Share / Export Citation / Email / Print / Text size:

Transport Problems

Silesian University of Technology

Subject: Economics, Transportation, Transportation Science & Technology


eISSN: 2300-861X



VOLUME 16 , ISSUE 4 (December 2021) > List of articles



Keywords : drivers’ speed behaviour; average Speer; pedestrian crossing; additional lighting system

Citation Information : Transport Problems. Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 35-43, DOI:

License : (CC BY 4.0)

Received Date : 01-July-2020 / Accepted: 03-December-2021 / Published Online: 24-December-2021



The probability and severity of accidents at pedestrian crossings strongly depend on vehicles’ speed; hence, drivers’ speed control and awareness of driving conditions are very important. Lighting installations in the transition areas of pedestrian crossings have been set up in Polish cities in recent years to improve the visibility of pedestrian crossings and enhance drives’ awareness while approaching sensitive spots in the road network. A key study focus is to evaluate the influence of additional lighting systems on drivers’ behaviour in terms of travel speed. Drivers’ speed measures were carried out under daytime and nighttime conditions on single carriageways. Speed measurements were performed in free flow driving conditions in the vicinity of zebra crossings located in mid-block segments and at intersection inlets. The analyses conducted have shown an ambiguous influence of lighting installations on drivers’ behaviour. It has been found that drivers approaching pedestrian crossings with additional illumination systems decrease their speed significantly, but average speeds, even reduced, remain over posted speed limits. Moreover, at zebra locations, drivers’ speed under night conditions in some cases was found to be significantly higher than during the day. Based on the results obtained, some recommendations have been made to improve drives’ speed behaviour at pedestrian crosswalks.

Content not available PDF Share



1. THORN. Lightning for pedestrian crossings. Identification, Visibility, Safety. Available at:

2. European Road Safety Observatory ERSO. Traffic Safety Basic Facts 2018. Main Figures. 2018. Available at: n_figures.pdf.

3. U.S. Department of Transportation. NHTSA’s National Center for Statistics and Analysis. Traffic Safety Facts. Pedestrians. Washington. 2019. Available at:

4. European New Car Assessment Programme, EuroNCAP. European New Car Assessment Programme - 2020 ROADMAP. 2015. Available at:

5. Eurostat statistics. Road accident fatalities. 2018.
Available at:

6. Police Headquarters. Traffic Department. Road accidents in Poland. 2018. Available at:,Wypadki-drogowe-raporty-roczne.html.

7. Cunbao, Z. & Feng, C. & Yuanyuan, W. Evaluation of pedestrian crossing behavior and safety at uncontrolled mid-block crosswalks with different numbers of lanes in China. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2019. Vol. 123. P. 263-273.

8. Chaudhari, A. & Shah, J. & Arkatkar, S. & Joshi, G. & Parida, M. Evaluation of pedestrian safety margin at mid-block crosswalks in India. Safety Science. 2018. Vol. 119. P. 188-198. DOI:

9. Raghuram, K.B. & Vedagiri, P. & Rathi, N. Models for pedestrian gap acceptance behaviour analysis at unprotected mid-block crosswalks under mixed traffic conditions. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 2015. Vol. 32. P. 114-126.

10. Raghuram, K.B. & Vedagiri, P. Proactive pedestrian safety evaluation at unprotected mid-block crosswalk locations under mixed traffic conditions. Safety Science. 2016. Vol. 89. P. 94-105.

11. Ishaque, M.M. & Noland, R.B. Behavioural Issues in Pedestrian Speed Choice and Street Crossing Behaviour: A Review. Transport Reviews. 2008. Vol. 28(1). P. 61-85. DOI: 10.1080/01441640701365239.

12. Hoareau, E. & Newstead, S. & Cameron, M. An evaluation of the default 50 km/h speed limit in Victoria. Report no. 261. 2006. Monash University, Accident Research Centre, Clayton.

13. Rosén, E. & Stigson, H. & Sander, U. Literature review of pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2011. Vol. 43(1). P. 25-33.

14. Elvik, R. A re-parameterisation of the Power Model of the relationship between the speed of traffic and the number of accidents and accident victims. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2013. Vol. 50. P. 854-860.

15. Rosén, E. & Sander, U. Pedestrian fatality risk as a function of car impact speed. Accident Analises & Prevention. 2009. Vol. 41. P. 536-542.

16. Mako, E. & Szakonyi, P. Evaluation of Human Behaviour at Pedestrian Crossings. Transportation Research Procedia. 2016. Vol. 14. P. 2121-2128.

17. Lee, C. & Abdel-Aty, M. Comprehensive analysis of vehicle–pedestrian crashes at intersections in Florida. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2005. Vol. 37(4). P. 775-786.

18. Abkarian, H.O.H. & Abkarian, H. & Abou-Zeid, M. & Kaysi, I.A. Analyzing driver-pedestrian interaction in a mixed-street environment using a driving simulator. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2017. Vol. 108. P. 56-65.

19. Baleja, R. & Bos, P. & Novak, T. & Sokansky, K. & Hanusek, T. Increasing of visibility on the pedestrian crossing by the additional lighting systems. Materials Science and Engineering. 2017. Vol. 236. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/236/1/012099.

20. Blaha, Z. & Sokansky, K. & Novak, T. Solution of lighting for pedestrian crossing to increase their visibility. 15th International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering (EPE). 2014. DOI: 10.1109/EPE.2014.6839512.

21. Olszewski, P. & Szagała, P. & Wolański, M. & Zielińska, A. Pedestrian fatality risk in accidents at unsignalized zebra crosswalks in Poland. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2015. Vol. 84. P. 3- 91.

22. Jamroz, K. & et al. Ochrona pieszych – Podręcznik dla organizatorów ruchu pieszego [In Polish: Pedestrian protection – Handbook for managers of pedestrian traffic]. National Road Safety Council. 2014. Available at:

23. Jamroz, K. & et al. Metodologia systematycznych badań zachowań pieszych i relacji pieszykierowca wraz z przeprowadzeniem badań pilotażowych. Etap I. [In Polish: Methodology of systematic research on pedestrian behavior and pedestrian-driver relations along with conducting pilot studies. Stage I]. 2015. Available at:

24. Szagała, P. & Buttler, I. & Czajewski, W. & Olszewski, P. Safety Assessment of Pedestrian Crossings with Video Analysis. 27th ICTCT Workshop. 2014. DOI: 10.13140/2.1.2680.6087.

25. Tomczuk, P. & Chrzanowicz, M. & Mackun, T. Methodology for assessing the lighting of pedestrian crossings based on light intensity parameters. MATEC Web of Conferences. 2017. No 122:01008. P. 1-8. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/2017122.

26. Tomczuk, P. & Jamroz, K. & Mackun, T. & Chrzanowicz, M. Lighting requirements for pedestrian crossings – positive contrast. MATEC Web of Conferences. 2019. Vol. 262(3a): 05015. P. 5-15. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/2019262.

27. Ziolkowski, R. Investigations of driver’s speed at unsignalised pedestrian crossings. MATEC Web of Conferences. 2019. DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/201926205018.

28. Szczuraszek, T. Prędkość pojazdów w warunkach drogowego ruchu swobodnego. Studia z zakresu inżynierii. PAN KILiW. Warsaw. [In Polish: Speed of vehicles in free road traffic conditions. Engineering studies].

29. Van Nes, N. & Brandenburg, S. & Twisk, D. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2010. Vol. 42(3). P. 944-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2009.05.002.