Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Transport Problems

Silesian University of Technology

Subject: Economics , Transportation , Transportation Science & Technology


eISSN: 2300-861X





Volume / Issue / page

Related articles

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 1 (March 2021) > List of articles


Maciej SZKODA / Grzegorz KACZOR * / Robert PILCH / Maksymilian SMOLNIK / Zbigniew KONIECZEK

Keywords : preventive maintenance; diesel engine locomotive; availability and reliability assessment

Citation Information : Transport Problems. Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 5-18, DOI:

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Received Date : 19-December-2019 / Accepted: 16-February-2021 / Published Online: 15-March-2021



The article investigates the influence of preventive maintenance on the reliability and availability indexes of the railway means of transport, which also determine the economic aspects of their operation and maintenance. The research was done using the method based on fault tree analysis (FTA) and Monte Carlo simulation. The authors performed a cause and effect analysis of the occurrence of undesirable events during the operation of selected vehicles. They identified the weakest components of the rail vehicle that affect the downtime and mean availability most significantly. Specialized software including Weibull++, BlockSim, and MiniTab aided calculations were used to illustrate the application of the results of a modernization project involving a 6Dg diesel locomotive, carried out in cooperation with the biggest Polish rail carrier. The applicability of the proposed tools has been verified on the example of a selected sample of 75 diesel locomotives employing data on their use and maintenance acquired in the real operation process. The obtained results indicate that the proposed approach can be particularly useful in practice when assessing the applied rail vehicle maintenance strategy, and while developing new strategies and selecting the best one to implement.

Content not available PDF Share



1. Cheng, Y.H. & Tsao, H.L. Rolling stock maintenance strategy selection, spares parts’ estimation, and replacements’ interval calculation. International Journal of Production Economics. 2010. Vol. 128(1). P. 404-412.

2. Cheng, Y.H. & Yang, A.S. & Tsao, H.L. Study on Rolling Stock Maintenance Strategy and Spares Parts Management. In: World Congress on Railroad Research. Montreal. Canada, 2006.

3. Chłopek, Z. The cognitive interpretation of the Monte Carlo method for the technical applications. Eksploatacja i Niezawodność – Maintenance and Reliability. 2009. Vol. 3. No. 43. P. 38-46.

4. Durga Rao, K. & Gopika, V. & Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S. & Dynamic fault tree analysis using Monte Carlo simulation in probabilistic safety assessment. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 2009. Vol. 94. P. 872-883.

5. Gertsbakh, I. Reliability Theory with Applications to Preventive Maintenance. Springer. London. 2000. 219 p. (Chapters 4-5).

6. Gill, A. Optimisation of the technical object maintenance system taking account of risk analysis results. Eksploatacja i Niezawodność – Maintenance and Reliability. 2017. Vol. 19. No. 3. P. 420-431.

7. Han, S.H. & Lim, H.G. Top event probability evaluation of a fault tree having circular logics by using Monte Carlo method. Nuclear Engineering and Design. 2012. Vol. 243. P. 336-340.

8. Kaczor, G. & Młynarski, S. & Szkoda, M. Verification of safety integrity level with the application of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability block diagrams. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. 2016. Vol. 41. P. 31-39.

9. Karpiński, J. & Firkowicz, S. Zasady profilaktyki obiektów technicznych. 1981. Warsaw: PWN. 296 p. [In Polish: The principle of prevention of technical objects].

10. Lu, H. & Chang, J.H. A Monte Carlo Method of Complicated System Availability Analysis Using Component State Trace. In: 2012 International Conference on Quality, Reliability, Risk, Maintenance, and Safety Engineering (ICQR2MSE). Chengdu, 2012.

11. Magiera, J. Obsługa i utrzymanie pojazdów szynowych. 1982. Cracow: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej. 125 p. [In Polish: Maintenance and service of rail vehicles].

12. Manzini, R. & Regattieri, A. & Pham, H. & et al. Maintenance for Industrial Systems. 2010. London: Springer-Verlag Gmbh. 479 p. (Chapter 12).

13. Malinowski, J. A simulation model for complex repairable systems with inter-component dependencies and three types of component failures. In: Advances in Safety, Reliability and Risk Management - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL. Troyes, 2012.

14. Marquez, A.C. & Heguedas, A.S. & Iung, B. Monte Carlo-based assessment of system availability. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 2005. Vol. 88. P. 273-289.

15. Merle, G. & Roussel, J.M. & Lesage, J.J. & et. al. Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Fault Trees Based on the Coupling of Structure Functions and Monte Carlo Simulation. Quality and Reliability Engineering International. 2014. Vol .30. P. 143-156.

16. Migdalski, J. (red.) Inżynieria Niezawodności. Poradnik. 1982. Bydgoszcz: ATR. 793 p. [In Polish: Reliability Engineering].

17. Młynarski, S. & Pilch, R. & Smolnik, M. & et. al. A concept of reliability assessment simulation model using systems structural decomposition. Journal of KONBiN. 2018. Vol. 46. P. 51-74.

18. Młynarski, S. & Pilch, R. & Smolnik, M. & et. al. A method for rapid evaluation of K-out-of-N system. Eksploatacja i Niezawodność - Maintenance and Reliability. 2019. Vol. 21. No. 1. P. 170-176.

19. Nakagawa, T. Replacement and Preventive Maintenance Models. 2008. Handbook of Performability Engineering. London: Springer. 1316 p.

20. O’Connor, P. Practical Reliability Engineering, fourth ed. 2010. West Sussex: Wiley-IEEE. 540 p. (Chapter 9).

21. Park, G. & Yun, W.Y. & Han, Y.J. & et. al. Optimal preventive maintenance intervals of a rolling stock system. In: International Conference on Quality, Reliability. Risk. Maintenance and Safety Engineering. Xi’an, 2011.

22. Percy, D.F. Preventive Maintenance Models for Complex Systems. Complex System Maintenance Handbook. Springer Series in Reliability Engineering. 2008. London: Springer. 657 p.

23. Pilch, R. A method for obtaining the required system reliability level by applying preventive maintenance. Simulation: Transactions of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International. 2015. Vol. 91. P. 615-624.

24. PN-EN 13306: 2018-01. Obsługiwanie -- Terminologia dotycząca obsługiwania. Warszawa: Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny. 98 p. [In Polish: Maintenance. Maintenance terminology. Warsaw: Polish Committee of Standardization].

25. PN-EN 61703: 2016-12. Wyrażenia matematyczne dotyczące nieuszkadzalności, gotowości, obsługiwalności i zapewnienia obsługiwania. Warszawa: Polski Komitet Normalizacyjny. 209 p. [In Polish: Mathematical expressions for reliability, availability, maintainability and maintenance support terms. Warsaw: Polish Committee of Standardization].

26. Qiu, S. & Sallak, M. & Schön, W. & et. al. Availability assessment of railway signaling systems with uncertainty analysis using Statecharts. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory. 2014. Vol. 47. P. 1-18.

27. ReliaSoft Corporation. System Analysis Reference: Reliability, Availability & Optimization. 2007. Tucson: ReliaSoft Publishing. P. 182. (Chapter 9).

28. Soh, S.S. & Radzi, N.H.M. & Haron, H. Review on Scheduling Techniques of Preventive Maintenance Activities of Railway. In: Fourth International Conference on Computational Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation. Kuantan, 2012.

29. Szkoda, M. Assessment of Reliability, Availability and Maintainability of Rail Gauge Change Systems. Eksploatacja i Niezawodność – Maintenance and Reliability. 2014. Vol. 16. P. 422-432.

30. Szkoda, M. & Babeł, M. Diesel locomotive efficiency and reliability improvement as a result of power unit load control system modernisation. Eksploatacja i Niezawodność – Maintenance and Reliability. 2016. Vol. 18. P. 38-49.

31. Szkoda, M. & Satora, M. Assessment of the permissibility of the risk of changing the strategy for the maintenance of rail vehicles based on the example of a selected locomotive type. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit. 2019. Vol. 233. P. 906-925.

32. Technical and economic study of renewal of the trainset fleet operated by PKP CARGO S.A. Stage IV. Modernisation of a SM42 diesel shunting locomotive. Project No. M-8/631/2006, Cracow University of Technology, Institute of Rail Vehicle (CUT). 2007.

33. Ten, W.M. & Ghobbar, A.A. Optimizing inspection intervals – Reliability and availability in terms of a cost model: A case study on railway carriers. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 2013. Vol. 114. P. 137-147.

34. Wu, J. & Lin, B. Major Maintenance Schedule Optimization for Electric Multiple Unit Considering Passenger Transport Demand. Beijing: School of Traffic and Transportation, Jiaotong University. 2016. Available at:

35. Wu, S. & Zuo, M.J. Linear and Nonlinear Preventive Maintenance Models. IEEE Transactions on Reliability. 2010. Vol. 59. P. 242-249.

36. Xia, M. & Li. X. & Jiang, F. & et. al. Cause analysis and countermeasures of locomotive runway accident based on fault tree analysis method. Procedia Engineering. 2012. Vol. 45. P. 38-42.

37. Yun, W.Y. & Han, Y.J. & Park, G. Optimal preventive maintenance interval and spare parts number in a rolling stock system. In: 2012 International Conference on Quality. Reliability, Risk. Maintenance, and Safety Engineering (ICQR2MSE). Chengdu, 2012.

38. Zio, E. & Marella, M. & Podollini, L. A Monte Carlo simulation approach to the availability assessment of multi-state systems with operational dependencies. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 2007. Vol. 92. P. 871-882.