SEARCH WITHIN CONTENT
Keywords : rail-road crossings; road safety; transport
Citation Information : Transport Problems. Volume 15, Issue 4, Part 1, Pages 57-68, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/tp-2020-048
License : (CC BY 4.0)
Received Date : 29-June-2019 / Accepted: 24-November-2020 / Published Online: 31-December-2020
The intersection of a public road with a railway line in one level, called a rail-road crossing, is a particularly dangerous place due to the traffic flows crossing it. The regulations give absolute priority to a rail vehicle over a public road user; in addition, significant differences in the masses and speeds of moving vehicles require traffic regulation consisting of adequate passage protection. To this end, the road on which motor vehicles is equipped with road signs informing drivers that they are approaching an intersection with a railway line. The rail-road crossing, depending on the category, is equipped with signaling devices warning of an oncoming train and barriers closing the entire width of the road or part of it, operated or operating automatically. In Poland, the category of rail-road crossing, the associated method and type of security used at the crossing, is determined on the basis of relevant acts and internal regulations of the railway line manager. The paper presents an overview of the state of safety at rail-road crossings in Poland in the years 2008-2018, presents applicable regulations regarding traffic safety at rail-road crossings, and presents methods of protection of rail-road crossings. In addition, a map of concentration of events on rail-road crossings was presented for the area of the Silesian Voivodeship. The effect of the case study for the Silesian Voivodeship is to identify sensitive rail-road crossings with the highest number of events during the analysis period.
1. Ghomi, H. & Bagheri, M. & Fu, L. & Miranda-Moreno, L. Analysing injury severity factors at highway railway grade crossing accidents involving vulnerable road users: a comparative study. Traffic Injury Prevention. 2016. Vol. 17. No. 8, P. 833-841.
2. Hu, S. & Li, C. & Lee C. Investigation of key factors for accident severity at railroad grade crossings by using a logit model. Safety Science. 2010. Vol. 48. P. 186-194.
3. Macioszek, E. Changes in values of traffic volume - case study based on general traffic measurements in Opolskie Voivodeship (Poland). Directions of Development of Transport Networks and Traffic Engineering. LNNS 51. Springer International Switzerland. 2019. P. 66-76.
4. Macioszek, E. The influence of motorcycling and cycling on small one-lane roundabouts capacity. Transport Systems Telematics. CCIS. Vol. 239. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2011. P. 291- 298.
5. Szczuraszek, T. & Macioszek, E. Analysis of time intervals distribution between vehicles on the roadway around central island of small roundabouts. Drogi i Mosty. 2010. Vol. 3. P. 87-99.
6. Lu, P. & Tolliver, D. Accident prediction model for public highway-rail grade crossings. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2016. Vol. 90. P. 73-81.
7. Ross, D. & Austin, A. & Jodi, L. & Carson, B. An alternative accident prediction model for highway-rail interfaces. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2002. Vol. 34. P. 31-42.
8. Tey, L.S. & Kim, I. & Ferreira, L. Evaluating safety at railway level crossings with microsilulation modeling. Journal of the Transportation Research Record. 2012. Vol. 2298. No. 1. P. 70-77.
9. Gitelman, V. & Hakkert, A.S. The evalustion of road-rail crossing safety with limited accident statistics. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 1997. Vol. 29, No. 2. P. 171-179.
10.Ambros, J. & Perůtka, J. & Mikšová, D. & Borsos, A. & Stefan, C. & Stütz, R. Quantifying the impact of risk factors at railway level crossings using accident prediction models: A cross-country study. In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA 2018. Vienna. 2018.
11.Ambros, J. & Perůtka, J. & Skladany, P. & Tucka, P. Enhancing the insight into Czech railway level crossings' safety performance. International Journal of Rail Transportation. 2020. Vol. 8. No. 1. P. 99-108.
12.Ma, C. & Hao, W. & Xiang, W. & Yan, W. The Impact of Aggressive Driving Behavior on DriverInjury Severity at Highway-Rail Grade Crossings Accidents. Journal of Advanced Transportation. 2018. Vol. 2018. P. 1-10.
13.Bubbico, R. & DiCave, S. & Mazzarotta, B. Risk analysis for road and rail transport of hazardous materials: a GIS approach. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2004. Vol. 17. P. 483-488.
14.Hartong, M. & Goel, R. & Farkas, C. & Wijeseker, D. PTC-VANET Interactions to Prevent Highway Rail Intersection Crossing Accidents. In: 2007 IEEE 65th Vehicular Technology Conference - VTC2007-Spring. Dublin. 2007.
15.Jain, R. & Ashu, A. & Lal, S. & Neelam, K. & Prasad, D. & Nath, V. Application of burglary alarm system to avoid railway accidents. In: Nath, V. & Mandal, J. (eds.). Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Microelectronics. Computing and Communication Systems. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Vol. 556. P. 595-603. Springer, Singapore 2019.
16.Ministerstwo Infrastruktury, Państwowa Komisja Badania Wypadków Kolejowych: Raporty Roczne za lata 2009-2019. PKBWK, Warszawa 2019 [In Polish: Ministry of Infrastructure, State Commission for the Investigation of Railway Accidents: Annual Reports for 2009-2019. PKBWK, Warsaw, 2019].
17.Urząd Transportu Kolejowego: Ocena Funkcjonowania Rynku Transportu Kolejowego i Stanu Bezpieczeństwa Ruchu Kolejowego w latach 2012-2019. UTK, Warszawa. 2019 [In Polish: Railway Transport Office: Assessment of Functioning Market for Railway Transport and Traffic Safety State Railway in 2012-2019 UTK, Warsaw, 2019].
18.Ustawa z dnia 28 marca 2003 r. o transporcie kolejowym. Dz.U. 2003 nr 86 poz. 789 z późn. zm [In Polish: Act of 28 March 2003 on Rail Transport. Journal of Laws 2003, No 86 item 789 as Amended, Chancellery of the Sejm, Warsaw, 2003)].
19.Rozporządzenie Ministra Infrastruktury i Rozwoju z dnia 20 października 2015 r. w sprawie warunków technicznych, jakim powinny odpowiadać skrzyżowania linii kolejowych oraz bocznic kolejowych z drogami i ich usytuowanie (Dz.U. 2015 poz. 1744) [In Polish: Regulation of the Minister of Infrastructure and Development of 20 October 2015 on Technical Conditions to be met by the Junction of Railway Lines and Railway Sidings with Roads and their Location (Journal of Laws 2015, item 1744), Minister of Infrastructure and Development, Warsaw, 2015].