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Article | 17-February-2021

K antigens on neonatal red blood cells blocked by anti-K with titer of 32

. About 9 percent of the white population are K+. Anti-K causes erythropoiesis suppression and the destruction of erythroid progenitors, with consequent severe anemia and reticulocytopenia and only mild hyperbilirubinemia.3 The antibody titer does not necessarily correlate to the clinical severity of HDFN.2,4 Neutralization in immunohematology is defined as a blocking of antibody sites, causing a false-negative antihuman globulin (AHG) phase of testing.5 First described in 1944,6 blocked RBC antigens

J. Novoselac, M. Raos, G. Tomac, M. Lukić, B. Golubić Ćepulić

Immunohematology, Volume 36 , ISSUE 2, 54–57

Article | 16-February-2021

Quality improvement with platelet additive solution for safer out-of-group platelet transfusions

blood volume during transfusion. If the recipient is a secretor (80% of the population), the soluble A or B blood group substances in the recipient’s plasma can neutralize some anti-A or anti-B isoagglutinins in the donor’s plasma.12,13 This protection becomes ineffective, however, when the recipient is not a secretor or large amounts of anti-A and anti-B are involved.14 In the situation described, a single platelet component with a high isoagglutinin titer can be harmful,8,15–22 and even fatal,8,22

M. Tynuv, W.A. Flegel

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 108–115

short-communication | 30-November-2018

Evaluation of a Salmonella Strain Isolated from Honeybee Gut as a Potential Live Oral Vaccine Against Lethal Infection of Salmonella Typhimurium

0.5 HE13 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 HR1 = Group 1 of rabbits given antigen, C = control group given normal saline Microtiter plate agglutination test. This modified assay test was performed to check the antibody titer levels resultant from the antiserum reacting with the different Salmonella antigens (Barsoum and Awad 1972). It was performed in a 96-well microtiter plate in a triplicate with average readings presented in the Results section. A volume of 50 μl of tryptic soy broth was layered


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 68 , ISSUE 2, 173–183

Review | 01-December-2019

Thermal amplitude test

The thermal amplitude test is performed to determine the reactivity of a cold autoantibody at varying temperatures: 4°C, 22°C, 30°C, and 37°C. Cold autoantibodies that are reactive at temperatures greater than 30°C have the potential to be clinically significant regardless of the antibody titer. Cold autoantibodies that are reactive at temperatures less than 30°C are not considered to be clinically significant.

Courtney Hopkins, Tiffany K. Walters

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 2, 49–50

Article | 17-November-2020

Acute hemolysis due to passively transfused high-titer anti-B causing spontaneous in vitro agglutination

laboratory investigation revealed the presence of an anti-B antibody coating the infant’s RBCs. Follow-up testing of the O, D- donor serum revealed an anti-B titer of 16,384 (saline) and >64,000 with monospecific anti-IgG. A second uneventful double exchange was performed using washed group O, D- RBCs resuspended in 5 percent albumin.

Gregg Boothe, Mark E. Brecher, Mamie B. Root, Judy Robinson, Nancy R. Haley

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 2, 43–45

Report | 14-March-2020

Absence of hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn despite maternal high-titer IgG anti-Ku

results established the presence of anti-Ku in maternal serum. The newborn was group A, D+ and required phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia, but did not require transfusion. The woman was seen again in January 2010 during the third trimester (G4P3). At this time, anti-Ku titer was 256. She delivered a healthy group O, D+ baby boy at 37 weeks’ gestation. Cord RBCs were 4+ for IgG by DAT. An eluate reacted with all RBCs tested, but did not react when tested against a panel of DTT-treated RBCs. K0

Ram M. Kakaiya, Angelica Whaley, Christine Howard-Menk, Jigna Rami, Mona Papari, Sally Campbell-Lee, Zbigniew Malecki

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 3, 119–122

Article | 10-April-2021

Group O blood donors in Iran: evaluation of isoagglutinin titers and immunoglobulin G subclasses

the fact that some transfusion service providers have a policy against using high-titer plasma components, specifically platelet concentrates, there is still a lack of agreement on the threshold titer value that would lead to an unsafe blood component.6,7 Diet, as well as ethnic and environmental factors, play a contributing role in the level of isoagglutinin titers in different populations; therefore, it is important to determine the frequency of high isoagglutinin titers in each population and

S. Arabi, M. Moghaddam, A.A. Pourfathollah, A. Aghaie, M. Mosaed

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 5–12

Review | 20-December-2020

A review: antibodies with high-titer, low-avidity characteristics

Susan Rolih

Immunohematology, Volume 6 , ISSUE 3, 59–67

Article | 09-November-2020

Comparison of hemagglutination and solid phase titration methods for determination of critical prenatal antibody titers

The hemagglutination (HA) tube method is the standard method for determination of antibody titer in prenatal samples. Most facilities use a titer between 8 and 32 as their definition of a critical value when amniocentesis may be considered. This study determined if there is a relationship between the results of HA tube and solid phase (SP) titers performed on the same sample. Forty-six paired samples containing known antibody were titrated by both HA tube and SP methods and the results

Brenda C. Alder, Stephanie H. Summers, Virginia Hare

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 3, 84–89

Report | 29-October-2019

Demonstration of IgG subclass (IgG1 and IgG3) in patients with positive direct antiglobulin tests

Serologic characterization of autoantibodies helps in the management and monitoring of the course of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate gel centrifugation test (GCT) cards for immunoglobulin G (IgG) titer and determination of IgG subclasses IgG1 and IgG3 and their influence on hemolysis. Eighty direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-positive patients were examined with the help of GCT cards for IgG titer and IgG subclasses. The results were correlated with the

Ashutosh Singh, Archana Solanki, Rajendra Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 30 , ISSUE 1, 24–27

Case report | 26-October-2019

Severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn due to anti-C+G

identification of the correct antibody was delayed because the differentiation of anti-C+G and anti-D+C was not considered important during pregnancy since the father was D–. In addition, anti-C+G and anti-G titer levels were not found to be as reliable as is generally considered in Rh immunization. Severe HDFN occurred at a maternal anti-C+G antibody titer of 8 and anti-G titer of 1 in comparison with the critical titer level of 16 or more in our laboratory. Close collaboration between the

Riina Jernman, Vedran Stefanovic, Anu Korhonen, Katri Haimila, Inna Sareneva, Kati Sulin, Malla Kuosmanen, Susanna Sainio

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 123–127

Case report | 12-March-2020

Role for serial prenatal anti-Vel quantitative serologic monitoring with 2-ME serum treatment during pregnancy: case report

trimester (week 7) of her second pregnancy. Interval measurements of the serologic antibody titers were performed during the next 26 weeks. The untreated serum (IgM and IgG) titer increased from a baseline of 4 to 16 during that interval, while the 2-ME (presumed IgG component) titer remained stable at 4. Responding to ultrasound findings suspicious for fetal anemia, the child was delivered without complications at 34 weeks’ gestation. At birth, the DAT was negative and there was no evidence of

Walter J. Linz, Judith T. Fueger, Steven Allen, Susan T. Johnson

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 1, 8–10

Article | 18-October-2020

A successful delivery of a baby from a D––/ D–– mother with strong anti-Hr0

We describe the first reported case in Korea of a woman with a D––/ D–– phenotype, a high-titer anti-Hr0, and the successful delivery of her newborn. The mother had a history of spontaneous abortion and artificial termination. In her third pregnancy, a live infant was delivered, but died of severe hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Hr0 in spite of intensive medical intervention. In her fourth pregnancy, at 22 weeks gestation, the titer of anti-Hr0 was 1024

Dong Hee Whang, Hee Chung Kim, Mina Hur, Jung Hwan Choi, Joong Shin Park, Kyou Sup Han

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 3, 112–114

Article | 09-November-2020

Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria: an unusual association

An 80-year-old female presented with melena and anemia due to bleeding from a benign gastric ulcer. Her blood group was O, D+. The serum contained anti-B and a weak anti-A (titer 2 at 18°C). She was inadvertently transfused with approximately 3.5 units of group A red blood cells with no initial ill effects. One week later, the antiA titer increased to 8 and the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) was weakly positive (IgG and C3d). The next day, intravascular hemolysis became evident. The DAT was

M.A. Wodzinski, R.C. Collin, D.J. Booker, R. Stamps, J.D. Bellamy, R.J. Sokol

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 2, 54–57

Article | 10-April-2021

An automated approach to determine antibody endpoint titers for COVID-19 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

translocated to the respiratory mucosa where the virus is believed to predominately replicate.16 Once a serologic assay is developed, endpoint titer calculations are often used to provide an accurate assessment of antibody levels. This approach requires serial dilutions and ultimately approximates the level of a given antibody in serum or plasma. To optimize endpoint titer calculations, while also generating data that allow reproducible results, mathematical approaches are most commonly used to derive

A.D. Ho, H. Verkerke, J.W. Allen, B.J. Saeedi, D. Boyer, J. Owens, S. Shin, M. Horwath, K. Patel, A. Paul, S.-C. Wu, S. Chonat, P. Zerra, C. Lough, J.D. Roback, A. Neish, C.D. Josephson, C.M. Arthur, S.R. Stowell

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 33–43

Article | 16-February-2021

Dilution is not the solution: acute hemolytic transfusion reaction after ABO-incompatible pooled platelet transfusion

allow ABO-incompatible platelets to be issued to adult patients, and up to 40 percent of platelets issued are incompatible.3,4 The major risk associated with this practice is an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (AHTR), typically due to minor ABO incompatibility in which donor antibodies hemolyze recipient red blood cells (RBCs). The most common scenario involves a group A recipient receiving a platelet unit obtained via apheresis from a group O donor who has a high anti-A titer.2 As seen in the

J. Guarente, M. Harach, J. Gould, J.K. Karp, A.R. Peedin

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 3, 91–94

Report | 14-March-2020

Comparison of gel test and conventional tube test for antibody detection and titration in D-negative pregnant women: study from a tertiary-care hospital in North India

Conventional tube testing was used for antibody screening and titration in D– pregnant women in our hospital until the recent introduction of the gel test. In this study we assessed the sensitivity of the gel test in our setup and tried to establish a correlation between these tests for determining antibody titer. We collected 652 blood samples from 223 antenatal D– women during a span of 1 year. The samples were tested separately by the conventional tube technique and the gel test

Manish K. Thakur, Neelam Marwaha, Praveen Kumar, Subhash C. Saha, Beenu Thakral, Ratti Ram Sharma, Karan Saluja, Hari Krishan Dhawan, Ashish Jain

Immunohematology, Volume 26 , ISSUE 4, 174–177

Article | 06-December-2020

Serologic investigation of fatal hemolytic anemia associated with a multiple drug history and Rh-like autoantibody

of three chemically similar nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: tolmetin (Tolectin®), sulindac (Clinoril®), and ketorolac (Toradol®). Only tolmetin and furosemide (Lasix®) antibodies were demonstrable in the patient's serum at the time of her final admission. The patient's serum at final admission contained panagglutinating IgG and IgM antibody with a titer of 1:80 using a pool of R1R1 and R2R2 screening cells. When tolmetin was added to the test system, the titer

Nancy I. Maddox, Debra Futral, Floyd T. Boudreau

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 70–76

Case report | 11-March-2020

An unusual case of an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction caused by an autoanti-I

In general, naturally occurring cold autoagglutinins react optimally at low temperatures. We describe a young child who experienced an acute hemolytic transfusion reaction by an unusual autoanti-I. The IgM autoanti-I was detected at 4°C (titer 256) and also reacted at 30°C. This case highlights the potential hazard of transfusing units of blood immediately upon removal from the blood refrigerator, especially into neonates and children of small stature.

Nay Win, Sally Rahman, Philip Gold, Susan Ward

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 3, 101–103

Report | 26-October-2019

Comparative evaluation of gel column agglutination and erythrocyte magnetized technology for red blood cell alloantibody titration

. Overall, the mean of the titer difference from CTT was higher using GCT (+0.31) compared with that using EMT (+0.13). Precision shown by CTT was 30 percent, EMT was 76 percent, and GCT was 92 percent on repeat testing. GCT showed higher titer values in comparison with CTT but was found to be the most precise. EMT titers were comparable to CTT, and its precision was intermediate. Further studies to validate this method are required.

Anju Dubey, Atul Sonker, Rajendra K. Chaudhary

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 1, 1–6

Case report | 27-April-2020

Case report: massive postpartum transfusion of Jr(a+) red cells in the presence of anti-Jra

,she did not develop laboratory or clinical evidence of acute hemolysis. The patient’s anti-Jra had a pretransfusion titer of 4 and a monocyte monolayer assay (MMA) reactivity of 68.5% (reactivity > 5% is considered capable of shortening the survival of incompatible RBCs). The titer increased fourfold to 64 and the MMA reactivity was 72.5% on Day 10 posttransfusion. Review of laboratory data showed evidence of a mild delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction by Day 10 posttransfusion. Despite

Shan Yuan, Rosalind Armour, Allison Reid, Khaled F. Abdel-Rahman, Michael Phillips, Dawn M. Rumsey, Theresa Nester

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 97–101

case-report | 25-June-2021

Neonatal testing leading to the identification of Bh (para-Bombay) phenotype in the mother: case report with review of the literature

suspected anti-H and repeat the antibody identification to rule out other clinically significant antibodies due to the limited sample volume. Also, due to lack of H-deficient RBCs, we were not able to confirm the antibody specificity, thus concluding the antibody to be a ‘probable anti-H’. The antibody titer by serial dilution using conventional tube method showed 64 in immediate spin phase (immunoglobulin [Ig]M) and 8 after dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of serum in the antihuman globulin (AHG) phase

G. Mohan, A. Vaidya, S. Shastry

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 2, 59–63

Article | 14-October-2020

A review of the Knops blood group: separating fact from fallacy

It has been more than 10 years since the topic of “high-titer, lowavidity” (HTLA) antibodies was reviewed in Immunohematology. We have learned a lot about these antibodies in the past 10 years and that knowledge has helped us to understand some of the unusual characteristics of these antibodies. Furthermore, it has helped us to name and delineate the various associated blood group systems. Although we will begin with a general review of HTLAs, this manuscript will focus on the

Joann M. Moulds

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 1, 1–8

Article | 17-November-2020

The first example of anti-Gya detected in Hong Kong

The incidence of anti-Gya is known to be extremely rare, and only a few examples have been reported in Japanese persons and in Caucasians. This case history reports the first example of anti-Gya detected in a Chinese person. The propositus is an 83-year-old male patient whose anti-Gya was revealed because of incompatibility of all units of blood tested by a saline indirect antiglobulin test (SIAT). Although the antibody had a titer of 512 by SIAT, 10 units of Gy(a+) red cells were transfused

King Hang Mak, Derek S. Ford, Gregory Cheng, Che Kit Lin, Cindy Yuen

Immunohematology, Volume 11 , ISSUE 1, 20–21

Article | 28-April-2020

Persistent anti-Dra in two pregnancies

Cromer blood group system, including anti-Dra, have never been reported to cause HDN. In most of the cases with anti-Dra examined in Israel, the antibodies have been subtyped as IgG2 and IgG4. This report is of a woman with Dr(a–) phenotype and an anti-Dra titer of 256 to 512 in her serum, observed during two successive pregnancies. At birth, the RBCs of the first- and second-born child were negative and positive in the DAT, respectively, and neither manifested clinical signs of HDN. The

Naomi Rahimi-Levene, Abraham Kornberg, Gabriela Siegel, Valery Morozov, Eilat Shinar, Orna Asher, Cyril Levene, Vered Yahalom

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 126–128

Article | 02-May-2020

Cefotetan-induced immune hemolytic anemia following prophylaxis for cesarean delivery

Second- and third-generation cephalosporins,notably cefotetan, are increasingly implicated in severe, sometimes fatal immunemediated hemolytic anemia. We describe a 26-year-old woman who developed severe hemolytic anemia 2 weeks after receiving a single prophylactic dose of cefotetan during cesarean delivery. The patient’s DAT was weakly reactive for IgG and her serum reacted with cefotetan-coated RBCs. The antibody had a titer of 4096 by antiglobulin testing.The patient required

Sherry Shariatmadar, Jill R. Storry, Laima Sausais, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 63–66

Article | 16-November-2020

A case of hydrops fetalis, probably due to antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of GP.Mur (Miltenberger class III) cells

The GP.Mur (Miltenberger class III) phenotype was found to occur in about 6.3 percent of Hong Kong (HK) Chinese blood donors. The incidence of antibodies directed against antigenic determinants of GP.Mur cells (anti-Mi) among patients was 0.34 percent, similar to that in Taiwan Chinese. A case of hydrops fetalis probably attributable to maternal anti-Mi was encountered in an HK Chinese woman during her sixth pregnancy. The anti-Mi was potent (titer 512, score 99). It fixed complement and was a

C.K. Lin, K.H. Mak, C.M.Y. Yuen, N.K. Chan, H.W. Liu, G. Cheng

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 115–118

Article | 10-April-2021

Comparative evaluation of the conventional tube test and column agglutination technology for ABO antibody titration in healthy individuals: a report from India

ABO blood group antigens are called histo-antigens because they are known to be expressed not only on red blood cells (RBCs) but also on almost all other organs in the human body.1 ABO antibodies are naturally occurring, characterized as causing hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, and antibody-mediated rejection of solid-organ transplants. In ABO-incompatible stem cell transplants, anti-A/-B titer levels correlate with the risk of immediate or delayed

S.S. Datta, S. Basu, M. Reddy, K. Gupta, S. Sinha

Immunohematology, Volume 37 , ISSUE 1, 25–32

Article | 16-November-2020

A second example of anti-Esa, an antibody to a high-incidence Cromer antigen

) were weakly positive. Tests with antibodies to high-incidence Cromer antigens and with RBCs lacking high-incidence Cromer antigens led to identification of the second example of anti-Esa in an Es(a–) person. The antibody was IgG1 and reacted by the IAT to a titer of 64. The monocyte monolayer assay indicated potential clinical significance of this antibody in relation to transfusion.

Marion E. Reid, Roselyn Marfoe, Anita Mueller, Patricia A. Arndt, Laima Sausais, Peggy Spruell

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 112–114

Article | 18-October-2020

Significant ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn in a group B infant with a group A2 mother

ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) occurs almost exclusively in infants of blood group A or B who are born to group O mothers because IgG anti-A or -B occurs more commonly in group O than in group A or B individuals. We report a case in which clinically significant ABO-HDN occurred in a group B neonate from anti-B of a group A2 mother. The IgG anti-B titer was much higher (256) than that found in a group A1 mother/infant control group (≤ 32). The maternal antibody screen was negative

Hye-Ran Jeon, Beverly E.W. Calhoun, Mohammad Pothiawala, Marguerite Herschel, Beverly W. Baron

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 3, 105–108

Case report | 29-December-2020

A case report: cold hemagglutinin disease in a pancreatic and renal transplant patient

A 33-year-old white male, 30 days postpancreatic transplant, with a history of juvenile onset diabetes mellitus and previous renal transplant, appeared to have cold hemagglutinin disease (CHD). He was being treated for acute organ rejection and had received two units of red blood cells (RBCs) on postoperative day 11, at which time no serum antibodies were detectable. On postoperative day 30, serum studies showed an autoanti-I with a titer of 512 in 30 percent albumin at 4°C and a maximum

Catherine Y. Beiting, Kathleen S. Larimore

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 4, 85–87

Case report | 01-December-2019

An AQP1 allele associated with Co(a–b–) phenotype

deletion of a G at nucleotide 601 (nt601delG) that results in a frameshift and premature termination (Val201Stop). Available family members were tested for the allele. Although anti-Co3 has been associated with mild to severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn, the antibody was not clinically significant as evidenced by a low titer and delivery of asymptomatic newborns with moderate to weakly positive direct antiglobulin tests for all four pregnancies.

Sunitha Vege, Sandra Nance, Donna Kavitsky, Xiaojin Li, Trina Horn, Geralyn Meny, Connie M. Westhoff

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 1, 1–4

Case report | 01-December-2019

Posttransplant maternal anti-D: a case study and review

Plasma from a 35-year-old, D– woman was found to have anti-D, -C, and -G at 5 weeks’ gestation and again at 8 weeks’ gestation, when she presented with a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy. The anti-D titer increased with a pattern that suggested it was stimulated by the 8-week pregnancy. Six years before this admission, the patient’s blood type changed from group O, D+ to group O, D– after a bone marrow transplant for aplastic anemia. Three years after transplant

Lisa Senzel, Cecilia Avila, Tahmeena Ahmed, Harjeet Gill, Kim Hue-Roye, Christine Lomas-Francis, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 2, 55–59

Report | 09-November-2020

Report on anti-Dib encountered in two Hong Kong Chinese

Two cases of anti-Dib, a rarely encountered antibody, were identified in serum samples referred by hospital blood banks during the past 13 months. Case 1 is a 4l-year-old female who required blood for elective surgery. Case 2 is a premature infant suffering from mild neonatal jaundice on day 2 after birth. The anti-Dib in both cases exhibited marked dosage effect. The titer/score against Di(a+b+) and Di(a-b+) red blood cells (RBCs) in case 1 was 8/10 and 32/32, respectively, and in case 2, 4/18

C.K. Lin, K.H. Mak, N.K. Chan, C.M.Y. Yuen, A. Devenish, H.B. Chan, K.L. Au, S.C. Szeto

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 1, 17–19

Article | 14-October-2020

The investigation of the significance of a positive direct antiglobulin test in blood donors

low-titer anticardiolipin antibodies. We conclude that DAT-positive donors can be a problem during compatibility testing when sensitive methods are used.

Marianna Bellia, John Georgopoulos, Vasilis Tsevrenis, Efrosini Nomikou, Niki Vgontza, I. Kontogpoulous-Griva

Immunohematology, Volume 18 , ISSUE 3, 78–81

Article | 09-November-2020

Absence of hemolysis after a kidney transplant in an E+ recipient from a donor with anti-E

A 12-year-old Caucasian male with cystinosis received a kidney from his mother, whose red blood cells typed as group O, D+, E–. Her serum contained an anti-E with an IgG1 titer of 16 (score 31). The recipient’s type was group O, D+, E+, with a negative antibody screen in the pretransplant period. The recipient and donor Rh phenotypes were most likely DCcEe and Dccee, respectively. Because the recipient’s mother had no transfusion history, she was probably immunized by the

Marcia C. Zago-Novaretti, Carlos Roberto Jorge, Eduardo Jens, Pedro Enrique Dorihiac-Llacer, Dalton de Alencar Fischer Chamone

Immunohematology, Volume 13 , ISSUE 4, 138–140

Article | 22-November-2020

A comparison of the reactivity of monoclonal and polyclonal Rh reagents with red cells after prolonged storage

monoclonal versus polyclonal Rh reagents with stored red cells. Monoclonal and polyclonal anti-C, -c, and -E reagents showed comparable reaction strengths, and gave acceptable reactions over the entire testing period. Polyclonal anti-e reagents, which are known to he of lower titer, again did not give reliable reactions with stored cells after 14 days. However, three different monoclonal anti-e reagents were able to detect the presence of the e antigen on stored cells for many weeks, This study showed

Connie M. Westhoff, Belva D. Sipherd, Larry D. Toalson

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 1, 12–15

Case report | 26-October-2019

Blocked D phenomenon and relevance of maternal  serologic testing

elution and gentle heat elution (at 56°C) confirmed the presence of anti-D on neonatal RBCs. The baby received two exchange transfusions with group O, D–, packed RBCs compatible with his own serum. Later, on day 3, the neonate’s mother was typed as group AB, D–, and her serum revealed the presence of alloanti-D, -C, and -S reactive in the anti-human globulin phase. The anti-D titer was 1024. This report highlights the “blocking” phenomenon caused by maternal anti-D in

Ashish Jain, Vijay Kumawat, Neelam Marwaha

Immunohematology, Volume 31 , ISSUE 3, 116–118

Review | 01-December-2019

The LAN blood group system: a review

described as having   variable clinical significance, either for hemolytic transfusion reactions (none to severe) or hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (none to mild). Despite challenging conditions caused by the scarcity of Lan– donors worldwide, Lan– blood should ideally be given to patients with anti-Lan, especially those with a high-titer antibody.

Thierry Peyrard

Immunohematology, Volume 29 , ISSUE 4, 131–135

Article | 30-November-2020

Successful transfusion in the presence of anti-K4 (anti-Kpb)

were eluted from the patient's RBCs. The titer of anti-K4 increased from 8 preoperatively to 2,048 19 days posttransfusion of K:4 RBCs. Subsequent transfusions were not required, and the patient was discharged 3 weeks after the operation without further incident.

Julie M Watt, Peter N. Moffatt, Suzanne Y. Chatfield, Wendy A. Grimm, Jennifer A. Bryant

Immunohematology, Volume 10 , ISSUE 3, 87–89

Article | 14-December-2020

Determining the significance of anti-K1 in hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

severely affected infants requiring multiple intrauterine transfusions starting at 20-23 weeks. Six others delivered antigen-positive infants who did not require transfusions, although all had positive direct antiglobulin tests (DATs). We conclude that titration studies are reliable tools to evaluate anti-K1 sensitization when the titer is <32. Cordocentesis can detect antigen-negative fetuses, which then reduces the need for titrations and amniocentesis.

Patricia L. Strohm, Janice F. Blazina, Richard W. O'Shaughnessy, Melanie S. Kennedy, Jane M. Moore

Immunohematology, Volume 7 , ISSUE 2, 40–42

Article | 31-December-2020

Stimulation of Antibody Following 51Chromium Survival Studies

destruction of RBCs during subsequent incompatible transfusions. To study this question, blood samples were collected from six patients with a single atypical alloantibody, seven to nine months after 51Cr RBC survival studies had been performed in an unrelated protocol. Blood had not been transfused in the interim. The samples were tested in parallel with pre-survival samples for change in antibody titer and score. In addition, RBCs used for the 51Cr survival study, sensitized in vitro with pre- and post

Susan S. Esty, Delores Mallory, Richard J. Davey, Tracy Wahl, Julie Zswisza

Immunohematology, Volume 3 , ISSUE 1, 6–8

Case report | 01-December-2019

Possible suppression of fetal erythropoiesis by the Kell blood group antibody anti-Kpa

Antibodies to antigens in the Kell blood group system are usually immunoglobulin G, and, notoriously, anti-K, anti-k, and anti-Kpa can cause severe hemolytic transfusion reactions, as well as severe hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). It has been shown that the titer of anti-K does not correlate with the severity of HDFN because, in addition to immune destruction of red blood cells (RBCs), anti-K causes suppression of erythropoiesis in the fetus, which can result in severe anemia

Michelle Tuson, Kim Hue-Roye, Karen Koval, Sherwin Imlay, Rajendra Desai, Gayatri Garg, Esam Kazem, Diane Stockman, Janis S. Hamilton, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 27 , ISSUE 2, 58–60

Case report | 16-May-2020

Case report: exacerbation of hemolytic anemia requiring multiple incompatible RBC transfusions

RBC transfusions in a patient with a history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) can represent both a laboratory and a clinical challenge. The development of high-titer low-avidity antibodies and antibodies to high-frequency antigens may further impair the ability to identify compatible donor RBCs. Not infrequently, incompatible RBCs must be used and the desire to increase oxygen carrying capacity conflicts with the desire to avoid exacerbating the autoimmune hemolytic process with RBC

Annika M. Svensson, Sharon Bushor, Mark K. Fung

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 3, 177–183

Article | 18-October-2020

Moderate hemolytic disease of the newborn due to anti-Hr0 in a mother with the D––/D–– phenotype

of the antibody titer (64) and activity in a chemiluminescense test (CLT; 34%) were consistent with a moderate HDN. Family studies were negative for the D––/D–– phenotype and consanguinity was not proved. This is the first described case of moderate HDN due to anti-Hr0. The result of antibody activity in the CLT might be helpful in predicting the severity of HDN in other rare HDN cases.

Barbara Żupańska, B. Lenkiewicz

Immunohematology, Volume 16 , ISSUE 3, 109–111

Article | 27-April-2020

Is there a relationship between anti-HPA-1a concentration and severity of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia?

samples. The antibody concentration was significantly correlated with the antibody titer in the 78 samples studied (R = 0.54, p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between PAK 12 and the quantitative ELISA in a selected number of cases, with or without NAIT (R = 0.71,n = 10;p < 0.02). On the other hand,there was no correlation of antibody concentration with NAIT incidence (R = –0.046). This study indicates that there is no relationship between anti-HPA-1a

Hagop Bessos, Marc L. Turner, Stanislaw J. Urbaniak

Immunohematology, Volume 21 , ISSUE 3, 102–108

Original Paper | 09-October-2019

A field analysis trial comparing the turnaround times of routine and STAT red blood cell immunohematology testing

meet customer and patient needs. In addition, we observed a tighter distribution of TATs and PTs when the VISION was compared with the Echo analyzer, providing a higher level of predictability for availability of results. Finally, when compared with manual antibody titer testing, the VISION analyzer showed a faster PT.

Katie Sackett, Andrea Kjell, Abigail M. Schneider Schneider, Claudia S. Cohn Cohn

Immunohematology, Volume 33 , ISSUE 1, 1–5

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