NEUTRALIZATION OF TRANSPORT DOCUMENTS IN ROAD TRANSPORT

Publications

Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Transport Problems

Silesian University of Technology

Subject: Economics, Transportation, Transportation Science & Technology

GET ALERTS

eISSN: 2300-861X

DESCRIPTION

40
Reader(s)
43
Visit(s)
0
Comment(s)
0
Share(s)

VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 2 (June 2021) > List of articles

NEUTRALIZATION OF TRANSPORT DOCUMENTS IN ROAD TRANSPORT

Miloš POLIAK * / Jana TOMICOVÁ / Marek JAŚKIEWICZ / Natalia ZHURAVLEVA / Gabriel FEDORKO

Keywords : transport; contract; document; CMR convention; tachograph

Citation Information : Transport Problems. Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 87-99, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21307/tp-2021-025

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Received Date : 11-December-2019 / Accepted: 10-May-2021 / Published Online: 24-June-2021

ARTICLE

ABSTRACT

The year 1956 is a significant milestone in international road freight transport. The CMR International Convention was adopted this year. The reason for its adoption was to unify the rules in international road freight transport in connection with the contract of carriage. This step was very important not only for carrier but also for the consignee and consignor. The convention also characterized one of the most important documents in road freight transport, which accompanies goods throughout transport. Its name is the CMR consignment note. In recent years in road transport, the original CMR consignment note has been replaced by another CMR consignment note. This practice is referred to as the neutralization of consignment note. In another consignment note, only some data are changed compared with the original, and the goods are not handled during transport. It is an interference with the system of functioning of transport documents, which aims to obscure the actual movement of the consignment during transport. The paper contains own research, which identifies the presumption of the existence of neutralization of transport documents in road transport. The authors also propose the use of new technologies, namely new smart tachographs, through which the sender can prevent the neutralization of documents.

Content not available PDF Share

FIGURES & TABLES

REFERENCES

1. Anderson, R. On the security of digital tachographs. European Symposium on Research in Computer Security. Springer. 1998. P. 111-125.

2. Baldini, G. & Sportiello, L. & Chiaramello, M. & Mahieu, V. Regulated applications for the road transportation infrastructure: The case study of the smart tachograph in the European Union. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection. 2018. Vol. 21. P. 3-21.

3. Belohlavek, A. Selected Case Law of Czech Republic on the CMR Convention and New Civil Law in Effect in Czech Republic as of 1 January 2014. CYIL - Czech Yearbook of International Law. 2015. Vol. 6. P. 231-325.

4. Berlingieri, F. Uniformity in Maritime Law and Implementation of International Conventions. Journal of Maritime Law and Commerce. 1987 Vol. 18. No. 3. 317 p.

5. Clarke, M.A. International Carriage of Goods by Road: CMR. CRC Press, sixth edition. 2014. 512 p.

6. Colak, M. & Bishop, J. & Nordvik, P. & Mahieu, V. & Loeschner, J. Cryptographic security mechanisms of the next generation digital tachograph system and future considerations. Research Centre Scientific and Policy Report. European Commission. 2012. Available at: http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC77933.

7. Criddle, E. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties in U.S. Treaty Interpretation. Virginia Journal of International Law. 2004. Vol. 44. No. 2. P. 431-500.

8. Čulík, K. & Kalašová, A. & Kubíková, S. Simulation as an instrument for research of drivervehicle interaction. In: MATEC Web of Conferences. 2017. Vol. 134. No. 8.

9. Czapski, W. Application et interprétation de la Convention CMR à la lumière du droit international. [In French: Application and interpretation of the CMR Convention in the light of international law]. Uniform Law Review. 2006. Vol. 11. No. 3. P. 545-567.

10. Defossez, D. CMR: what if the courts got it wrong? Uniform Law Review. 2016. Vol. 21. No. 1. P. 75-100.

11. Dörr, O. & Schmalenbach, K. Article 32. Supplementary Means of Interpretation. In: Vienna convention on the law of treaties: A commentary. Springer. 2012. P. 571-586.

12. Furgel, I. & Lemke, K. A review of the digital tachograph system. In: Embedded Security in Cars. Springer. 2006. P. 69-94.

13. Gnap, J & Varjan, P. & Semanová, S. Logistics of entry and parking of vehicles at large production companies. In: MATEC Web of Conferences. 2017. Vol. 134. No. 16.

14. Haak, K.F. The liability of the carrier under the CMR. Stichting Vervoeradres. 1986. 395 p.

15. Haak, K.F. Uniformiteit, Quo Vadis? [In Dutch: Uniformity, quo vadis?]. Boom Juridische uitgevers, Den Haag. 2013. 100 p.

16. Hendrikse, M.L. & Van Huizen, P.H.J.G. CMR: Internationaal vervoer van goederen over de weg. [In Dutch: CMR: International transport of goods by road]. NTHR-reeks. 2006. 322 p.

17. Joshua, K. & de Germiny, L. Has the CISG Advisory Council Come of Age. Berkeley Journal of International Law. 2009. Vol. 27. No. 2. P. 448-496.

18. Jurecki, R. & Stańczyk, T. Analyzing driver response times for pedestrian intrusions in crashimminent situations. In: 11th International Science and Technical Conference Automotive Safety. 2018. P. 1-7.

19. Karton, J.D.H. & Germiny, L.D. Can the CISG advisory council affect the homeward trend? Vindobona Journal of International Commercial Law and Arbitration. 2009. Vol. 13. P. 71-90.

20. Keijser, L. Ondervervoer - Opvolgend vervoer (artikel 3 - 34 e.v. CMR). [In Dutch: Sub-transport - subsequent transport (Articles 3 - 34 ff. CMR)]. European Transport Law. 2007. 331 p.

21. Lamont-Black S. The UK Supreme Court on jurisdiction over successive CMR Convention carriers and European Union rules. Uniform Law Review. 2016. Vol. 21. No. 4. P. 487-509.

22. Lemke K. Embedded Security: Physical Protection against Tampering Attacks. In: Embedded Security in Cars. Springer. Berlin, Heidelberg. 2006. P. 207-217.

23. Loewe, R. Commentary on the convention of 19 may 1956 on the contract for the international carriage of goods by road (CMR). European Transport Law. 1976. 11 p.

24. Mukherjee, A. & Zhao, L. Profitable parallel trade in unionized markets. Journal of Economics. 2012. Vol. 107. P. 267-276.

25. Mutz, G. Le droit de transport international ferroviaire en pleine mutation. [In French: The law of international rail transport in full change]. Liber Amicorum Jacques Putzeys. 1996. 555 p.

26. Paulin, C. 2006. Réflexions sur la distinction entre contrat de transport et contrat de commission de transport. In: Etudes sur le droit de la concurrence et quelques thèmes fondamentaux: mélanges en l'honneur d'Yves Serra Dalloz. [In French: Reflections on the distinction between transport contract and transport commission contract. In: Studies on competition law and some fundamental themes: mixtures in honor of Yves Serra Dalloz]. Paris. 2006. P. 325-336.

27. Poliak, M. & Poliaková, A. Relation of social legislation in road transport on driver’s work quality. In: International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics. 2015. P. 300-310.

28. Poliak, Miloš et al. Transport document in road freight transport - paper versus electronic consignment note CMR. The Archives of Automotive Engineering – Archiwum Motoryzacji. 2020. Vol. 90. No. 4. P. 45-58. DOI: 10.14669/AM.VOL90.ART4.

29. Putzeys, J. La CMR-60 ans et plus. [In French: CMR - 60 years and more]. Uniform Law Review. 2016. Vol. 21. No. 4. P. 421-425.

30. Quigley, I. Freight Carrier`s Liability under the CMR convention 1956. Acta Oeconomica Pragensia. 2006. Vol. 14. No. 4. P. 41-45.

31. Radionov, N. Limitation of liability right in road freight carriage in Croatia: an extinct institute. Uniform Law Review. 2016. Vol. 21. No. 4. P. 457-468.

32. Rana, A. & Sportiello, L. Implementation of security and privacy in epassports and the extended access control infrastructure. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection. 2014. Vol. 7. No. 4. P. 233-243.

33. Rychter, M. Function, technology and the level of implementation of the digital tachograph system in EU-AETR and non EU-AETR countries. SAE Technical Paper. The Automotive Research Association of India. 2011.

34. Sel, M. & Karaklajic, D. Internet of trucks and digital tachograph – Security and privacy threats. ISSE 2014 Securing Electronic Business Processes: Highlights of the Information Security Solutions Europe 2014 Conference. 2014. P. 230-238.

35. Schelin, J. CMR Convention in a law and economics perspective. Uniform Law Review. 2016. Vol. 21. No. 4. P. 434-440.

36. Sker, T. Analysis of Road Carriers Liability for Robbery of Cargo According to CMR Convention. Promet – Traffic – Traffico. 2003. Vol. 15. No. 6. P. 371-374.

37. Smieja, M. & Rygiewicz, A. Information systems safety in a context of automotive applications. Journal of KONES. 2012. Vol. 19. No. 4. P. 565-570.

38. Stothers, Ch. Parallel Trade in Europe: Intellectual Property, Competition and Regulatory Law. Oxford, Hart Bublishing. 2007. P. 637-639.

39. Szymonik, A. International logistics. Lodz University of Technology. 2014.

40. Wildemeersch, M. & Slump, C. H. & Rabbachin, A. Acquisition of GNSS signals in urban interference environment. IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. 2014. Vol. 50. No. 2. P. 1078-1091.

EXTRA FILES

COMMENTS