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Article | 16-February-2021

Use of trypsin in serologic investigation

albumin incubation and antihuman globulin testing. This advancement led to the identification of new blood group systems (e.g., Kell, Duffy, and Kidd).1 In 1947, Morton and Pickles2 reported that incubation with a trypsin solution (from pig’s stomach) enhanced reactivity with D antibodies. The trypsin-treated red blood cells (RBCs) were found to have an increase in sensitivity and reliability compared with albumin methodology for the detection of anti-D.2 Because of the high cost and a lack of a

A. Novotny

Immunohematology, Volume 35 , ISSUE 4, 145–148

Article | 14-October-2020

Low-incidence MNS antigens associated with single amino acid changes and their susceptibility to enzyme treatment

MNS antigens are carried on glycophorin A (GPA), glycophorin B (GPB), or their variants. Antigens at the N-terminus of GPA are sensitive to cleavage by ficin, papain, and trypsin but are resistant to α-chymotrypsin. Antigens at the N-terminus of GPB are sensitive to cleavage by ficin, papain, and α-chymotrypsin but are resistant to trypsin treatment. These characteristics have been used to aid in the identification of blood group alloantibodies. Recent molecular analyses have

Marion E. Reid, Jill Storry

Immunohematology, Volume 17 , ISSUE 3, 76–81

Article | 06-December-2020

Effect of enzymes on and chemical modifications of high-frequency red cell antigens

. Provided in this article is a table listing most of the authenticated high-frequency red cell antigens and the effect on those antigens of trypsin, chymotrypsin, a mixture of trypsin and chymotrypsin, papain, pronase, sialidase, and AET.

Geoff Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 3, 53–57

Article | 29-December-2020

Serological and immunochemical characteristics of Ge-negative red cells and anti-Ge

ways. The SGP associated with the Gerbich type also lacks the Ge3 antigen and is resistant to trypsin treatment. The SGP associated with the Yus type possesses the antigenic determinant recognized by anti-Ge3 and is sensitive to trypsin digestion.

Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 4 , ISSUE 2, 19–22

Article | 06-December-2020

A Polynesian family showing co-dominant inheritance of normal glycophorin C and the Gerbich variant form of glycophorin C

Two individuals with the rare Ge:-2.-3,4 phenotype (Gerbich type of Gerbich negative) were identified in a family of Polynesian descent who reside in the Cook Islands. In initial serologic tests, all other family members typed as Ge-positive. and heterozygous individuals could not be identified. Further studies on blood samples from seven members of this Polynesian family by immunoblotting and hemagglutination tests on trypsin-treated red blood cells showed that normal glycophorin C and the

Marion E. Reid, Joyce Poole, Yew W. Liew, Linda Pinder

Immunohematology, Volume 8 , ISSUE 2, 29–32

Article | 16-November-2020

A second example of anti-Esa, an antibody to a high-incidence Cromer antigen

A blood sample contained an antibody to a high-incidence antigen that reacted with all red blood cells (RBCs) tested by the indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). The antibody reacted with papain-, ficin-, and trypsin-treated RBCs, but not with α-chymotrypsin-treated RBCs. This pattern of reactivity suggested the possibility that the antibody was recognizing an antigen in the Cromer blood group system. Tests against RBCs deficient in decay-accelerating factor (which carries the Cromer antigens

Marion E. Reid, Roselyn Marfoe, Anita Mueller, Patricia A. Arndt, Laima Sausais, Peggy Spruell

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 3, 112–114

Article | 06-December-2020

En(a-) phenotype in a Japanese blood donor

The first Japanese En(a-) individual (T.N.) was found by screening red cells from 250,000 Japanese blood donors with monoclonal anti-Ena. His serum contained no atypical antibodies and his partial red cell phenotype was M-N-S+s-, although a trypsin-resistant N antigen was detected. His red cells were En(a-) and Wr(b-), as determined by various human and mouse monoclonal antibodies. The absence of glycophorin A (GPA) and the presence of apparently normal glycophorin B (GPB) were demonstrated by

Yasuto Okubo, Taiko Seno, Hideo Yamaguchi, Yoshihisa Miyata, Carole A. Green, Geoffrey L. Daniels

Immunohematology, Volume 9 , ISSUE 4, 105–108

Article | 02-May-2020

A bicarbonate anion-dependent anti-'N' MoAb

While studying the serologic characteristics of certain monoclonal blood group antibodies, we observed a hybridoma clone (5A11E10) with anti-N–like serologic specificity that was dependent on the presence of the bicarbonate anion. The diluted cell culture supernatant preferentially agglutinated M–N+ RBCs by immediate spin. This supernatant also agglutinated M–N+ RBCs that had been treated with trypsin or sialidase (to remove N-reactivity),suggesting anti-‘N&rsquo

Y.S. Iyer, K. Vasantha, S. R. Joshi, M. Patwardhan, V. Pujari, S. Jadhav, D. Mohanty

Immunohematology, Volume 20 , ISSUE 1, 59–62

Article | 10-November-2020

The second example of Lu:-7 phenotype: serology and immunochemical studies

We describe the second example of red blood cells (RBCs) with the Lu:–7 phenotype in a 37-year-old Latino female (SA). Her RBCs were nonreactive with anti-Lu7 (Mrs. GA) but were reactive with all other antibodies to high-prevalence antigens tested, including those in the Lutheran blood group system. No Lu:–7 RBCs were available for testing. SA’s serum was nonreactive by the indirect antiglobulin test against (1) recessive and dominant Lu(a–b–) RBCs and (2) trypsin

Marion E. Reid, Jack L. Hoffer, Ragnhild Øyen, Edith Alicea-Tossas, Manijeh Sadjadi, Gladys M. Messina

Immunohematology, Volume 12 , ISSUE 2, 66–68

original-paper | 03-September-2019

Antifungal Activity and Physicochemical Properties of a Novel Antimicrobial Protein AMP-17 from Musca domestica

experiment was repeated three times, three biological replicates at a time. Stability to treatment with trypsin, pepsin and proteinase K. An overnight culture of C. albicans was diluted in sterile SDB and adjusted to 1.0 –2.5×103 CFU/ml Fifty μl 0.1 mg/ml proteases (the pH values of trypsin, pepsin, and protease K solutions were: 7, 5, and 7, respectively) and 50 μl 37.5 μg/ml AMP-17 (2 × MIC) were mixed in a 96-well plate and placed in a 37°C water bath for 2 min, 20 min, 40 min, 60 min, 80 min, 100 min


Polish Journal of Microbiology, Volume 68 , ISSUE 3, 383–390

Article | 26-October-2020

Anti-Lu9: the finding of the second example after 25 years

:-1,2,6,9 antibody-screening red blood cells (RBCs) using either a low-ionic-saline additive solution or polyethylene glycol for enhancement. Lu:6,9 RBCs were reactive with the serum when ficin- or EDTA/glycine-acid-treated, but nonreactive when trypsin- or α-chymotrypsin-treated. Six known examples of Lu:9 RBCs were reactive with the GR serum. His serum did not contain anti-Lua, anti-HLA-B7 (-Bga) or antibodies to 34 low-incidence antigens tested. We have identified the second example of anti-Lu9

Kayla D. Champagne, Marilyn Moulds, Jo Schmidt

Immunohematology, Volume 15 , ISSUE 3, 113–116

research-article | 30-November-2019

Effect of Heterodera schachtii female age on susceptibility to three fungal hyperparasites in the genus Hyalorbilia

incubated for 10 days at 23°C in the dark, and the eggs were monitored for parasitism and hatching of J2. The experiment was repeated twice. Production of hydrolytic enzymes by fungi grown on PDA or H. schachtii females The API ZYM test kit (bioMérieux, France) provides a semi-quantitative assay for the presence of 19 hydrolytic enzymes: alkaline phosphatase, esterase, esterase lipase, lipase, leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, cysteine arylamidase, trypsin, chymotrypsin, acid phosphatase

J. Smith Becker, J. Borneman, J. O. Becker

Journal of Nematology, Volume 52 , 1–12

Article | 01-April-2020

An alloantibody to a highprevalence MNS antigen in a person with a GP.JL/Mk phenotype

detected an antigen resistant to treatment by papain, trypsin,α-chymotrypsin, or DTT. The antibody was strongly reactive by the IAT with all RBCs tested except those having the MkMk, GP.Hil/GP.Hil, or GP.JL/GP.JL phenotypes. The patient’s RBCs typed M+N–S+/–s–U+, En(a+/–), Hut–, Mi(a–), Mur–, Vw–, Wr(a–b–), and were TSEN+, MINY+. Reactivity with Glycine soja suggested that her RBCs had a decreased level of sialic acid

John Ratliff, Susan Veneman, Joan Ward, Christine Lomas-Francis, Kim Hue-Roye, Randall W. Velliquette, Laima Sausais, Twilla Maldonado, Janet Miyamoto, Yolanda Martin, David Slater, Marion E. Reid

Immunohematology, Volume 23 , ISSUE 4, 146–149

Report | 01-December-2019

The production, serologic evaluation, and epitope mapping of ten murine monoclonal Dombrock antibodies

recognized epitopes that were resistant to treatment with ficin, pronase, α-chymotrypsin, and neuraminidase, but sensitive to trypsin and 0.2 M dithiothreitol (DTT). Five have anti-Dob-like specificity. The epitope recognized by MIMA-52 was neuraminidase sensitive, and MIMA-127 epitope recognized a DTT-resistant, linear epitope 90QKNYFRMWQK99 of the Dombrock polypeptide. MIMA-127 was the only one of the ten Dombrock MoAbs mapped to a specific sequence of the Dombrock glycoprotein; the other nine

Magdalena Grodecka, Kazimiera Wasniowska, Gregory Halverson, Karina Yazdanbakhsh, Marion E. Reid, Elwira Lisowska

Immunohematology, Volume 28 , ISSUE 4, 124–129

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