pregnancy – a new challenge for obstetricians

Diagnosis and treatment of ectopic cesarean scar pregnancy has become a challenge for contemporary obstetrics. With an increase in the number of pregnancies concluded with a cesarean section and with the development of transvaginal ultrasonography, the frequency of cesarean scar pregnancy diagnoses has increased as well. The aim of the study is to evaluate various diagnostic methods (ultrasonography in particular) and analyze effective treatment methods for cesarean scar pregnancy. An

Piotr Pędraszewski, Edyta Wlaźlak, Wojciech Panek, Grzegorz Surkont

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 72, 56–62

Review | 31-August-2018

The role of ultrasonography in methotrexate therapy for ectopic pregnancy

Medical management of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate, an antimetabolite of folic acid, is an important alternative to surgical treatment, as it ensures a similar outcome whilst being far less invasive. Ultrasound evaluation does not only facilitate an accurate diagnosis, but also helps to select patients most likely to benefit from methotrexate treatment, as opposed to those with a high likelihood of failure of medical management, who are thus eligible for primary surgical treatment

Piotr Czuczwar

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 73, 158–161

research-article | 31-December-2019

Gallbladder diseases in pregnancy: Sonographic findings in an indigenous African population

Introduction During pregnancy, gallbladder disease is often due to gallstones and biliary sludge(1). Although gallbladder disease also occurs in men, a higher prevalence has been reported in women(2,3). Hossain et al.(4) reported that gall bladder diseases are four times more common in women than men. Likewise, Eze et al. reported a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1 in the prevalence of these diseases(2). This gender predilection constitutes a risk during pregnancy, and it has been found that gall

Bukunmi Michael Idowu, Stephen Olaoluwa Onigbinde, Isaiah Uzezi Ebie, Michael Temidayo Adeyemi

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 79, 269–275

Research Article | 29-December-2017

Uterine artery Doppler velocimetry in hypertensive disorder of pregnancy in Nigeria

Aim of the studyTo evaluate the value of uterine artery Doppler indices and waveform pattern in predicting fetuses at risk for intrauterine growth restriction in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.Materials and methodsThis was a prospective cross-sectional study including 80 pregnant subjects with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and two control groups. Uterine artery Doppler sonography was performed in all study participants. Uterine artery Doppler indices across the groups were compared

Ibukun A. Abidoye, Oluwagbemiga O. Ayoola, Bukunmi M. Idowu, Adeniyi S. Aderibigbe, Olabisi M. Loto

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 71, 253–258

Case report | 29-December-2017

A twin pregnancy with a hydatidiform mole and a coexisting live fetus: prenatal diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up

Twin molar pregnancy with a hydatidiform mole and a coexisting live fetus is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease associated with an increased risk of obstetric complications and poor perinatal outcome. Prenatal diagnosis is essential for couple counseling and follow-up in Tertiary Reference Centers. Magnetic resonance imaging is important for the diagnostic differentiation of placental mesenchymal dysplasia and exclusion of myometrial invasion. Here we present a case of twin molar

Antonio Braga, Bruna Obeica, Heron Werner, Sue Yazaki Sun, Joffre Amim Júnior, Jorge Rezende Filho, Edward Araujo Júnior

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 71, 299–305

Case report | 12-March-2020

Role for serial prenatal anti-Vel quantitative serologic monitoring with 2-ME serum treatment during pregnancy: case report

Anti-Vel is an uncommon antibody to a high-prevalence antigen. Its clinical significance and management in the prenatal setting are not well characterized. We present a case that demonstrates the utility of serial prenatal anti-Vel quantitative serologic monitoring with 2-ME serum treatment during pregnancy. The patient is a 23-year-old Hispanic woman with history of prior pregnancy and prior transfusion who was discovered to have an antibody to the high-prevalence Vel antigen in the first

Walter J. Linz, Judith T. Fueger, Steven Allen, Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Review Article | 30-March-2018

Current knowledge on the use of ultrasound measurements of fetal soft tissues for the assessment of pregnancy development

Ultrasonography, with its detailed imaging of the fetus, is very widely used in obstetrics. The primary aim of ultrasound scanning in pregnancy is to limit the risk of obstetric complications by early detection of abnormalities, such as intrauterine growth restriction and macrosomia. Currently, morphometric formulae are used for estimating fetal weight. They utilize basic biometric parameters. However, Hadlock formula, used for fetal weight estimation, has an error rate of 20%. For this reason

Aleksandra Warska, Anna Maliszewska, Anna Wnuk, Beata Szyszka, Włodzimierz Sawicki, Krzysztof Cendrowski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 72, 50–55

research-article | 10-October-2018

Dynamics of Social Networks Following Adolescent Pregnancy

Introduction Despite a downward trend in adolescent pregnancy since the 1990’s, pregnancy is still a relatively common occurrence among American teenagers. Approximately one in ten sexually active girls experience a pregnancy sometime during their teenage years – about 5% of adolescent females nationally (Guttmacher Institute, 2016). This prevalence makes the United States the leader in adolescent pregnancies amongst industrialized nations (Kearney & Levine, 2012). High incidence of teenage

Elizabeth Humberstone

Journal of Social Structure, Volume 19 , ISSUE 1, 1–34

original-paper | 28-June-2019

Fertility outcome after saline sonography guided removal of intrauterine polyps in women with unexplained infertility

recommend saline infusion sonography or hysteroscopy as the initial infertility investigation. Their stance on the subject is derived from the fact that removal has not been proven worthwhile(7). Studies showing improved clinical pregnancy rates in women with unexplained infertility after removal of unsuspected polyps are being reported. Cochrane database review concluded that hysteroscopic removal of submucous fibroids in women suffering from otherwise unexplained infertility may be beneficial(8

Rubina Izhar, Samia Husain, Suhaima Tahir, Sonia Husain

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 77, 113–119

Short Report | 10-September-2020

Can pregnant women accurately report snoring? A pilot study

Sleep-Disordered Breathing (SDB) has been associated with possible negative outcomes, such as preeclampsia and foetal growth restriction. SDB screening tools have been developed for use within general populations. These included the use of self-reports and objective measurements. Seventeen pregnant women within their 34th to 37th week of pregnancy were recruited.  Participants undertook an overnight study within their home and SDB symptoms were monitored using the Watch-PAT 200 and an

Jane Warland, Jacinta Carpentieri, Jillian Dorrian

Eat, Sleep, Work, Volume 1 , ISSUE 1, 57–64

Review | 31-August-2018

Ultrasound screening for pyelectasis in pregnant women. Clinical necessity or “art for art’s sake”?

Renal pelvicalyceal dilatation is caused by urine retention in the upper urinary tract. It is referred to as pyelectasis in medical literature. This term does not indicate the cause that leads to the dilatation of and urine retention in the renal pelvicalyceal system. Mild pelvicalyceal dilatation during pregnancy is usually considered to be physiological in nature – it can occur in up to 90% of pregnant women. Retention is more common in the right kidney, in primigravidae, in the second half

Piotr Szkodziak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 73, 152–157

Case report | 17-November-2020

Case report: anti-Cra in pregnancy

antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, and no increase in the strength of the antibody during the pregnancy. The newborn infant showed no clinical signs of HDN, and was of normal weight. This case study suggests that anti-Cra is not implicated in HDN.

Anne C. Dickson, Claire Guest, Mary Jordon, Jackie Banks, Belinda Kumpel

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 14–17

Research paper | 10-October-2018

Testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences social coping and gene expression of oxytocin and vasopressin in the brain of adult rats

Steroid hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects and play an important role in fetal programming. The aim of our study was to investigate how testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences neurobehavioral aspects of social coping of rat offspring in adulthood. Pregnant rat dams were exposed to depot form of testosterone during the last third of pregnancy (i.e., beginning on the 14th day of pregnancy). Their adult offspring were later tested in a social interaction

Zuzana Dzirbíková, Alžbeta Talarovičová, Peter Štefánik, Lucia Olexová, Lucia Kršková

Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, Volume 78 , ISSUE 3, 264–270

case-report | 31-December-2019

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital megalourethra in the second trimester of pregnancy

keyhole sign (Fig. 2), dorsally curved penis with largely dilated penile urethra (18 × 5 mm) (Fig. 3). The amniotic fluid volume was normal. No other abnormalities were found. Based on such abnormal sonographic findings, including hydronephrosis, hydroureters, megacystis and dilated penile urethra, we came to a diagnosis of scaphoid congenital megalourethra. After parental counseling, termination of pregnancy proved the prenatal findings (Fig. 4). Fig. 1. A. Dilated right renal pelvis B. dilated

Do Duy Anh, Ha To Nguyen, Simon Meagher, Edward Araujo Júnior

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 79, 302–304

mini-review | 06-December-2021

Can Lactobacillus spp. Be a Factor Reducing the Risk of Miscarriage?

Introduction Pregnancy loss is a common obstetric problem, affecting up to 25% of pregnancies worldwide (Larsen et al. 2013; Al-Memar et al. 2020). A miscarriage is the expulsion of a fetal egg from the uterus up to 22 weeks of gestation. Miscarriages can be divided into early miscarriages, up to 12 weeks of gestation, and late miscarriages, occurring between 12 and 22 weeks of gestation (Larsen et al. 2013). The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) has introduced the


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 70 , ISSUE 4, 431–446

Case report | 09-October-2019

A LU:-16 individual with antibodies

Antibodies against Lutheran blood group antigens have been observed during first-time pregnancy. Samples from a woman of African descent were tested in our immunohematology laboratory on several occasions since 2001. Her samples were phenotyped as Lu(a+b−), and anti-Lub was suspected but not identified. She was asked to make autologous donations in preparation for her delivery, which she did. In 2010, two antibodies were identified: anti-Lea and -Lub. Six years later, a third

Carole Éthier, Cynthia Parent, Anne-Sophie Lemay, Nadia Baillargeon, Geneviève Laflamme, Josée Lavoie, Josée Perreault, Maryse St-Louis

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 110–113

Report | 09-October-2019

Laboratory management of perinatal patients with apparently "new" anti-D

Despite the existence of long-standing, well-organized programs for Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis, immune anti-D continues to be detected in the D– perinatal population. Between 2006 and 2008, 91 prenatal patients, found to have a previously unidentified anti-D, were followed up with a survey to their treating physician and with additional serologic testing where possible. The physician survey requested pregnancy and RhIG history information, including recent or distant potential

Judith L. Hannon, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology, Volume 32 , ISSUE 3, 108–111

research-article | 15-June-2020

Cervical stenosis and pregnancy rate after ultrasound guided cervical dilation in women undergoing saline infusion sonography

frequently cited cause of decreased clinical pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles(6). It has been suggested that trial transfers under ultrasound guidance improve conception rates. Saline infusion sonography involves the use of soft tip Foley’s catheter for the introduction of saline used for cavity distension and checking for free spill(7). Cervical dilation with a Hegar’s dilator may be needed prior to introduction of this Foley’s catheter in cases of stenosis. Since a stenosis that

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 81, e116–e121

Article | 31-March-2021

Transfusion support during childbirth for a woman with anti-U and the RHD*weak D type 4.0 allele

recommended in 20152 to phase-in RHD genotyping for patients with a serologic weak D phenotype. The same authors3 specified their recommendation in 2020 to phase-out the reporting of a “serologic weak D phenotype” and resolve all weak D types with RHD genotyping. We report a pregnant woman with anti-U and a serologic weak D phenotype. The clinical workup in this case illustrated the importance of molecular analysis of serologic weak D phenotypes early in the pregnancy to preserve rare D– RBC units and to

Q. Yin, K. Srivastava, D.G. Brust, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 1–4

Case report | 16-October-2019

Management of pregnancy sensitized with anti-Inb with monocyte monolayer assay and maternal blood donation

Maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies can cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Although much is described about common antibodies associated with HDFN, management of a pregnancy complicated by a maternal rare antibody presents several challenges related to assessment of fetal anemia risk, availability of blood for transfusion to the mother and/or the fetus or newborn if needed, and planning for delivery in the case of maternal hemorrhage. Here we report the laboratory

Raj Shree, Kimberly K. Ma, Lay See Er, Meghan Delaney

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 1, 7–10

Article | 17-February-2021

Identifying obstetrics patients in whom RHD genotyping can be used to assess risk of D alloimmunization

D+ red blood cells (RBCs) during pregnancy or transfusion. The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) has reported over 90 different RHD alleles encoding partial D antigens. Other variations in the RHD gene significantly alter the number of antigenic sites expressed on the RBC membrane and are often referred to as weak D alleles. There are many alleles for which the impact on epitopes has not been assessed or the risk of alloimmunization identified. The three most common RHD variants

T.N. Horn, J. Keller, M.A. Keller, L. Klinger

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 4, 146–151

Case report | 01-December-2019

Posttransplant maternal anti-D: a case study and review

Plasma from a 35-year-old, D– woman was found to have anti-D, -C, and -G at 5 weeks’ gestation and again at 8 weeks’ gestation, when she presented with a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy. The anti-D titer increased with a pattern that suggested it was stimulated by the 8-week pregnancy. Six years before this admission, the patient’s blood type changed from group O, D+ to group O, D– after a bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. Three years after transplant

Lisa Senzel, Cecilia Avila, Tahmeena Ahmed, Harjeet Gill, Kim Hue-Roye, Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 55–59

Letter to Editor | 15-April-2020

Anti-Cra: pregnancy and transfusion support

Nay Win, Malcolm Needs

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 203–204

Article | 01-April-2020

Management of pregnancy complicated by anti-hrB/anti-HrB

Nay Win, Malcolm Needs, Louise Tillyer

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 143–145

Review | 21-March-2020

Managing a pregnancy with antibodies:a clinician's perspective

Thomas F. Kelly, Maryam Tarsa

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 2, 52–57

Original Paper | 28-December-2016

High Seroprevalence of CMV Among Women of Childbearing Age Implicates High Burden of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection in Poland

Cytomegaloviruses are common worldwide, with variable frequency of infections. The infection in pregnancy may lead to pregnancy loss or serious sequelae for the child. To understand the risk posed by CMV in Poland we conducted cross-sectional study on women aged 15–49 basing on existing serum bank. Age dependent CMV incidence, the rates of congenital infection and sequelae were modelled from sero-prevalence, literature and demographic data. The overall anti-CMV IgG prevalence was 81.9

Joanna Siennicka, Milena Dunal-Szczepaniak, Agnieszka Trzcińska, Paulina Godzik, Magdalena Rosińska

Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 65 , ISSUE 4, 425–432

Case report | 09-October-2019

Postpartum acute hemolytic transfusion reactions associated with anti-Lea in two pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia

Marcia Marchese

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 3, 114–118

Short Communication | 01-December-2019

Unusual erythrocyte split chimerism in pregnancy after allogeneic stem cell transplantation

M.L. Barjas-Castro, A.C. Vigoritto, F.A. Moretto, V. Castro

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 3, 135–136

Article | 16-October-2019

Anti-Vel alloimmunization and severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

therapy has been noted to date. We report such a case recently encountered at our Fetal Center. Case Report The patient was a 31-year-old woman (gravida/para/abortus [GPA] = G2P1000) who was referred to our Fetal Center from a neighboring state for evaluation of Vel alloimmunization. Her past history was significant, with the finding of a positive antibody detection test and identification of anti-Vel during her previous pregnancy. Based on literature reports of only mild-to-moderate HDFN in

K.J. Moise, Y. Morales, M.F. Bertholf, S.N. Rossmann, Y. Bai

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 4, 152–154

Research Article | 29-December-2017

Conjoined twins – role of imaging and recent advances

case was further evaluated by MRI.ResultsThree cases of conjoined twins (cephalopagus, thoracopagus and omphalopagus) were accurately diagnosed on antenatal ultrasound. After detailed counseling of the parents and obtaining written consent, all the three cases of pregnancy were terminated. Delivery of the viable conjoined twins was achieved without any complications to the mothers, and all the three conjoined twins died after a few minutes.ConclusionUltrasound enables an early and accurate

Rishi Philip Mathew, Swati Francis, Ram Shenoy Basti, Hadihally B. Suresh, Annie Rajarathnam, Prema D. Cunha, Sujaya V. Rao

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 71, 259–266

Article | 18-October-2020

A successful delivery of a baby from a D––/ D–– mother with strong anti-Hr0

We describe the first reported case in Korea of a woman with a D––/ D–– phenotype, a high-titer anti-Hr0, and the successful delivery of her newborn. The mother had a history of spontaneous abortion and artificial termination. In her third pregnancy, a live infant was delivered, but died of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Hr0 in spite of intensive medical intervention. In her fourth pregnancy, at 22 weeks gestation, the titer of anti-Hr0 was 1024

Dong Hee Whang, Hee Chung Kim, Mina Hur, Jung Hwan Choi, Joong Shin Park, Kyou Sup Han

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 3, 112–114

Article | 15-April-2020

Serologic and molecular genetic management of a pregnancy complicated by anti-Rh18

Richard L. Haspel, Dawn Michelle, Richard M. Kaufman, Sunitha Vege, Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 3, 132–135

Research Article | 30-November-2014

Nonverbal Reasoning in Preschool Children: Investigating the Putative Risk of Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder as a Mediator

continued to be negatively associated with nonverbal reasoning skills after adjustment for maternal education, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and maternal reports of exposure to SHS during pregnancy in separate models.Children who grow up in an environment with adults who smoke are vulnerable to several social and environmental risk factors. The findings of this study suggest that exposure to SHS during early childhood should also be considered as a potential variable in the risk trajectory and as a

Duneesha De Alwis, Mini Tandon, Rebecca Tillman, Joan Luby

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 2, 115–125

Article | 28-April-2020

Persistent anti-Dra in two pregnancies

Naomi Rahimi-Levene, Abraham Kornberg, Gabriela Siegel, Valery Morozov, Eilat Shinar, Orna Asher, Cyril Levene, Vered Yahalom

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 126–128

Review | 30-June-2017

Can ultrasound be helpful in selecting optimal management methods for pregnancies complicated by placental non-trophpblastic tumors?

Placental chorioangioma is the most common subtype of non-trophoblastic placental tumors. Other subtypes are very rare and usually associated with an uneventful course of pregnancy. Most chorioangiomas are small and of no clinical significance. Giant chorioangiomas may be associated with serious fetal and maternal complications. So far, no established ultrasound guidelines are available for the management of placental non-trophoblastic tumors. This may be attributed to the rarity of the disease

Nabil Abdalla, Robert Piórkowski, Paweł Stanirowski, Monika Pazura, Krzysztof Cendrowski, Włodzimierz Sawicki

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 116–122

Original Paper | 10-August-2017

Antenatal corticosteroid treatment for the prevention of peri-intraventricular haemorrhage in preterm newborns: a retrospective cohort study using transfontanelle ultrasonography

cycle per week. The diagnosis of periintraventricular haemorrhage was based on transfontanelle ultrasonography, using the Papile’s classification. The following risk factors for peri-intraventricular haemorrhage were assessed: birth weight, gestational age at delivery, type of delivery, newborn’s sex, surfactant administration, premature rupture of membranes and previous history of infection during the current pregnancy. The student’s t-test and chi-square test were used for

Bianca A. Almeida, Livia T. Rios, Edward Araujo Júnior, Luciano M. Nardozza, Antonio F. Moron, Marília G. Martins

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 69, 91–95

research-article | 15-June-2020

Comparison of the resistive indices obtained in the uterine artery and the ophthalmic artery in preeclamptic and normotensive patients in Doppler US

Introduction Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity throughout the world(1). It is a pregnancy disorder characterized by high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in urine(2). The incidence of preeclampsia is from 5–10%(3,4), and its prevalence is 2–8%(5). The possible causes of preeclampsia include: an exaggerated inflammatory response by endothelial cells, which intrinsically increases the local blood supply to the affected area,(6) and the

Syeda Rabi Madina, Raham Bacha, Syed Amir Gilani, Wafa Fatima, Wahida Awais, Hamnah Fatima, Iqra Manzoor

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 20 , ISSUE 81, e95–e99

Book Review | 14-October-2020

BOOK REVIEW: Alloimmune Disorders of Pregnancy: Anaemia, Thrombocytopenia and Neutropenia in the Fetus and Newborn

Geralyn Meny

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 87–87

Article | 14-October-2020

Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-5b (Bra)

Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) results from maternal immunization against fetal platelet antigens and can occur during the first pregnancy. The most common complications of NAIT are neonatal thrombocytopenia, intracerebral hemorrhage, and fetal death. Most cases of NAIT in Causasians are caused by anti-HPA-1a (PlA1). Anti-HPA-5b (Bra) accounts for only 4.3 percent of all NAIT cases. NAIT due to anti-HPA-5b is thought to be milder and have fewer complications than NAIT caused by

Sally A. Campbell-Lee, Deirdre DeSantis-Parsons, R. Sue Shirey, Thomas S. Kickler

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 4, 127–131

Article | 16-November-2020

A case of hydrops fetalis, probably due to antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of GP.Mur (Miltenberger class III) cells

The GP.Mur (Miltenberger class III) phenotype was found to occur in about 6.3 percent of Hong Kong (HK) Chinese blood donors. The incidence of antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of GP.Mur cells (anti-Mi) among patients was 0.34 percent, similar to that in Taiwan Chinese. A case of hydrops fetalis probably attributable to maternal anti-Mi was encountered in an HK Chinese woman during her sixth pregnancy. The anti-Mi was potent (titer 512, score 99). It fixed complement and was a

C.K. Lin, K.H. Mak, C.M.Y. Yuen, N.K. Chan, H.W. Liu, G. Cheng

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 115–118

Review | 06-December-2020

Review: the LW blood group system

disease states and in pregnancy, associated with production of apparent alloantibody, remains puzzling, but this phenomenon may eventually help our understanding of the immunology of disease.

Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 87–93

Article | 14-October-2020

Antibodies detected in samples from 21,730 pregnant women

Snezana Jovanovic-Srzentic, Milan Djokic, Nenad Tijanic, Radmila Djordjevic, Nada Rizvan, Darko Plecas, Dejan Filimonovic

Immunohematology, Volume 19 , ISSUE 3, 89–92

Original Paper | 09-October-2019

Modeling alloantibody formation to highincidence red blood cell antigens in immune responders using genotypic data  

;, Immucor, Warren, NJ) was performed on all patient specimens referred for molecular testing over 45 months; serologic and clinical data were analyzed. We used simple and multiple logistic regression to model the risk factors for alloimmunization to an HIA. Of the 2591 patients genotyped, 32 (1.2%) were homozygous for at least one variant predicting absence of an HIA. Of these 32 patients, prior transfusion or pregnancy history was available for 29 (91%). Four susceptible patients made an antibody to an

Patricia A.R. Brunker, Keerthana Ravindran, R. Sue Shirey

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 9–14

Article | 17-November-2020

Identification of the Tcb allele of the Cromer blood group gene by PCR and RFLP analysis

The Cromer blood group antigens reside on the complement regulatory protein, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). The Cromer system comprises 10 antigens, 3 of which are of low incidence. When an individual is homozygous for the allele encoding one of these low-incidence antigens, they are liable to produce an antibody to the anti-thetical high-frequency antigen if challenged by pregnancy or transfusion. These antibodies are often difficult to identify, because of the lack of readily available

Manisha Udani, Nicole Anderson, Neeraja Rao, Marilyn J. Telen

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 1–4

Article | 06-December-2020

Alloimmunization by blood group antigens from bone allografts

The purpose of this report is to heighten awareness of the risk of blood group antigen sensitization following bone allografting. Two Rh-negative females of childbearing age developed multiple antibodies to Rh antigens following transplantation of bone from Rh-positive donors. A previous pregnancy and/or blood transfusions were ruled out as factors influencing the antibody production. It is postulated that red cells or red cell stroma in the allografts stimulated the antibody production

C. Elizabeth Musclow, Glen Dietz, Robert S. Bell, Madeleine Beaudry-Clouatre

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 102–104

Review | 16-October-2019

A brief overview of clinical significance of blood group antibodies

can occur via exposure to foreign (donor) RBC antigens through previous transfusions, transplants, or exposure to fetal RBCs during or after pregnancy. However, not all blood group antibodies are clinically significant. Clinically significant blood group antibodies can cause adverse events after blood component transfusion or transplantation and/or can cause hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

Manish J. Gandhi, D. Michael Strong, Barbee I. Whitaker, Evangelia Petrisli

Immunohematology, Volume 34 , ISSUE 1, 4–6

Review | 01-December-2019

An update on the GLOB blood group system and collection

outcomes of pregnancy. The molecular genetic basis of globoside deficiency is absence of functional P synthase as a result of mutations at the B3GALNT1 locus. Other related glycolipid structures, the LKE and PX2 antigens, remain in the GLOB blood group collection pending further evidence about the genes and gene products responsible for their synthesis.

Åsa Hellberg, Julia S. Westman, Martin L. Olsson

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 19–24

Case report | 29-December-2017

Fetal ultrasound: Early diagnosis and natural evolution of proximal femoral focal deficiency

Proximal femoral focal deficiency is an extremely rare congenital anomaly with only a few case reports in the literature. This case illustrates one diagnosed by prenatal ultrasound. The diagnosis may be isolated or associated with other abnormalities and syndromes. This report describes the early obstetrical ultrasound diagnosis, its evolution and associated findings throughout pregnancy. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report associating this diagnosis with sickle cell trait

Eugenio O. Gerscovich, Simran Sekhon, Thomas W. Loehfelm, Adam Greenspan

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 17 , ISSUE 71, 294–298

Article | 09-November-2020

A maternal warm-reactive autoantibody presenting as a positive direct antiglobulin test in a neonate

Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in pregnancy is a rare cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn. This report describes a neonate with a mild hemolytic process and a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) presenting as the first manifestations of a maternal warm-reactive autoantibody. A full-term male neonate, blood group O, had a strongly positive DAT and laboratory evidence suggestive of a mild hemolytic process. The neonate’s mother was also group O and had a negative antibody screen

Terry D. Williamson, Linda H. Liles, Douglas P. Blackall

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Review | 26-October-2019

Kell and Kx blood group systems

, and alloantibodies to Kell antigens can cause transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Kell alloantibodies in pregnancy are known to suppress erythropoiesis, which can result in serious disease despite low amniotic bilirubin levels and low antibody titers. Late-onset anemia with reticulocytopenia is thought to be attributable to the continual suppression of erythropoiesis from residual alloantibody in the infant. Alloimmunization to XK protein is rare, and expressed

Gregory A. Denomme

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 14–19

Review | 01-December-2019

GIL: a blood group system review

shown to be the same as an unidentified high-incidence antigen lacking from the red blood cells of a French woman. Coincidentally all the antibodies found have been produced as a result of pregnancy. While there has not been a direct link to a disease, the absence of the AQP3 protein may result in a worse than expected rate of survival of patients with bladder cancer as compared with patients with the same disease who express the protein. Future work may center on using GIL as a marker for AQP3 and

Dawn M. Rumsey, Delores A. Mallory

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 141–144

Article | 15-April-2020

In search of the Holy Grail: comparison of antibody screening methods

Currently,the goal of testing for RBC antibodies is to use a method that will detect, if possible, all antibodies that are considered clinically significant and yet not detect antibodies of little clinical importance in transfusion or pregnancy. The focus of test method development has been on the more controllable variables of the first and second stages of agglutination. Tube test methods have been developed over the years to achieve shorter turnaround times for quicker test results and

Tony S. Casina

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 196–202

Article | 09-November-2020

Absence of hemolysis after a kidney transplant in an E+ recipient from a donor with anti-E

fetal red blood cells of her one pregnancy (the recipient). The kidney had been immediately perfused with saline after removal from the donor. No acute or delayed hemolysis was observed clinically or in laboratory tests performed immediately after the transplant and at 7, 15, and 30 days after the transplant. Antibody screens were still negative at 6 months. In this case, anti-E was not present in the transplanted kidney in sufficient concentration to cause hemolysis of the recipient’s red

Marcia C. Zago-Novaretti, Carlos Roberto Jorge, Eduardo Jens, Pedro Enrique Dorihiac-Llacer, Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 138–140

Case report | 26-October-2019

Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-C+G

identification of the correct antibody was delayed because the differentiation of anti-C+G and anti-D+C was not considered important during pregnancy since the father was D–. In addition, anti-C+G and anti-G titer levels were not found to be as reliable as is generally considered in Rh immunization. Severe HDFN occurred at a maternal anti-C+G antibody titer of 8 and anti-G titer of 1 in comparison with the critical titer level of 16 or more in our laboratory. Close collaboration between the

Riina Jernman, Vedran Stefanovic, Anu Korhonen, Katri Haimila, Inna Sareneva, Kati Sulin, Malla Kuosmanen, Susanna Sainio

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 123–127

Review | 31-August-2018

Ultrasonographic criteria of cesarean scar defect evaluation

. Ultrasound evaluation of the cesarean section scar is an important element of obstetric and gynecologic practice, especially in the case of further pregnancies. It facilitates an early diagnosis of a cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, and the prediction of the risk for perinatal dehiscence in the case of a vaginal birth after a cesarean section.

Andrzej Woźniak, Krzysztof Pyra, Hugo Rio Tinto, Sławomir Woźniak

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 18 , ISSUE 73, 162–165

research-article | 31-December-2019

Color Doppler ultrasound of spiral artery blood flow in mid first trimester (4–8 weeks) in cases of threatened abortion and in normal pregnancies

Introduction Threatened miscarriage is a clinical term for vaginal bleeding that occurs during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy where fetus is clinically supposed to be alive. This bleeding may or may not be associated with abdominal pain. About 1/5 of all pregnant females present with symptoms of threatened abortion in the first trimester and almost half of the women with threatened abortion result in pregnancy loss(1). Even women with threatened abortion and a living embryo have increased

Rohit Bhoil, Sushruti Kaushal, Reena Sharma, Jaswinder Kaur, Tanupriya Sharma, Rohini Thakur, Rakesh Sharma

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 19 , ISSUE 79, 255–260

Article | 06-December-2020

Expression of B and H antigens on red cells from a group Bweak individual studied by serologic and scanning electron microscopic techniques

The proposita was classified as Bel, By, or Bm, Le(b+) by routine blood grouping and by adsorption/elution studies using anti-A and -B hyperimmune pregnancy sera. Red cells from the proposita adsorbed as much anti-B from the hyperimmune sera as did red cells from normal B individuals, but adsorbed less anti-A,B (group O serum). Saliva contained H, but not B, soluble substance. Red cells from the proposita and a normal B donor were sensitized with monoclonal A and B blood group antibodies

Hans Erik Heier, Leif Kornstad, Ellen Namork, Peder Østgard, Randi Sandin

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 4, 94–99

Article | 14-October-2020

Blood group antigen profile predicted by molecular biology - use of real-time polymerase chain reaction to genotype important KEL, JK, RHD, and RHCE alleles

The most clinically important blood group systems in transfusion medicine, excluding the ABO system, are the RH, Kell, and Kidd systems. Alloantibodies to antigens of these systems may be produced following blood transfusion or during pregnancy and can result in serious hemolytic transfusion reactions and hemolytic disease of the newborn.We developed rapid and robust techniques for RHD, RHCE, KEL, and JK genotyping with the use of a real-time polymerase chain reaction instrument. Two

Fernando Manuel Ferreira Araújo, Christiana Pereira, Fátima Monteiro, Isabel Henriques, Elsa Meireles, Pedro Lacerda, Ana Aleixo, Regina Celeste, Luis M. Cunha-Ribeiro, Maria J. Rodrigues

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 59–64

research-article | 09-September-2021

MV-Flow and LumiFlow: a new Doppler tool for assessing the development of fetal brain vascularization in late-first/early-second trimester of pregnancy

Early prenatal assessment of the development of cerebral vascularization represents a real challenge in the field of fetal medicine. A detailed identification of those vessels and their formation carries great importance, especially in the late-first/early-second trimester of pregnancy, because an early identification of defects can be largely beneficial for treatment planning. By using transvaginal ultrasonography in the second and third trimesters, Monteagudo et al. described the detailed

Alessandro Giuffrida, Eduardo Félix Martins Santana, Edward Araujo

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 21 , ISSUE 86, 258–259

Editorial | 13-September-2016

Intrapartum sonography – eccentricity or necessity?

Ultrasonography has been extensively used in obstetrics and gynecology since 1980’s.It found application in pediatric gynecology, procreation period, post-menopause, pregnancy monitoring and after delivery. Although the fi rst reports on the use of ultrasonography in assessing delivery mechanism were published in 1990’s, yet to date labor progress is evaluated by means of physical examination in most delivery units. Intrapartum sonography is not routinely performed despite the fact that

Marzena Dębska, Piotr Kretowicz, Romuald Dębski

Journal of Ultrasonography, Volume 15 , ISSUE 61, 125–136

Article | 15-April-2020

Update on HDFN: new information on long-standing controversies

from anti-D was a significant cause of perinatal mortality or long-term disability. Routine administration of RhIG to D– women during pregnancy and shortly after the birth of D+ infants effectively reduced the incidence of HDFN caused by anti-D. Maternal alloimmunization to other RBC antigens in the Rh, Kell, and other blood group systems can not be routinely prevented and these antibodies can also cause HDFN. Advances in prenatal care, noninvasive monitoring, and intrauterine transfusion

Anne F. Eder

Immunohematology, Volume 22 , ISSUE 4, 188–195

Case report | 14-October-2020

Case report: four donors with granulocyte-specific or HLA class I antibodies implicated in a case of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI)

. Four of the donors of the implicated units of plasma were female and all had a history of pregnancy. Two donors had HLA class I antibodies and two had granulocytespecific antibodies detectable in their serum. In crossmatch studies, granulocyte-reactive antibodies from two donors bound to granulocytes from the patient, which suggested that these antibodies were clinically relevant. These clinical and serologic findings support a diagnosis of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI).

A. Davoren, O.P. Smith, C.A. Barnes, E. Lawler, R.G. Evans, G.F. Lucas

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 4, 117–121

Case report | 27-April-2020

Case report: massive postpartum transfusion of Jr(a+) red cells in the presence of anti-Jra

Jra is a high-prevalence antigen. The rare Jr(a–) individuals can form anti-Jra after exposure to the Jra antigen through transfusion or pregnancy. The clinical significance of anti-Jra is not well established. This study reports a case of a 31-year-old woman with a previously identified anti-Jra who required massive transfusion of RBCs after developing life-threatening postpartum disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Despite the emergent transfusion of 15 units of Jra untested RBCs

Shan Yuan, Rosalind Armour, Allison Reid, Khaled F. Abdel-Rahman, Michael Phillips, Dawn M. Rumsey, Theresa Nester

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 97–101

Report | 25-March-2020

The potential of blood group genotyping for transfusion medicine practice

atypical antibodies carries a risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, or at the very least, monitoring for an atrisk pregnancy.

Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 24 , ISSUE 4, 190–195

Case report | 14-October-2020

Moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) due to anti-Rh17 produced by a black female with an e variant phenotype

antiglobulin test was 2+ with anti-IgG. Total bilirubin rose to 14.2 mg/dL within 48 hours. Indirect bilirubin peaked at 14.7 mg/dL. The bilirubin responded to triple phototherapy. The infant was discharged on day 6. Potential for infant morbidity due to anti-Rh17- mediated HDN and the importance of specifying risks to women with this antibody if they contemplate pregnancy are discussed.

Marla C. Brumit, Gary E. Carnahan, James R. Stubbs, Jill R. Storry, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 2, 40–42

Article | 26-October-2020

Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins

Anti-Jka was detected by solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) anti-body detection and identification tests in the plasma of a 9-month-old female infant during a routine presurgical evaluation. The patient and her nonidentical twin sister who also had anti-Jka in her plasma, were products of an uncomplicated in vitro fertilization, full-term pregnancy and vaginal delivery. Neither twin had been transfused, recently infected, or treated with medication. Their mother had no prior pregnancies or

Dawn H. Rumsey, Sandra J. Nance, Mary Rubino, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 4, 159–162

research-article | 13-February-2018

Long-term offspring epilepsy outcomes following planned assisted homebirth versus hospital birth

, the data on the course of pregnancy and delivery were re-evaluated for abnormalities and subsequent risks. Definitions Planned homebirth was defined as planned birth at home guided by a registered midwife. Hospital births included public tertiary care or secondary care hospitals, other obstetric units led by trained obstetrician or, in fewer cases, primary care (municipal) hospitals led by general practitioner. The general practitioners of primary care hospitals were by rule experienced

Matti Sillanpää, Maiju M. Saarinen, Päivi Polo-Kantola

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1-2, 7–14

Case report | 09-October-2019

Two cases of the variant RHD*DAU5 allele associated with maternal alloanti-D  

Rh is a complex blood group system with diverse genotypes that may encode weak and partial D variants. Standard serologic analysis may identify clinically significant D variants as D+; nevertheless, individuals with these D variants should be managed as D– patients to prevent antibody formation to absent D epitopes. Variant identification is necessary during pregnancy to allow for timely and appropriate Rh immune globulin (RhIG) prophylaxis for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn

Jennifer A. Duncan, Susan Nahirniak, Rodrigo Onell, Gwen Clarke

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 2, 60–63

research article | 15-September-2020

One-year follow-up of The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program: A pilot randomized controlled trial

Introduction The foundation of a healthy life begins in pregnancy and early adversity can have detrimental long-term consequences for affected children (1–4). This knowledge has led to increased investment in supporting early childhood development through interventions such as parenting programs (5). Infants remain dependent upon their parents for many years after birth and are at risk of developmental harm if they suffer neglect or maltreatment during this time because brain plasticity is at

Maiken Pontoppidan, Tróndur Møller Sandoy, Sihu K. Klest

Scandinavian Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychology, Volume 8 , 123–134

Article | 03-November-2020

Immunoprophylaxis using intravenous Rh immune globulin should be standard practice when selected D-negative patients are transfused with D-positive random donor platelets

alloimmunization in D– patients requiring red cell transfusions or D– females during pregnancy or after delivery of D+ newborns. The absence of a comparable practice standard for platelet transfusions is based, in part, on concern that intramuscular injections of conventional RhIG may cause local hemorrhage in thrombocytopenic persons. The recent availability of a Food and Drug Administration-approved preparation of intravenous RhIG makes Rh immunoprophylaxis in thrombocytopenic patients safe and

Clinton A. Ewing, Dawn H. Rumsey, Albert F. Langeberg, S. Gerald Sandler

Immunohematology, Volume 14 , ISSUE 4, 133–137

Article | 27-April-2020

Is there a relationship between anti-HPA-1a concentration and severity of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?

There is uncertainty about the relationship between anti-HPA-1a levels and severity of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). To investigate this relationship further,the concentration of anti-HPA-1a in HPA-1b homozygous women was determined,using a newly developed quantitative ELISA that uses purified anti-HPA-1a to obtain a standard curve. Seventy-eight samples collected from 22 HPA-1b homozygous pregnant women at various stages of pregnancy were tested. These included five women who

Hagop Bessos, Marc L. Turner, Stanislaw J. Urbaniak

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 102–108

Report | 14-March-2020

Absence of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn despite maternal high-titer IgG anti-Ku

phenotype is rare to begin with, and the maternal anti-Ku formation may require more than one pregnancy. Therefore, cases that can be evaluated for anti-Ku–related HDFN are rare. Our case contributes to serologic and clinical aspects of such rare cases.

Ram M. Kakaiya, Angelica Whaley, Christine Howard-Menk, Jigna Rami, Mona Papari, Sally Campbell-Lee, Zbigniew Malecki

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 119–122

Report | 20-March-2020

A simple screening assay for the most common JK*0 alleles revealed compound heterozygosity in Jk(a–b–) probands from Guam

The Jk(a–b–) phenotype results from alterations in the JK gene and is characterized by absence of the RBC urea transporter in the cell membrane. The frequency of Jk(a–b–) varies among populations, but this phenotype is most commonly found in people of Polynesian and Finnish descent. Although rare, Jk(a–b–) individuals present a clinical challenge because anti-Jk3 is produced readily in response to transfusion and pregnancy, and Jk(a–b–) blood is

Elisabet Sjöberg Wester, Julia Gustafsson, Beverly Snell, Peggy Spruell, Åsa Hellberg, Martin L. Olsson, Jill R. Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 4, 165–169

Case report | 08-August-2017

Clinical report: a rare co-occurrence of tuberous sclerosis complex and Rett syndrome in a girl with mental retardation, epilepsy and autism

delivery after a non-complicated pregnancy. Family history was negative for epilepsy and mental retardation. The neonatal period was uneventful and psychomotor development was normal before the child became 1.5 years old. At the age of 18 months the girl developed hand-wringing stereotypes, facial hypotonia, ataxia and gait apraxia. She lost eye-to-eye contact and verbal contact with relatives, and became indifferent to the surrounding environment. When she was 2 years old, focal adversive seizures

Elena Belousova, Vladimir Sukhorukov, Marina Dorofeeva, Lev Shagam, Dmitrii V. Vlodavetz

Journal of Epileptology, Volume 25 , ISSUE 1-2, 47–51

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