Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Transport Problems

Silesian University of Technology

Subject: Economics, Transportation, Transportation Science & Technology


eISSN: 2300-861X



VOLUME 15 , ISSUE 4, Part 2 (December 2020) > List of articles


Andrzej MONTWIŁŁ * / Krystian PIETRZAK / Oliwia PIETRZAK

Keywords : transportation system; land-sea transport chains; external costs; sustainable development; transport management; transport infrastructure

Citation Information : Transport Problems. Volume 15, Issue 4, Part 2, Pages 179-190, DOI:

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Received Date : 12-April-2019 / Accepted: 02-December-2020 / Published Online: 31-December-2020



Land-sea transport chains constitute a key part of the Europe’s economy, as a significant part of its trade is carried out using sea transport. Transport, storage, or delivery processes carried out within these chains are characterized by specified economic and technical efficiency, which often does not take into consideration the external costs these processes generate. Therefore, there is a need for further changes in the European land-sea transport chains, the aim of which should be a further reduction of the negative influence of transport on the society and the environment, in accordance with the assumptions adopted under the EU's sustainable development policy. The article examines the land-sea freight transport chains in terms of the EU's sustainable development goals on the example of Zachodniopomorskie Voivodeship (ZV), Poland. The region was selected owing to two key factors. First, the transport chains across the region are typical for many European areas. Second, the region itself has experienced intensive development of the Transport, Shipping and Logistics (TSL) sector and a number of changes in freight flows for several years. The main goal of the article was to identify the possibility of reducing external costs resulting from the use of combined transport solutions in ZV. Two case studies were analyzed for this purpose. In both of them, the assumed effect was the reduction of external costs of freight transport in ZV. The potential reduction of external costs generated by cargo transport in ZV was estimated on the basis of the European methodology in terms of the amount of external costs generated by individual modes and means of transport. The research showed that the implementation of combined transport in ZV can bring measurable benefits to the region. The analyses also allowed for the identification of technical and organizational activities that are crucial for ZV and make it possible to reduce negative transport effects.

Content not available PDF Share



1. Rydzkowski, W. & Wojewódzka-Król, K. (red.). Transport. Problemy transportu w rozszerzonej EU. Warszawa. PWN. 2009 [In Polish: Rydzkowski, W. & Wojewódzka-Król, K. (ed.). Transport. Problems of transport in the enlarged EU. Warsaw. PWN. 2009].

2. Sustainable development in the European Union – Monitoring report on progress towards the SDGs in an EU context – 2018 edition. Eurostat. 2018. Available at:

3. Ports 2030 Gateway for the Trans European Transport Network. European Commission. 2014. Available at: brochure-ports.pdf.

4. Maritime ports freight and passenger statistics. Available at:

5. Saighani, A. & Sommer, C. Method for an economical assessment of urban transport systems. Transportation Research Procedia. 2019. Vol. 37. P. 282-289.

6. Le, T.P.L. & Trinh, T.A. Encouraging public transport use to reduce traffic congestion and air pollutant: a case study of Ho Chi Minh City. Vietnam. Procedia Engineering. 2016. Vol. 142. P. 236-243.

7. Koźlak, A. & Gierszewski, M. The impact of congestion on the costs of public transport in StarogardGdański. Transport Economics and Logistics. 2020. Vol. 84. P. 7-18.

8. Shin, Y.E. & Vuchic, V.R. & Bruun, E.C. Land consumption impacts of a transportation system on a city. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2009. Vol. 2110(1). P. 69-77.

9. McCahill, C. & Garrick, N. Automobile use and land consumption: Empirical evidence from 12 cities. Urban Design International. 2012. Vol. 17(3). P. 221-227.

10. Jacyna, M. & Wasiak, M. & Lewczuk, K. & Karoń, G. Noise and environmental pollution from transport: decisive problems in developing ecologically efficient transport systems. Journal of Vibroengineering. 2017. Vol. 19. P. 5639-5655.

11.Jeon, J. & Hong, J. & Kim, S. & Kim, K.-H. Noise indicators for size distributions of airborne particles and traffic activities in urban areas. Sustainability. 2018. Vol. 10(12). No. 4599. P. 1-19. Blas, I. & Mediavilla, M. & Capellán-Pérez, I. & Duce, C. The limits of transport decarbonization under the current growth paradigm. Energy Strategy Reviews. 2020. Vol. 32.

13. Saighani, A. & Sommer, C. Potentials for reducing carbon dioxide emissions and conversion of renewable energy for the regional transport market - a case study. Transportation Research Procedia. 2017. Vol. 25. P. 3479-3494.

14.Waqas, M. & Dong, Q. & Ahmad, N. & Zhu, Y. & Nadeem, M. Understanding acceptability towards sustainable transportation behavior: a case study of China. Sustainability. 2018. Vol. 10(10). No. 3686. P. 1-24.

15.Qiu, L.-Y. & He, L.-Y. Can green traffic policies affect air quality? Evidence from a difference-indifference estimation in China. Sustainability. 2017. Vol. 9(6). No. 1067. P. 1-10.

16.Wang, Y. & Yang, D. Impacts of freight transport on PM2.5 Concentrations in China: A spatial dynamic panel analysis. Sustainability. 2018. Vol. 10(8). No. 2865. P. 1-16.

17.Petro, F. & Konečný, V. Calculation of emissions from transport services and their use for the internalisation of external costs in road transport. Procedia Engineering. 2017. Vol. 192. P. 677-682.

18.Love, G. & Soares, A. & Püempel, H. Climate Change, Climate Variability and Transportation. Procedia Environmental Sciences. 2010. Vol. 1. P. 130-145.

19.Zhang, S. & Witlox, F. Analyzing the impact of different transport governance strategies on climate change. Sustainability. 2019. Vol. 12(1). No. 200. P. 1-20.

20.Chapman, L. Transport and climate change: a review. Journal of Transport Geography. 2007. Vol. 15(5). P. 354-367.

21.Gelete, G. & Gokcekus, H. The economic impact of climate change on transportation assets. Journal of Environmental Pollution and Control. 2018. Vol. 1(1). No. 105. P. 1-6.

22.Regmi, M.B. & Hanaoka, S. A survey on impacts of climate change on road transport infrastructure and adaptation strategies in Asia. Environmental Economics and Policy Studies. 2011. Vol. 13(1). P. 21-41.

23.Koetse, M.J. & Rietveld, P. The impact of climate change and weather on transport: An overview of empirical findings. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. 2009. Vol. 14(3). P. 205-221.

24.Čokorilo, O. & Ivković, I. & Kaplanović, S. Prediction of exhaust emission costs in air and road transportation. Sustainability. 2019. Vol. 11(17). No. 4688. P. 1-18.

25.Konečný, V. & Gnap, J. & Settey, T. & Petro, F. & Skrúcaný, T. & Figlus, T. Environmental sustainability of the vehicle fleet change in public city transport of selected city in Central Europe. Energies. 2020. Vo. 13(15). No. 3869. P. 1-23.

26.Pietrzak, K. & Pietrzak, O. Environmental effects of electromobility in a sustainable urban public transport. Sustainability. 2020. Vol. 12(3). No. 1052. P. 1-21.

27. Gnap, J. & Šarkan, B. & Konečný, V. & Skrúcaný, T. The impact of road transport on the environment. Ecology in Transport: Problems and Solutions. 2020. P. 251-309.

28. Pietrzak, O. & Pietrzak, K. The role of railway in handling transport services of cities and agglomerations. Transportation Research Procedia. 2019. Vol. 39. P. 405-416.

29. Handbook on the external costs of transport. Version 2019 – 1.1. European Commission, Brussels. 2019. Available at:

30.Rozporządzenie Ministra Infrastruktury z dnia 25 stycznia 2010 r. w sprawie formularza ewidencyjnego stosowanego w transporcie morskim (Dz. U. 14/2010, poz. 74). 2010. Available at: [In Polish: Regulation of the Minister for Infrastructure of 25 January 2010 on the registration form for maritime transport].

31.Terminology on combined transport. Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE). 2001. Available at:

32. Rodrigue, J-P et al. The Geography of Transport Systems. Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography. 2020. Available at:

33. Concept of sustainable transport: Planning and designing for sustainable and inclusive transportation systems. National Capacity Building Workshop on Sustainable and Inclusive Transport Development. 2015. Available at: 2_Concept%20of%20Sustainable%20Transport_ESCAP. pdf

34. European agreement on main inland waterways of international importance (AGN). Economic Commission for Europe. 1996. Available at:

35. Świnoujście Ferry Terminal. Available at:

36. Pietrzak, K. Analysis of the possibilities of using “Light Freight Railway” for the freight transport implementation in agglomeration areas (example of West Pomerania Province). Transportation Research Procedia. Vol. 16. P. 464-472.