How privacy may be protected in optional randomized response surveys


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Statistics in Transition New Series

Polish Statistical Association

Central Statistical Office of Poland

Subject: Economics, Statistics & Probability


ISSN: 1234-7655
eISSN: 2450-0291





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VOLUME 21 , ISSUE 2 (June 2020) > List of articles

How privacy may be protected in optional randomized response surveys

Sanghamitra Pal * / Arijit Chaudhuri / Dipika Patra

Keywords : protection of privacy, randomized response, sensitive issues, Warner and other techniques

Citation Information : Statistics in Transition New Series. Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 61-87, DOI:

License : (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

Received Date : 16-April-2019 / Accepted: 14-April-2020 / Published Online: 01-June-2020



There are materials in literature about how privacy on stigmatizing features like alcoholism, history of tax-evasion, or testing positive in AIDS-related testing may be partially protected by a proper application of randomized response techniques (RRT). The paper demonstrates what amendments are necessary for this approach while applying optional RRTs covering qualitative characteristics, permitting a sampled respondent either to directly reveal sensitive data or choose a randomized response respectively with complementary probabilities. Only a few standard RRTs are illustrated in the text.

AMS subject classification: 62D05

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